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MISSISSIPPI EXPERIMENT STATI05.
rrM BallcUB-June, 1893. S. M. Tracy, Director. ANNOUNCEMENT. TVe are glad to announce that we bave made an arrangement by which we shall b able to fite our readers frequent notes in regard to the results of experi ments, trials of different fertilizers, methods of cultivating and handling crops, the feeding and management of cattle, the prevention of injurious in sects and fungi, the introduction of new crops, and other work done at the State Experiment Station. Probably most of our readers are aware that congress has established such an experiment station in each State, and that the one for Mississippi is located at tho Agricultural College, near Starkvillo. The work done at the stations is well outlined in the act of congress establishing them, which says "that it shall be the object and duty of said experiment stations to conduct original researches or verify experi ments on the physiology of plants and animals; the diseases to which they are severally subject, with the remedies for the same; the chemical composition of useful plants at their different stages of growth; the comparative advantages of rotative cropping as pursued under a varying series of crops; the capacity of new plants or trees for acclimation; the analysis of soils and water; the chem ical composition of manures, natural or artificial, with experiments designed to test their comparative effects on crops of different kinds; the adaptation and value of grasses and forage plants; the composition and digestibility of the different kinds of food for domestic ani mals; the scientific and economic ques tions involved in the production of but ter and cheese; and such other re searches or experiments bearing directly on tho agricultural industry of the United States as may in each case be deemed advisable, having due regard to the varying conditions and needs of the respoctive States or Territories.'' It will bo seen from this that the work of the station covers a very broad field, but from its first organization it has been tho object of the Mississippi Sta tion to give its principal attention to those lines of work which are of the greatest immediate interest to the aver age farmer, and to a settlement of those questions of practice which will add most to tho yield, and to decrease the cost of the crops most generally grown. The station publishes frequent reports and bulletins, which are sent, free of charge, to all farmers in Mississippi who request them, and there is no rea son why they should not be in tho hands of every farmer in tho State. Such of our reader as do not already receive them should secure them at once. Tho officers of the station aro not mero "book farmers," but are men who have worked in the Held all their lives, and who aro well qualified for their work. They are always glad to answer letters and inquiries, and to give advice and assistance to the farmers of the State in every way possible. Letters and requests for bulletins should be ad dressed to "Director of Experiment Sta tion, Agricultural College, Miss." Farmers' Institutes. During tho last three years the num ber of farmers' institutes held in Mis sissippi has constantly increased, and the present prospect is that the number held during the coming summer will be larger t han ever before. This is a move in the right direction, and one which is sure to result in good to every farmer who attends tho meetings. In several of the Northern States, whore such in ftitutes have been held for many years. they are esteemed so highly that large annual appropriations aro mado by the State for their support, but in Missis sippi Ihoy are carried on wholly by vol untary work on the part of those inter ested, and such voluntary work is always the most e ff. clivp. There has been no uniform plan for ti.ose meetings, a"nd nearly all of Ibein aro simply informal gatherings where farmers discuss meth- ods of farm practice, how to grow better crts at less cost, how to handle stock 'to better advantage, and how to improvo theircondition in various ways. Some times these meetings are for only a sin ,.glo afternoon, sometimes morning and afternoen sessions aro held, and in some caws tho meetings are continued Ubrough two days. Very often some of 'the best farmers in the neighborhood are asked to read papers or to make id - dresses on somo particular subject, and frequently the men connected with th Agricultural College and the Experi ment Station am asked to assist in the .work. Frequently such meetings are -arranged for by a grange or sn alliance, and where there are such organiza tions the use of a subolbouse or the courthouse can usuaMy be secured, so 'that no expense is incurred. Xbft? meetings are not for the pur pose of listening to long and tiresome speeches on "The Need of Intelligence in Agriculture," "The Independence of the Farmer," "The Dignity of Labor," and such wornont subject, but are more like a liv experience meeting where each one tells ail the details of bow he grew his best crops, what fertilizers he found the best and how he used them, the new tools and machines which have been tried, and other matters which may be of assistance to his friends. Sometimes the talks take the other direction and different ones tell of the mistakes they have made in the man agement of their farms, and so warn others against making similar errors. Wherever such meetings have been held they have proved so interesting that other meetings have followed, and In a number of places permanent organ izations have been formed for the pur pose of holding monthly or annual meetings. JJooneville, Holly Springs, West Point and other places have such organizations, and the annual meeting of the "Fitron's Union" at Lake, in Newton County, has been for many years one of the largest meetings of the kind held in the United States. Such meetings should bo held in every county in tho State, and now is the time to arrange for them. Red Clover. Until recently it has