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T n nn nn 7) no 0 0 Lid uJ a ! f0l. II. HOILILY JPRIBTGr, Miss. FE&IBAY, JUNE 25,- 141. No.- . 'IS. J ULI Lzj Lii) uJ ; ; IraE SOUTIIERIV BAiViVER I the blessings we offer them, we require of them to f emia'cot degw, the establishment of a currency Hhrfh, ,h of Hollr Spring., Mi.,ssippi, !, "P 'Our country as their country, and to of uniform value, which is of so great importance 1 'Sk Vr n "llr. if.p.iJi"J" Ana unite with us in the great task of preserving our to all the e-sential interests of siciety; and on the . j '.rfpdot. ik-. for l !taiUMonib!. institutions, and the-eby perpetuating our liber- wisdom to be manifested in its creation much de- ni-il'"''""' ';rs-,.h ".l'.ve s!s for h.'iZ ron.,c. pends. So intimately interwove,, are its oner.- II jireiien imc. ur tv.3,,; i v e uesire out io reclaim our almost illimitable ri continuance ' fill AuVerllSCineil l HOI marR.ru uu nn; uumui rtions on luero, win oe cuuuuucu umn ui".h.vj uui .n,ul,cing candidates for office will be For State . responsible name in ion. V'tii-ttersaddressed to the publisher 01 Hie bocthers & ftvitainAca w 1 1 n mi iniirr. 11111x1 iict imjal I Kill, n ftl-i". on UU....V.. , , , attention. Tarlr advertisements, inserted at the usual rates, personal Altercations will be charged double nJ nay required in advance. -' be v'".t f- TOIJ WORK done at this .n as delivered. h n,i. icct; s M leKESI DEBT'S i!IESSAE. iSoiute and House of Representatives of the United States. .owCitizexs : You have bctn assembled in tapective halls of legislation under a procla a bearing the signature of the illustrious of the people, to the discharge or the lmpor 'iinctioiis of their chief executive rTiccr. ife expiration of a single month from ti.e fhU installation, he has raid -the irreat debt 1 ' c l t ire, leaving behind him a name associated I rf or. 1 lection of numerous benefits confer- . i. v :cn the country, during n long life of patri .;vu!ion. With this public bereavement are ;;tfd other considerations which will not the attention of Congress. Hie preparation?, ary for his removal to the seat of govern in view of a residence of four years, must ievulved upon the late President heavy iituies, which, n pernmietj xo ouruen tne I resources of his private fortune, may tend s!? to the cuiburrissment of his surviving ;auditis, thererore, rccpectlully submittea ;ress whether the ordinaiy principles of :"4i!d not dictate the propriety of its .live interposition. By the provisions .f ;iiir.utal law, the powers and duties of the jtionio which he was elected, have devolv i ne, aiid in the dispositions of the, repre, Tf-stf the Slates and of the people, will be urn "rcat extent, a solution of the problem L:r-Lr' icw-i: tat ions arc llr the fast time ii i s re xi I: wildernesses, and to introduce into their dentlis the lights of civilization. While ve shall at all times be prepared to vindicate the national honor, our most earnest desire will be to maintain an un broken peace. In presenting the foregoing views, I cannot withhold from tha expression of the opinion that there exists nothing in the extension of our emoi re over our acknowledged possession to excite ihe a Jarm of the patriot for the safety of our institu tions. The federative system of leaving to each ing on the Federal Government those of general import, admits in safety of ;he greatest expansion; but, at the same time, I deem it proper to add there will be found to exist at all times, an im perious necessity for restraiuing the functionaries of this Government within the range of their res pective powers, thereby preserving a just balance between the powers granted to this Government and thosereserved to the Stale and to the people. From the report of the Secretary of the Treasu ry, you will perceive that the fiscal means pre-ent and accruing are insufficient to supply the wants of the Government fur ih i current ve ir. Tin' h-i !- ;.;ice in the Treasury on the fuurlli day of .March last, not covert -j by outstanding drafts, r.nj ex clusive of trust funds, is estimated at &SGu,030. I'liw innlnrldu Inj n mm fi ) . . i the mint and o Lruneue- t- i, ;., b- coining and in process of coinage, and wiacu could not be wtthdrawn without inconvenience, thus leaving subjects to draft in the various deposito ries the sum of $645,000. By virtue of two sev eral acts of Congress, the Secretary of the Trea sury was authorized to issue, on and after the 4th day of March last, Treasury notes to the amount of $5,414,000 making an aggregate available fund of $G,056:000 on hand h!ut this fund was chargeable with outstanding Tre asury notes redeemable in the - current vear and interests thereon to the estimated uinoaot of rive miiJions two hundred and eio-'itv ti ....... i I i'.eKng on the duiicsof this office, I did not :tit would be becoming in me to disturb id been ordered by my lamented predeces Whatcver. thtrcfort. may have been my o urioin3l!y,""Ss to the propriety of conven- froni and that of its controlling .i i . '! i .i uouai s. i ntre is also inrown ir.nni-ti.e Tre i-u uiv j.