OCR Interpretation


Southern banner. (Holly Springs, Miss.) 1841-1841, June 25, 1841, Image 1

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HOILILY JPRIBTGr, Miss. FE&IBAY, JUNE 25,- 141.
No.- . 'IS.
J ULI Lzj Lii) uJ
; ;
IraE SOUTIIERIV BAiViVER I the blessings we offer them, we require of them to f emia'cot degw, the establishment of a currency
Hhrfh, ,h of Hollr Spring., Mi.,ssippi, !, "P 'Our country as their country, and to of uniform value, which is of so great importance
1 'Sk Vr n "llr. if.p.iJi"J" Ana unite with us in the great task of preserving our to all the e-sential interests of siciety; and on the
. j '.rfpdot. ik-. for l !taiUMonib!. institutions, and the-eby perpetuating our liber- wisdom to be manifested in its creation much de-
ni-il'"''""' ';rs-,.h ".l'.ve s!s for h.'iZ ron.,c. pends. So intimately interwove,, are its oner.-
II jireiien imc. ur tv.3,,; i v e uesire out io reclaim our almost illimitable
ri continuance
' fill AuVerllSCineil l HOI marR.ru uu nn; uumui
rtions on luero, win oe cuuuuucu umn ui".h.vj uui
.n,ul,cing candidates for office will be For State
. responsible name in ion.
V'tii-ttersaddressed to the publisher 01 Hie bocthers
& ftvitainAca w 1 1 n mi iniirr. 11111x1 iict imjal I Kill, n
ftl-i". on UU....V.. , , ,
attention.
Tarlr advertisements, inserted at the usual rates,
personal Altercations will be charged double
nJ nay required in advance.
-' be v'".t f- TOIJ WORK done at this
.n as delivered.
h
n,i.
icct;
s M
leKESI DEBT'S i!IESSAE.
iSoiute and House of Representatives of
the United States.
.owCitizexs :
You have bctn assembled in
tapective halls of legislation under a procla
a bearing the signature of the illustrious
of the people, to the discharge or the lmpor
'iinctioiis of their chief executive rTiccr.
ife expiration of a single month from ti.e
fhU installation, he has raid -the irreat debt
1 ' c
l t ire, leaving behind him a name associated
I rf or. 1 lection of numerous benefits confer-
. i. v
:cn the country, during n long life of patri
.;vu!ion. With this public bereavement are
;;tfd other considerations which will not
the attention of Congress. Hie preparation?,
ary for his removal to the seat of govern
in view of a residence of four years, must
ievulved upon the late President heavy
iituies, which, n pernmietj xo ouruen tne
I resources of his private fortune, may tend
s!? to the cuiburrissment of his surviving
;auditis, thererore, rccpectlully submittea
;ress whether the ordinaiy principles of
:"4i!d not dictate the propriety of its
.live interposition. By the provisions .f
;iiir.utal law, the powers and duties of the
jtionio which he was elected, have devolv
i ne, aiid in the dispositions of the, repre,
Tf-stf the Slates and of the people, will be
urn "rcat extent, a solution of the problem
L:r-Lr' icw-i: tat ions arc llr the fast time
ii i
s
re xi
I:
wildernesses, and to introduce into their dentlis
the lights of civilization. While ve shall at all
times be prepared to vindicate the national honor,
our most earnest desire will be to maintain an un
broken peace.
In presenting the foregoing views, I cannot
withhold from tha expression of the opinion that
there exists nothing in the extension of our emoi re
over our acknowledged possession to excite ihe a
Jarm of the patriot for the safety of our institu
tions. The federative system of leaving to each
ing on the Federal Government those of general
import, admits in safety of ;he greatest expansion;
but, at the same time, I deem it proper to add
there will be found to exist at all times, an im
perious necessity for restraiuing the functionaries
of this Government within the range of their res
pective powers, thereby preserving a just balance
between the powers granted to this Government
and thosereserved to the Stale and to the people.
From the report of the Secretary of the Treasu
ry, you will perceive that the fiscal means pre-ent
and accruing are insufficient to supply the wants
of the Government fur ih i current ve ir. Tin' h-i !-
;.;ice in the Treasury on the fuurlli day of .March
last, not covert -j by outstanding drafts, r.nj ex
clusive of trust funds, is estimated at &SGu,030.