-aviaeiit ui a large amount ot demn J3 iu wiiuic-ui pan in lormer years, vvn.cn haust tne available means of the Trea leave the accruing revenue, reduced y accru- will ex- sury, and as it is in rjrrvrcss at oiriy a day ,,n ' dtJit'tinitntut, I found a new be I j-B!l'ltont to interfere with the patriotic d-.-i liti.f lafcr Presid-eBt, in the r-ovelfj of the t lli.ll VI IllU.l i O.S U UitCApUl.lCUIJf 1'IULCU- I rJ'' f 1t vMi, iioiler such cireumstnees, would c I 4-iriiy have been to have called to my aid, in lit U; VTiinistration of public affairs, thecombined rom 4 3 of the twollcuesof Congress, in order to va! j irr( util and advice as to the best mode vel r, ca.ii g the Government and the country inJg embarrassments weighing heavily on 4 Um. il.cn, most happy in finding my self, ,l-?fvr i'iv ?sirc.K.uin tii trif rrpsidencv. Siir. dly the immediate representatives of the ad of the people. itant changes having taken place in our 'Hlations since the last session of Congress adrcmcd ntcessary on this occasion to go 'detailed statement in regard to them; I am "'0 say that I ;ee nothing to destroy the hope I&b.e to preserve peace. HWififation of the treaty with Portugal has ii v exchanged between the two Govern 1 'ibis government has not been inatten vie interests tf those of our citizens who iimson tl.eGovernment of Spain, founded :;$ss treaty stipulations, and a hope is indul te reureieiitations which have been made 'p5vernaint, on this subject, may lead, ere Denehcial results. despondence has taken place between the j vuic auu iuuiiaici ui iivi ji i ia.ii WJ 'riiii- 3 ;UM. i ou. i ati I 1 S. N . ! re l e ; l'ror i d ( , I "Lf Alexander llcLeod's indictment and cm I picnt, copies of which aie herewith com hpr f it to Congress. icition to what appears from these papers, J w proper to state that Alexander. McLeod Phard by the Supreme Court of the -State on bis motion to be discharged from lssmt, nnd that the decision of that court has i pronouacei. f cretary of State has addressed to me a pa- imeH f,531'0 subjects, interesting to the com .veeV. t 'tfce country, which will receive my con- Cai' icn, md which I have the honor to commu- 1 '.cngress. , - i M il depends upon the course of this J foour relations of good will and friend fHOesedulousIv cultivated with all nations American policy will be found to consist i ercie of a spirit of tustice to be mani the discharge of all onr international i to the weakest of the family of na I?ell as to the most Dowerful. Occasion- of opinion may arise, but when the i truth, and with a strict regard to jus Cure f w&r will for the most part be iaetime ought to be "regarded as hav 1 hcn a resort to arms is to be esteeir.- I &!v proper arbiter of national dlfieren- t&us recently taken shows a regularly ie increase in our population. V pon the s.2pof the war of the Revolution, our. freely equalled three millions of souU; exceed seventeen millions, and will increase in a ratio which duplicates in ibout23 years. The old States. con i5'tory sufficient in itself to maintain a .7 of additional millions, and the most ; u new miip mn v - even vei oc xe- say immense Temon which, strercnes 6 0f thosa monntains to the mouth ot C;1 river, about 770,000,000 of acres, Reeded, sUll remain to be brought m- y uuiu out lO luC pcu-j-'it v 1 1 serv? xegS I Of; t icq" ent, i be r thei i t ttimmiit, uuiuciitmuui uem aim charge J with the current expenses of the Government, xhe an-ore-gate amount of outs' nnding appropriations 0f the fourth day of March last was $33,429,616 50 f which 4,-10,000 will be required durin"' the current year; and there will also be required for the use of the War Department additional appro priations to the amount of two millions five hun dred and eleven thousand one hundred and thirty two dollars nnd uinety-eijrht cents. t.h Onoo;i k. j jects of which will be seen by reference to the re port or tne secretary ct War. Ihe anticipated means 0f thft TrPiirW' rf greatly inadequate to this demand. The receipts from customs lor ihe Jat three quarters of the last year, and the first quarter of tne present year amounted to $12,100,0U0; the receipts for lands lor tne same lime to ,74,450, showing an avrage revenue from both sources of SSI. 236.870 per muuui. a gr&uuui expansion of trade grow ing out of a restoration of confidence, together with a reduction in the expenses of collecting and punctuality on the part of collecting officers," may cause an addition to the monthlv repints from thp custems. They are estimated for the residue of the year, trom the fourth of March, at $11,000, OOt); the receipts from the public lands for the same time are estimated at 2,500,000; and from misceliauious sources at $r?0,0u0; making an aggregate or lavanaote fund within the year of $14, 010,000; which will leave a probable defect of $11,06,132 93. To meet this some temporary provision is necessary, until the amount can be absorbed by the excess of revenues which are an ticipated to accrue at no distant da v. There will fall due within the next three months Treasury notes of the issue of 1840, including in trest, about $2,850,000. There is chargeable in the same period tor arrearages for takin the 6th census -iy4,0UU; dollas and the es imated exDendi fires for the current service are about 8,100, 000 dollars, maKing me aggregate demands upon the Treasury,4 prior to the first of September next, about 11,340.000 dollars. The ways and means in the Treasury, and esti mated to accrue within the above named period. consist of about 694,000, dollars, of funds available on the iibih ultimo, an unissued ballance of Treasury notes authorized by the act of 1841, amounting to 1,955,000, dollars and estimated receipts from all sources of 3,800,000; making an an aggregate ot about 4,lo,000, and leaving a pro bable detect on the first of Septe nber next of 5, 815,000 dollars. - In order to supply the wants of the government, an intelligent constituency, in view of their best interests, will, without hesitation, submit to all necessary burdens. But it is nevertheless inipor tant so to impose them as to avoid defeatiug the just expectations Jof the country, growing out of pre existing Jaws. 1 he act of the second JVlarch, 1833, commonly called the compromise act, should not be altered except under urgent necessities, which are not believed at this time to exist One year only remains to complete the series of reduc lions prcvided for by that law, at vhicn time, provisions made by the same law, and which then will be bruuvut actively in cid of the .uatiufaetur- ing ;ii teres is ot uie union, will not laa u ; rc- mosl beneficial results. uuuer a system tions, not only with the interests of individuals. but with those of the States, that it may be re garded in a great degree as controlling bath. If paper be used as the chief medium of circulation and the power be vested in "the Government of is suing it at pleasure, either in the form of Treas ury drafts or any other, or if banks be usedss the public depositories, with liberty to regard all sur pluses from day to day, as so much added to their active capital, prices are exposed to constant fluc tuations, and industry to severe suffering.. In the one case, political considerations directed to party purposes, may control,, while excessive cupidity may prevail in the other. The public is thus constantly liable to imposition. Expansions and contractions may follow each other in rapid succession, the one engendering reckless spirit of adventure and speculation, which embraces States as well as individnals, the other causing a full in prices, and acomplishing an entire change in the aspect of affairs. Stocks of all kinds rapidly decline individuals are ruined, and States en barrassed even in their efforts to mc;et with punc tuality the intreston their debts. Such unhappily is the srate of things now existing in the United States. These effect may be readily traced to the causes' above referred to. The public revenues on hp-'nsr removed from the then Bank of the United Sr.-: M!,d-:r n order of a lafe resident, wore fn ei?1"' i Mate Bnnks, which, actuated by the do-iVie ?ti.:-Uvc augmenting - 'cir oxtent. enlarged :rator 2S tsof roii partially settled, while of the . 