I'liw innlnrldu Inj n mm fi ) . . i
the mint and o Lruneue- t- i, ;., b-
coining and in process of coinage, and wiacu could
not be wtthdrawn without inconvenience, thus
leaving subjects to draft in the various deposito
ries the sum of $645,000. By virtue of two sev
eral acts of Congress, the Secretary of the Trea
sury was authorized to issue, on and after the 4th
day of March last, Treasury notes to the amount
of $5,414,000 making an aggregate available fund
of $G,056:000 on hand
h!ut this fund was chargeable with outstanding
Tre asury notes redeemable in the - current vear
and interests thereon to the estimated uinoaot of
rive miiJions two hundred and eio-'itv ti ....... i
I
i'.eKng on the duiicsof this office, I did not
:tit would be becoming in me to disturb
id been ordered by my lamented predeces
Whatcver. thtrcfort. may have been my o
urioin3l!y,""Ss to the propriety of conven-
froni
and
that of its
controlling
.i i . '! i .i
uouai s. i ntre is also inrown ir.nni-ti.e Tre i-u
uiv j.-aviaeiit ui a large amount ot demn J3
iu wiiuic-ui pan in lormer years, vvn.cn
haust tne available means of the Trea
leave the accruing revenue, reduced
y
accru-
will ex-
sury, and
as it is in
rjrrvrcss at oiriy a day
,,n ' dtJit'tinitntut, I found a new
be I j-B!l'ltont to interfere with the patriotic d-.-i
liti.f lafcr Presid-eBt, in the r-ovelfj of the
t lli.ll VI IllU.l i O.S U UitCApUl.lCUIJf 1'IULCU- I
rJ'' f 1t vMi, iioiler such cireumstnees, would
c I 4-iriiy have been to have called to my aid, in
lit U; VTiinistration of public affairs, thecombined
rom 4 3 of the twollcuesof Congress, in order to
va! j irr( util and advice as to the best mode
vel r, ca.ii g the Government and the country
inJg embarrassments weighing heavily on
4 Um. il.cn, most happy in finding my self,
,l-?fvr i'iv ?sirc.K.uin tii trif rrpsidencv. Siir.
dly the immediate representatives of the
ad of the people.
itant changes having taken place in our
'Hlations since the last session of Congress
adrcmcd ntcessary on this occasion to go
'detailed statement in regard to them; I am
"'0 say that I ;ee nothing to destroy the hope
I&b.e to preserve peace.
HWififation of the treaty with Portugal has
ii v exchanged between the two Govern
1 'ibis government has not been inatten
vie interests tf those of our citizens who
iimson tl.eGovernment of Spain, founded
:;$ss treaty stipulations, and a hope is indul
te reureieiitations which have been made
'p5vernaint, on this subject, may lead, ere
Denehcial results.
despondence has taken place between the
j vuic auu iuuiiaici ui iivi ji i ia.ii
WJ
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"Lf Alexander llcLeod's indictment and
cm I picnt, copies of which aie herewith com
hpr f it to Congress.
icition to what appears from these papers,
J w proper to state that Alexander. McLeod
Phard by the Supreme Court of the -State
on bis motion to be discharged from
lssmt, nnd that the decision of that court has
i pronouacei.
f cretary of State has addressed to me a pa-
imeH f,531'0 subjects, interesting to the com
.veeV. t 'tfce country, which will receive my con-
Cai' icn, md which I have the honor to commu-
1 '.cngress. , -
i M il depends upon the course of this
J foour relations of good will and friend
fHOesedulousIv cultivated with all nations
American policy will be found to consist
i ercie of a spirit of tustice to be mani
the discharge of all onr international
i to the weakest of the family of na
I?ell as to the most Dowerful. Occasion-
of opinion may arise, but when the
i truth, and with a strict regard to jus
Cure f w&r will for the most part be
iaetime ought to be "regarded as hav
1 hcn a resort to arms is to be esteeir.-
I &!v proper arbiter of national dlfieren-
t&us recently taken shows a regularly
ie increase in our population. V pon the
s.2pof the war of the Revolution, our.