8ide of the tLocky Mountains, ta i tuocky region iciiies iiu,'0ed for purposes o: viu; the piovisions oi eXis.a. '-.. x:: ';i-. I i .1 ,J US IU Uit ill Mtk-i- duce t.it. ot aiscT..iiiij.ilij; ieen-e, iu un -in fUiu lit J.at iittU i'cl U'i'ii X: , J . ccutdut fluctuations which defeat the very ej-ias iuc i.ave in view,. We thiUi thusUst ma.utan a position which, while it will etiaide us the more reudiiy to meet the advances of other coun tries calcutated to promote our trade and com merce, will at the same time leave in our own hands means of retaliating , with . greater eifect unjust regulations. in intimate connection with the question of reve nue is that which makes provisiou for a saitauU fiscal ageat capable of adding increased taeniae j in tne collection and dibursment of the ueono revendes, leade.ing mo ro' secure their ouijdy, aud consuiUng a rue ecouomy in tne great, mul tiplied and ueiieaie operations of the Ireasury uiv lainviuV- rc7tTtp .hlor;(, tipneu and oeUcaie operations ol the ireasury ltt CuXlulywlSyrS department. -Upoa such an agent depends in an ili ttin the uovernment and profiis to the greatest possible extravagantly their discounts, thus enabling all other existing banks to do the same. Larfie dividends were declared, which stimula ting the cupidity of capitalists, caused a rush to be made to the Legislatures of the respective States or similar acts of incorporation, which by many of the states, un.lora temporary infatuation w3re readilv Granted, and thus the augmentation of the circulating medium, consisting almost exclusively fnaer, produced an almost fatal delusion. An ifii-stntion, derived fro n the laud siles of the per iod alluded to, will serve be-it t show the diect of the whole system, ihe average sales of the public lands, for a period ot ten years prior to lcJl, K . v ) Hill) flllA Jll-.j had not mUCn XCi:cucu ,vruv,vw uunou pci num in loOl liiejr auaiucu iu iuuuu uuiuraj, the amount of 6,000,000 dollars. In the succeed- inr year of 1835 they reached 10,000,0 JO, dollars, And the next year ot 18 ho, they amounted to the enormous sum 20,000,000 dollars, lhus crowding into the short space of three years, upwards ot twpntv-three years' purchase of the public domain So apparent had become the necessity of arresting this course of things, that the executive depart ment assumed the highly questionable power of discriminating m the funds to be used in payment by different classes of public debtors, a discrimina tion which was donbtlesss rlesigned to correcL Ihis most ruinous state of things by the exaction of specie in all payments for the public lands, but which could not at once arrest me hub wmi uau so strongly set in. I lence, the demands lcr specie became unceasing, anu corresponumg piwu" rnnidlv ensued under the necessities created Avith the banks to curtail their discounts, and thereby to rednce their circulation. I recur to these things with no disposition to censure pre existing aamin istm tions nf the ffoveroment. but "simDlv in exem plification of the trouth of the position which I have assumed. It, then, any fiscal agent which may be created shall be placed, without due restrictions, either in the hands of the administrators ot tne government, or those of private indivicuals, the tpmntntinn. tr abuse will be resistless. ObiectS of ---.7 - U political aggrandizement may seduce the first, ana the promptings of a boundless cupidity will assail the last. Aided by the experience of the 'past, it will be the pleasure of Congress so to guard and fortify the public interest, in. the creation of any new agent, as to place them, so far as human wisdom can accomplish it, on a footing ot perfect security. Within a few years past, three different schemes have been before the country. The char ter of the Bank of the United States expired by its own limitation in 1836. An effort was made to renew it, which received the sanction of the two Houses of Congress, but the then President of the United States exercised his veto power, and the measure was defeated. A regard to truth requires me to say that the President was fully sustained in the course he had taken, by the popular voice. His succersor in the Chair of state unqualifiedly pronounced his opposi tion to any new charter of a similar institution; and not only the popular e.ection which, brought him into power, but the elections through much of his term, seemed clearly to indicate a concurrence with him in sentiment on the part of the people. After the public moneys were withdrawn from the United States lank, they were placed in depoite with the Stu-.j V;nk- ani the result of that policy has been befjre the ountry. To say nothing as lothe question whether that experiment was made under propitious or adverse circumstances, it may safely be asserted that it did receive the unquali fied condemnation of most of its early advocates, and it is believed was also condemed by the popu lar sentiment. The existing sub-Treasury system does not seem to stand in higher favor with the Deoole. but has recently been condemned iu a man ner too plainly indicated to admit of a doubt. hus, in the short period of eight years, the popular voico may be regarded as having successively con- cn iemned each of the three schemes of finance to to which 1 have adverted. As to the first, it was introduced at a time (1816) when the State banks, k;n comparatively few in number, had been forced :-" ,!.: M-'-ie cavmciits, by reason of trie war in-, .cn'r.ci . vaile-i Ath Great Britain. Whether j it the liiiif-i -.ts ban ciiurter vvntca expirea in LMi hud e;u renewed in due season, u wouia have becu enabled u continue specie payments during the war and tH. disastrous period to the commerce of the country which immediately suc AoA is, tu sav the least, nrobematicl; and whether the United States Bank of 1316 produced rptoration of soecie payments, or the samq .was accomplished through the instrumentality of other means, was a matter ot some ditfioully at tha t lime to dd ermine. Cer am it is, that, for the first years of the operation of that bank, its cours wa3 as disastrous as ior me grua.si k". n.,ani mrpr it becjtue e.u.ueiWtfr -a n ihe seeuud. the exWiuieut was tried with a redundant Treasury, which continued to increase untilit seemed to be part of wisdom to distribute the surplus revenue among the States, which oper ating at the same time with the Specie Circular, and the causes before adverted to, caused them to suspend specie payments, and involved the country in the greatest embarrassment. And, as to the third; if carried through all the stages of its transmutation from paper and specie to noihini; buv.the precious metals, to say nothing of -the in security of the public money, its injurious effects have been anticipated by the country in its unqual ified condemnation. What now is to be regarded as the judgement of the American people on this whole subject, I have no accurate means of deter mining, but by appealing to their more immediate representatives. The late contest which termfna ted in the election of General Harrison to tha Presideucy, wa3 decided on principles ve!l known and openly declared, and while the Sub-Treasury recei?ed in the result the most deeided condemna tion, yet no other scheme of finance seemed to have been concurred in, To you, then, who have come more directly from th ? body of our common constituents, I submit the cntir question, as best qualified to give a full exposition to their wishes and opinions- I shall be r?ady to concur with you in the adoption of such system as you may propose, reserving to myself the ultimate' power of rejecting any measure which may in my View of it conflict with the Constitution, or otherwise jeopard the prosperity of the country; a power which I could not part with even if I would but which I will not believe any act of yo.us will call into requistion. I cannot avoid recurring, in connection with this subject to the necessity which exists for ad opting some suitable measure whereby the un limited creation of hanks by the S'.ates may be corrected in future. Such reult can be most readily achieved by the consent of the States, to be exnressed in the form of a compact amone themselves, which they can only enter into with the consent and approbation of this Government; a consent which might, in thepre5ent emergency of the public demands, justifiably be given in ad vance ot any action by th j States as an inducement to such action upon terms well defined by the act of tender. Such a measure, addressing itself to the calm reflection of the States would find, in the experience of the past, and the condition of the present, much to sustain it. And it is greatly to be doubted whether any scheme of finance can prove for any length of time successful, while the States shall continue in the unrestrained exercise of the power of creating banking corporations The power can only be limited by their consimf With the adoption of a financial agency of a satisfactory character, the hope may be indulged that the country may once more return to a state of posperity. Measures auxiliary thereto, and in some measure, inseparably connected with its success, will doubtless claim the attention of Con gress. Among such, a distribution of the proceeds of the sales of the public land5,provi Jed such dis- Inbntion does not force upon Congress the necesi ty of imposing upon commerce havhir burdens lhan.lbo.sa contemplated .by. the act of 1833, would act as an efficient remedial measure, by being brought directly in aid of the States. As one sin cerely devoted to the task of preserving a just bal ance in our system of government, by the mainten ance of the Sjatcs in a condition tha most free and respectable, and in the fall possession