freely equalled three millions of souU;
exceed seventeen millions, and will
increase in a ratio which duplicates in
ibout23 years. The old States. con
i5'tory sufficient in itself to maintain a
.7 of additional millions, and the most
; u new miip mn v - even vei oc xe-
say
immense Temon which, strercnes
6 0f thosa monntains to the mouth ot
C;1 river, about 770,000,000 of acres,
Reeded, sUll remain to be brought m-
y uuiu out lO luC pcu-j-'it v
1 1
serv?
xegS
I Of;
t icq"
ent, i
be r
thei
i
t
ttimmiit, uuiuciitmuui uem aim charge J with the
current expenses of the Government, xhe an-ore-gate
amount of outs' nnding appropriations 0f the
fourth day of March last was $33,429,616 50 f
which 4,-10,000 will be required durin"' the
current year; and there will also be required for
the use of the War Department additional appro
priations to the amount of two millions five hun
dred and eleven thousand one hundred and thirty
two dollars nnd uinety-eijrht cents. t.h Onoo;i k.
j jects of which will be seen by reference to the re
port or tne secretary ct War.
Ihe anticipated means 0f thft TrPiirW' rf
greatly inadequate to this demand. The receipts
from customs lor ihe Jat three quarters of the
last year, and the first quarter of tne present year
amounted to $12,100,0U0; the receipts for lands
lor tne same lime to ,74,450, showing an
avrage revenue from both sources of SSI. 236.870
per muuui. a gr&uuui expansion of trade grow
ing out of a restoration of confidence, together
with a reduction in the expenses of collecting and
punctuality on the part of collecting officers," may
cause an addition to the monthlv repints from thp
custems. They are estimated for the residue of
the year, trom the fourth of March, at $11,000,
OOt); the receipts from the public lands for the
same time are estimated at 2,500,000; and from
misceliauious sources at $r?0,0u0; making an
aggregate or lavanaote fund within the year of
$14, 010,000; which will leave a probable defect
of $11,06,132 93. To meet this some temporary
provision is necessary, until the amount can be
absorbed by the excess of revenues which are an
ticipated to accrue at no distant da v.
There will fall due within the next three months
Treasury notes of the issue of 1840, including in
trest, about $2,850,000. There is chargeable in
the same period tor arrearages for takin the 6th
census -iy4,0UU; dollas and the es imated exDendi
fires for the current service are about 8,100, 000
dollars, maKing me aggregate demands upon the
Treasury,4 prior to the first of September next,
about 11,340.000 dollars.
The ways and means in the Treasury, and esti
mated to accrue within the above named period.
consist of about 694,000, dollars, of funds available
on the iibih ultimo, an unissued ballance of
Treasury notes authorized by the act of 1841,
amounting to 1,955,000, dollars and estimated
receipts from all sources of 3,800,000; making an
an aggregate ot about 4,lo,000, and leaving a pro
bable detect on the first of Septe nber next of 5,
815,000 dollars. -
In order to supply the wants of the government,
an intelligent constituency, in view of their best
interests, will, without hesitation, submit to all
necessary burdens. But it is nevertheless inipor
tant so to impose them as to avoid defeatiug the
just expectations Jof the country, growing out of
pre existing Jaws. 1 he act of the second JVlarch,
1833, commonly called the compromise act, should
not be altered except under urgent necessities,
which are not believed at this time to exist One
year only remains to complete the series of reduc
lions prcvided for by that law, at vhicn time,
provisions made by the same law, and which then
will be bruuvut actively in cid of the .uatiufaetur-
ing ;ii teres is ot uie union, will not laa u ; rc-
mosl beneficial results. uuuer a system
tions, not only with the interests of individuals.
but with those of the States, that it may be re
garded in a great degree as controlling bath.
If paper be used as the chief medium of circulation
and the power be vested in "the Government of is
suing it at pleasure, either in the form of Treas
ury drafts or any other, or if banks be usedss the
public depositories, with liberty to regard all sur
pluses from day to day, as so much added to their
active capital, prices are exposed to constant fluc
tuations, and industry to severe suffering..