of their power, I cannot otherwise thin L(eel. desirous for their emancipation from the situation to which the pressure on their finances now subjects them. And, while I must repudiate as a measure found ed in eiror, and wan ing constitutional sanction, the slightest approach to an assumption by this Government of thedebtof the Slates, yet I can se in the distribution adverted to, much to recom nrend it. The compacts between the proprietor States and this -Government expressly guarantee to the States all the benefits which may arise from the siles. The mode by arhich this is to be effect ed addresses' itself to iha discretion of Congress, as the trustee for the States; and its exercise, af ter the most benefi;ial manner, is restrains! by nothing in the grants or in the Constitution, so long as Congress shall consult that equality in the distribution which the compacts require. In the present condition of some of the States, the question of distribution may be regarded as sub stantially a question between direct and ,indirect taxation. If the distribution be not made in some form, or other, the necessity will daily become more urgent with the debtor States for a resort to an oppressive aystem of direct taxation, or their credit, and necessarily their power and influence, will be greatly diminished. The payment of tax es, after the most inconvenient and oppressive mode, will be exae'edin place of contribution, for the most part voluntarily made, and therefore comparatively unoppressive. The States are emphatically the constituents of this Government; and we should be entirely regardless of the ob jects held in view by them in the creation of this Government if we could be indifferent to their good. The happy effects of such a measure upon all the States would immediately be manifested. With the debtor States it would effect the relief to a great extent of the citizen- from a heavy bur den of direct taxafion which presses with severity on the laboring classes, and eminently assist in restoring the general prosperity.- An immediate advance would take place in the price of the State securities, and the attitude of the States would be come once more ss it should ever be, lofty ind erect. Wiib States laboring under no extreme pressure from debt, the fund which they would derive from this source, would enable tnem to im prove their condition in an eminent degree. So far as this Government is concerned, appropria tions to domestic objects, approaching in amount the revenue derived from the land sales, might be abandoned, and thu a system of unequal and therefore unjust legislation would be substituted by one dispensing eqaality to all the members of this confederacy. . - Whether such a distribution should be made directly to the States in the proceeds of the sales, or in the form of profits by virtue of the oper ations of any fiscal agency having these pro ceeds as its basis, should such measure be con templated by Congress, would well deserve its consideration. Nor would such disposition of the proceeds of tho sales in any manner pre vent Congress from time to time from passing all necessary pre-emption jlaws for tho benefit of actual settlers, or from making any new ar rangement as to the price of tha public lands as might. n future bo csio ned desirable." 1 beg leave particularly to call your atten- ftlfT tf flirt n rr rv ni nTrinrr vArvwt f rAn fVtA Qnr- retary of War. Besides the present state of the war which has so long afilcted the Territory of Florida, and tho various other matters' of in terest therein rjfero'i ta you will lenrn from it that thcSecrefury has instituted an enquiry in to abuses which promise to dovelope ,gross enor mi'ios in connection with Indian treaties which have boeo negociatcd, as well as in the expendi tures for removal and sahsis:enco of the In dians. Ho represents, also, other irregularities of a serious nature that have grown up in tho practice of the Indian Department, which will require the appropriation of 8200,000 to correct, and which claim the immediate attention of Congress. In reflecting on the proper means of defends ing the country, we cannot shut our eyes to tho consequence which the introduction and uso , of the power of stcarn upon the ocean are likely ta produce in wars between maritime States. We cannot yet see the extent to which this 'power may be applied in belligerent operations, con-, necting itself as it does with recent improve ments in the science of gunnery and projectiles; but we need have no fear of being left, in regard to these things, behind the most active and skil ful of other nations, if