In the one case, political considerations directed
to party purposes, may control,, while excessive
cupidity may prevail in the other. The public is
thus constantly liable to imposition. Expansions
and contractions may follow each other in rapid
succession, the one engendering reckless spirit
of adventure and speculation, which embraces
States as well as individnals, the other causing a
full in prices, and acomplishing an entire change
in the aspect of affairs. Stocks of all kinds rapidly
decline individuals are ruined, and States en
barrassed even in their efforts to mc;et with punc
tuality the intreston their debts. Such unhappily
is the srate of things now existing in the United
States. These effect may be readily traced to the
causes' above referred to. The public revenues on
hp-'nsr removed from the then Bank of the United
Sr.-: M!,d-:r n order of a lafe resident, wore
fn ei?1"' i Mate Bnnks, which, actuated by the
do-iVie ?ti.:-Uvc
augmenting - 'cir
oxtent. enlarged
:rator
2S
tsof
roii
partially settled, while of the .
8ide of the tLocky Mountains, ta
i tuocky
region
iciiies iiu,'0ed for purposes o:
viu; the piovisions oi eXis.a.
'-.. x:: ';i-. I i .1
,J US IU Uit ill Mtk-i-
duce t.it.
ot aiscT..iiiij.ilij;
ieen-e, iu un -in
fUiu lit J.at iittU i'cl U'i'ii X: , J .
ccutdut fluctuations which defeat the very ej-ias
iuc i.ave in view,. We thiUi thusUst ma.utan
a position which, while it will etiaide us the
more reudiiy to meet the advances of other coun
tries calcutated to promote our trade and com
merce, will at the same time leave in our own
hands means of retaliating , with . greater eifect
unjust regulations.
in intimate connection with the question of reve
nue is that which makes provisiou for a saitauU
fiscal ageat capable of adding increased taeniae j
in tne collection and dibursment of the ueono
revendes, leade.ing mo ro' secure their ouijdy,
aud consuiUng a rue ecouomy in tne great, mul
tiplied and ueiieaie operations of the Ireasury
uiv lainviuV- rc7tTtp .hlor;(, tipneu and oeUcaie operations ol the ireasury
ltt CuXlulywlSyrS department. -Upoa such an agent depends in an
ili ttin the uovernment and
profiis to the greatest possible
extravagantly their discounts,
thus enabling all other existing banks to do the
same.
Larfie dividends were declared, which stimula
ting the cupidity of capitalists, caused a rush to
be made to the Legislatures of the respective States
or similar acts of incorporation, which by many
of the states, un.lora temporary infatuation w3re
readilv Granted, and thus the augmentation of the
circulating medium, consisting almost exclusively
fnaer, produced an almost fatal delusion. An
ifii-stntion, derived fro n the laud siles of the per
iod alluded to, will serve be-it t show the diect
of the whole system, ihe average sales of the
public lands, for a period ot ten years prior to lcJl,
K . v ) Hill) flllA Jll-.j
had not mUCn XCi:cucu ,vruv,vw uunou pci
num in loOl liiejr auaiucu iu iuuuu uuiuraj,
the amount of 6,000,000 dollars. In the succeed-
inr year of 1835 they reached 10,000,0 JO, dollars,
And the next year ot 18 ho, they amounted to the
enormous sum 20,000,000 dollars, lhus crowding
into the short space of three years, upwards ot
twpntv-three years' purchase of the public domain
So apparent had become the necessity of arresting
this course of things, that the executive depart
ment assumed the highly questionable power of
discriminating m the funds to be used in payment
by different classes of public debtors, a discrimina
tion which was donbtlesss rlesigned to correcL Ihis
most ruinous state of things by the exaction of
specie in all payments for the public lands, but
which could not at once arrest me hub wmi uau
so strongly set in. I lence, the demands lcr specie
became unceasing, anu corresponumg piwu"
rnnidlv ensued under the necessities created Avith
the banks to curtail their discounts, and thereby to
rednce their circulation. I recur to these things
with no disposition to censure pre existing aamin
istm tions nf the ffoveroment. but "simDlv in exem
plification of the trouth of the position which I have
assumed. It, then, any fiscal agent which may be
created shall be placed, without due restrictions,
either in the hands of the administrators ot tne
government, or those of private indivicuals, the
tpmntntinn. tr abuse will be resistless. ObiectS of
---.7 - U
political aggrandizement may seduce the first, ana
the promptings of a boundless cupidity will assail
the last. Aided by the experience of the 'past, it
will be the pleasure of Congress so to guard and
fortify the public interest, in. the creation of any
new agent, as to place them, so far as human
wisdom can accomplish it, on a footing ot perfect
security. Within a few years past, three different
schemes have been before the country. The char
ter of the Bank of the United States expired by its
own limitation in 1836. An effort was made to
renew it, which received the sanction of the two
Houses of Congress, but the then President of the
United States exercised his veto power, and the
measure was defeated.