the genius and enterprise of our fellow-citizens receive'proper encourage ment an i direction from (jovernment. True wisdom would, "nevertheless, seem to dictate the ntcessity of placing in perfect con dition those fortthdations which are designed for the protection of our principal cities and road steads. For the defence of our extended mari time coast, our chief reliance should be placed on our navy, aidd by those inventions which are destined to recommenc themselves to public adoption. But no lime should be lost in placing our principal cities on the seaboard and the lakes in a state of entire security from foreign assault. Separated as we are from the countries of the old world, and in much unaffected by their poli cy, we are happily releived from the necessity of maintaining large standing armies in times of peace. The policy which was adopted by Mr. Monroe, shortly after the conclusion of the late war with Great Britain, of preserving a re gularly organized staff sufficient for tlie com mand of a large military force, should a necssi ty for one arise, is founded as well in economy as in true wisdom. Provision is thus made, up on filling up the rank and file, which can readily hi done on any ema gency for the introduction of a system of displina both promptly and effi ciently. All that is required in time of pcaco is to maintain a sufficient number of men to guard our fortifications, to meet any sudden con tingency, and to encounter the first shock of war. Our chief reliance must be placed on the militia. They constitute the great body of na tional guards, and, inspired by an ardent love of country, will be found ready at all times, and at all seasons, to repair with alacrity to its de fence. It will be regarded by Congress, 1 doubt not, at a suitable time, as one of its highest du ties to attend to their complete organization and discipline. The state of the Navy Pension Fand require the immediate attention of Congress. By Utfj operation of the Act of the 4d March, 1827, en titled "An Act for the more equitable adminis tration of the Navy Peasion Fund," that fund has been exhausted. It will be seen from the accompanying report of the Commissioner of Pensions, on the first of July next, 881,006 03$. and on the 1st of January, 1842, the sum of 800.000. In addition to these sums, about $0,000 will be required to pay the arrears of Pensions, which will probably be allowed be tween the first of July and the first of January, 1812, making in the whole S150,00G 0GJ, To meet these payments there is within the control of the department the sum of 28,040 dollars, leaving a djficit of 3121,933 03$. The public faith requires that' immediate provision should be made for the payment of these sums. In order to introduce into the Navy a desira ble efficiency, a new systeffi of accountability may be found to be indispensably necessary To mature a plan having for its object the ac complishment of an end so important, and to meet thes just expectations of the country, re quire more time than has yet been allowed to the Secretary at the bead of the department. The hope is indulged that by tho time of your next regul ir session measures of importance, in connexion with this branch of the public service , may be matured for your consideration. Although the laws regulating the Post Office Department only require the officer charged with its direction to report at the usual annual sessions of Congress, the Post Master General has presented to me some facts connected with the financial condition of the Department,which are deemed worthy the attention of Congress. By the accompanying report of that officer, it appears that tho existing liabilities of that De partment beyond the means of payment at i s command cannot be less than 500,000. As tho laws organizing that branch of the public service confine the expenditure to its own revenues, deficiencies therein connot be presented under the usual estimates for the expenses of JGovern ment. It must therefore be left to Congress to determine whether tho moneys now due to con tractors shall be paid from the public Treasury, or whether that Department shall continue un der its present embarrassments. It will be seen by the Report of the Post Master General,-that the recent lettings of contracts in several of the States have been made at such reduced rates of compensation as to encourage the belief that, if the department was relieved from existing difficulties", its future operations might be . con ducted without any further call upon the genera! treasury. The power of appointing to office is one of a Continued to 4th page.