A regard to truth requires me to say that the
President was fully sustained in the course he had
taken, by the popular voice. His succersor in the
Chair of state unqualifiedly pronounced his opposi
tion to any new charter of a similar institution; and
not only the popular e.ection which, brought him
into power, but the elections through much of his
term, seemed clearly to indicate a concurrence
with him in sentiment on the part of the people.
After the public moneys were withdrawn from the
United States lank, they were placed in depoite
with the Stu-.j V;nk- ani the result of that policy
has been befjre the ountry. To say nothing as
lothe question whether that experiment was made
under propitious or adverse circumstances, it may
safely be asserted that it did receive the unquali
fied condemnation of most of its early advocates,
and it is believed was also condemed by the popu
lar sentiment. The existing sub-Treasury system
does not seem to stand in higher favor with the
Deoole. but has recently been condemned iu a man
ner too plainly indicated to admit of a doubt.
hus, in the short period of eight years, the popular
voico may be regarded as having successively con-
cn iemned each of the three schemes of finance to
to which 1 have adverted. As to the first, it was
introduced at a time (1816) when the State banks,
k;n comparatively few in number, had been forced
:-" ,!.: M-'-ie cavmciits, by reason of trie war
in-, .cn'r.ci . vaile-i Ath Great Britain. Whether
j it the liiiif-i -.ts ban ciiurter vvntca expirea
in LMi hud e;u renewed in due season, u wouia
have becu enabled u continue specie payments
during the war and tH. disastrous period to the
commerce of the country which immediately suc
AoA is, tu sav the least, nrobematicl; and
whether the United States Bank of 1316 produced
rptoration of soecie payments, or the samq .was
accomplished through the instrumentality of other
means, was a matter ot some ditfioully at tha t lime
to dd ermine. Cer am it is, that, for the first
years of the operation of that bank, its cours wa3
as disastrous as ior me grua.si k".
n.,ani mrpr it becjtue e.u.ueiWtfr
-a n ihe seeuud. the exWiuieut was tried with
a redundant Treasury, which continued to increase
untilit seemed to be part of wisdom to distribute
the surplus revenue among the States, which oper
ating at the same time with the Specie Circular,
and the causes before adverted to, caused them
to suspend specie payments, and involved the
country in the greatest embarrassment. And, as
to the third; if carried through all the stages of its
transmutation from paper and specie to noihini;
buv.the precious metals, to say nothing of -the in
security of the public money, its injurious effects
have been anticipated by the country in its unqual
ified condemnation. What now is to be regarded
as the judgement of the American people on this
whole subject, I have no accurate means of deter
mining, but by appealing to their more immediate
representatives. The late contest which termfna
ted in the election of General Harrison to tha
Presideucy, wa3 decided on principles ve!l known
and openly declared, and while the Sub-Treasury
recei?ed in the result the most deeided condemna
tion, yet no other scheme of finance seemed to
have been concurred in, To you, then, who have
come more directly from th ? body of our common
constituents, I submit the cntir question, as best
qualified to give a full exposition to their wishes
and opinions- I shall be r?ady to concur with
you in the adoption of such system as you may
propose, reserving to myself the ultimate' power
of rejecting any measure which may in my View of
it conflict with the Constitution, or otherwise
jeopard the prosperity of the country; a power
which I could not part with even if I would
but which I will not believe any act of yo.us
will call into requistion.
I cannot avoid recurring, in connection with
this subject to the necessity which exists for ad
opting some suitable measure whereby the un
limited creation of hanks by the S'.ates may be
corrected in future. Such reult can be most
readily achieved by the consent of the States, to
be exnressed in the form of a compact amone
themselves, which they can only enter into with
the consent and approbation of this Government;
a consent which might, in thepre5ent emergency
of the public demands, justifiably be given in ad
vance ot any action by th j States as an inducement
to such action upon terms well defined by the act
of tender. Such a measure, addressing itself to
the calm reflection of the States would find, in the
experience of the past, and the condition of the
present, much to sustain it. And it is greatly to
be doubted whether any scheme of finance can prove
for any length of time successful, while the States
shall continue in the unrestrained exercise of the
power of creating banking corporations The
power can only be limited by their consimf
With the adoption of a financial agency of a
satisfactory character, the hope may be indulged
that the country may once more return to a state
of posperity. Measures auxiliary thereto, and
in some measure, inseparably connected with its
success, will doubtless claim the attention of Con
gress. Among such, a distribution of the proceeds
of the sales of the public land5,provi Jed such dis-
Inbntion does not force upon Congress the necesi
ty of imposing upon commerce havhir burdens
lhan.lbo.sa contemplated .by. the act of 1833, would
act as an efficient remedial measure, by being
brought directly in aid of the States. As one sin
cerely devoted to the task of preserving a just bal
ance in our system of government, by the mainten
ance of the Sjatcs in a condition tha most free and
respectable, and in the fall possession of their
power, I cannot otherwise thin L(eel. desirous for
their emancipation from the situation to which the
pressure on their finances now subjects them.
And, while I must repudiate as a measure found
ed in eiror, and wan ing constitutional sanction,
the slightest approach to an assumption by this
Government of thedebtof the Slates, yet I can se
in the distribution adverted to, much to recom
nrend it. The compacts between the proprietor
States and this -Government expressly guarantee
to the States all the benefits which may arise from
the siles. The mode by arhich this is to be effect
ed addresses' itself to iha discretion of Congress,
as the trustee for the States; and its exercise, af
ter the most benefi;ial manner, is restrains! by
nothing in the grants or in the Constitution, so
long as Congress shall consult that equality in
the distribution which the compacts require. In
the present condition of some of the States, the
question of distribution may be regarded as sub
stantially a question between direct and ,indirect
taxation. If the distribution be not made in some
form, or other, the necessity will daily become
more urgent with the debtor States for a resort to
an oppressive aystem of direct taxation, or their
credit, and necessarily their power and influence,
will be greatly diminished. The payment of tax
es, after the most inconvenient and oppressive
mode, will be exae'edin place of contribution, for
the most part voluntarily made, and therefore
comparatively unoppressive. The States are
emphatically the constituents of this Government;
and we should be entirely regardless of the ob
jects held in view by them in the creation of this
Government if we could be indifferent to their
good. The happy effects of such a measure upon
all the States would immediately be manifested.
With the debtor States it would effect the relief
to a great extent of the citizen- from a heavy bur
den of direct taxafion which presses with severity
on the laboring classes, and eminently assist in
restoring the general prosperity.- An immediate
advance would take place in the price of the State
securities, and the attitude of the States would be
come once more ss it should ever be, lofty ind
erect. Wiib States laboring under no extreme
pressure from debt, the fund which they would
derive from this source, would enable tnem to im
prove their condition in an eminent degree. So
far as this Government is concerned, appropria
tions to domestic objects, approaching in amount
the revenue derived from the land sales, might be
abandoned, and thu a system of unequal and
therefore unjust legislation would be substituted
by one dispensing eqaality to all the members of
this confederacy. .
- Whether such a distribution should be made
directly to the States in the proceeds of the sales,
or in the form of profits by virtue of the oper
ations of any fiscal agency having these pro
ceeds as its basis, should such measure be con
templated by Congress, would well deserve its
consideration. Nor would such disposition of
the proceeds of tho sales in any manner pre
vent Congress from time to time from passing
all necessary pre-emption jlaws for tho benefit
of actual settlers, or from making any new ar
rangement as to the price of tha public lands as
might. n future bo csio ned desirable."
1 beg leave particularly to call your atten-
ftlfT tf flirt n rr rv ni nTrinrr vArvwt f rAn fVtA Qnr-
retary of War. Besides the present state of
the war which has so long afilcted the Territory
of Florida, and tho various other matters' of in
terest therein rjfero'i ta you will lenrn from it
that thcSecrefury has instituted an enquiry in
to abuses which promise to dovelope ,gross enor
mi'ios in connection with Indian treaties which
have boeo negociatcd, as well as in the expendi
tures for removal and sahsis:enco of the In
dians. Ho represents, also, other irregularities
of a serious nature that have grown up in tho
practice of the Indian Department, which will
require the appropriation of 8200,000 to correct,
and which claim the immediate attention of
Congress.
In reflecting on the proper means of defends
ing the country, we cannot shut our eyes to tho
consequence which the introduction and uso , of
the power of stcarn upon the ocean are likely ta
produce in wars between maritime States. We
cannot yet see the extent to which this 'power
may be applied in belligerent operations, con-,
necting itself as it does with recent improve
ments in the science of gunnery and projectiles;
but we need have no fear of being left, in regard
to these things, behind the most active and skil
ful of other nations, if the genius and enterprise
of our fellow-citizens receive'proper encourage
ment an i direction from (jovernment.
True wisdom would, "nevertheless, seem to
dictate the ntcessity of placing in perfect con
dition those fortthdations which are designed for
the protection of our principal cities and road
steads. For the defence of our extended mari
time coast, our chief reliance should be placed
on our navy, aidd by those inventions which
are destined to recommenc themselves to public
adoption. But no lime should be lost in placing
our principal cities on the seaboard and the lakes
in a state of entire security from foreign assault.
Separated as we are from the countries of the
old world, and in much unaffected by their poli
cy, we are happily releived from the necessity
of maintaining large standing armies in times
of peace. The policy which was adopted by
Mr. Monroe, shortly after the conclusion of the
late war with Great Britain, of preserving a re
gularly organized staff sufficient for tlie com
mand of a large military force, should a necssi
ty for one arise, is founded as well in economy
as in true wisdom. Provision is thus made, up
on filling up the rank and file, which can readily
hi done on any ema gency for the introduction
of a system of displina both promptly and effi
ciently. All that is required in time of pcaco
is to maintain a sufficient number of men to
guard our fortifications, to meet any sudden con
tingency, and to encounter the first shock of
war. Our chief reliance must be placed on the
militia. They constitute the great body of na
tional guards, and, inspired by an ardent love
of country, will be found ready at all times, and
at all seasons, to repair with alacrity to its de
fence. It will be regarded by Congress, 1 doubt
not, at a suitable time, as one of its highest du
ties to attend to their complete organization and
discipline.
The state of the Navy Pension Fand require
the immediate attention of Congress. By Utfj
operation of the Act of the 4d March, 1827, en
titled "An Act for the more equitable adminis
tration of the Navy Peasion Fund," that fund
has been exhausted. It will be seen from the
accompanying report of the Commissioner of
Pensions, on the first of July next, 881,006
03$. and on the 1st of January, 1842, the sum
of 800.000. In addition to these sums, about
$0,000 will be required to pay the arrears of
Pensions, which will probably be allowed be
tween the first of July and the first of January,
1812, making in the whole S150,00G 0GJ, To
meet these payments there is within the control
of the department the sum of 28,040 dollars,
leaving a djficit of 3121,933 03$. The public
faith requires that' immediate provision should
be made for the payment of these sums.
In order to introduce into the Navy a desira
ble efficiency, a new systeffi of accountability
may be found to be indispensably necessary
To mature a plan having for its object the ac
complishment of an end so important, and to
meet thes just expectations of the country, re
quire more time than has yet been allowed to
the Secretary at the bead of the department.
The hope is indulged that by tho time of your
next regul ir session measures of importance, in
connexion with this branch of the public service ,
may be matured for your consideration.
Although the laws regulating the Post Office
Department only require the officer charged
with its direction to report at the usual annual
sessions of Congress, the Post Master General
has presented to me some facts connected with
the financial condition of the Department,which
are deemed worthy the attention of Congress.
By the accompanying report of that officer, it
appears that tho existing liabilities of that De
partment beyond the means of payment at i s
command cannot be less than 500,000. As tho
laws organizing that branch of the public service
confine the expenditure to its own revenues,
deficiencies therein connot be presented under
the usual estimates for the expenses of JGovern
ment. It must therefore be left to Congress to
determine whether tho moneys now due to con
tractors shall be paid from the public Treasury,
or whether that Department shall continue un
der its present embarrassments. It will be seen
by the Report of the Post Master General,-that
the recent lettings of contracts in several of the
States have been made at such reduced rates of
compensation as to encourage the belief that,
if the department was relieved from existing
difficulties", its future operations might be . con
ducted without any further call upon the genera!
treasury.
The power of appointing to office is one of a
Continued to 4th page.

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