been thought that red clover could not be grown in the Southern States, but our experience has been that on suitable soils and with proper management it will grow fully as woll here as in any of the Northern States, and that, while it does not last as long here, its yield is heavier, and on account of its more rapid growth, the quality of hay is better. At the Missis sippi Station on rich creek bottom and on black prairie soils it has given ex cellent results, making two tons of hay per acre in May, another ton in June, and in favorable seasons another ton in September, though the last cutting has been unreliable on account of summer droughts. Whore such yields can be made it is one of the best crops which can ba grown, but there are many lo calities in the South where it has not been found profitable. It requires a soil which is rich and in fairly good condition to secure a "catch" of the seed, and on many soils where it makes a promising start and yields two or three cuttings it soonobecomes overrun with the native grasses and is choked out. Ordinarily it will not pay to grow it more than two years on the same ground, as by tho ond of that time it will have dono its best work in fertiliz ing the soil, and tho land will give bet ter returns if tho last crop of clover is plowed under and the Held planted to some other crop. As the plants produce seed abundantly here and aro not in fested with the insects which have re cently caused so much damage to the crop in the Northern States, there seems to be no reason why the seed crop should not become of considerable importance. lied clover is a universally recognized standard in estimating tho values of all other crops, when grown either for bay or as a green manure, and we have made special e fforts to test it on as great a variety of soils as possible, and do not hesitate to recommend it for all rich soils which are in good mechanical con dition; but it is useless to sow it on bar ren fields, or on rough and poorly pre pared lands of any kind. It seems best suited for growth on alluvial and black prairie soils, and has never been satis factory on sandy or white lime lands. August sowings have given the best satisfaction, as the plants from such sowings are sufficiently strong to keep down any growth of wild grassos and weeds the next spring, and will give a heavy cutting of hay in May. If sown in February, the more common time, the first cutting will bo principally of volun teer grasses, but tho elovor will give two good cuttings later. Sowing with oats in February is often successful, but the clover is often injured by cut ting tbo oats, thus removing the shade just at the beginning of the hot weather. Glanders. ' There have been several outbreaks of glanders in different parts of Mississippi during the last six months and the dis ease is so highly contagious and so fatal that the veterinarian of the Experiment Station has issued a bulletin on the sub ject, in which be says that there is no medical treatment which can be recom mended, and that it is moro than doubt ful if any cases cnllroly recover, there for the danger of spreading the disease, and tbe expense incurred by an attempt at treatment mJr than out-welgh tbe value of tbe so-railed recovered cases. At present there is a Stat law wbicb says that all horstrs diseased with glan ders shall be destroyed, but tbe respon sibility of atoning it reals upon no person in partienfar, and moreover, there is no feteriVMriaa in tbe Stat whose duty it is to diagnose aocb caaea. Hence until proper pro vision ia made by the State for effectually dealing with contagions and infection diaeaaes, every borse suspected of baviag glan ders should be taken charge of by tbe local authorities of tbe towntbip in which tbe case occurs. Tbe nearest competent veterinarian should be called and his diagnosis promptly acted upon. There is but one correct method of dealing wiib this dissase. That is to slaughter and burn, or bury deeply, all diseased ah i reals, and, as far as possible, disinfect everything with which tbey have coirw in contact. All doubtful ma and that that bave been "ax posed" to the disease should bo quaran tined until a positive diagnosis can be made and the same precautions in tbe way of disinfecting rigidly observed. The question of disinfection in such cases is one of great importance, not only from the standpoint of preventing the spread of the disease, but also on account of the actual cost of tbe pro cedure in each case. Tho point to be aimed at is thorough safety at the least possible outlay of money and labor. As before stated, all diseased animals should be slaughtered, and either burned or buried deeply. If the former method is pursued, considerable wood or other inflammable substance must be used or complete combuston of the body will not take place. The method of burying deeply is more practical under tbe conditions surrounding the average case. In addition to being a less ex pensive method it is equally effectual if performed with ordinary care. No part of the body should be less than four feet under the ground and all blood, or discharge of any nature, which may have been scattered about should also be buried. If additional precautions are thought desirable all horses may be kept away from tbe place of burial for two months. Where a positive diagnosis -is impos sible all suspected cases should be rigidly quarantined. To do this the animals must be placed in confinement and never allowed 'to leave the place until something definite can be ascer tained as to the nature of the disease. All refuse matter from these horses should be kept from other animals and thoroughly disinfected by mixing with slacked lime or some other cheap dis infectant. Yater buckets and other utensils used in the care of these sus pected animals should not be used for any other purpose. Tho attendant should not handle other horses without thoroughly disinfecting his hands or other parts of his person or clothing that may have come in contact with tho suspected animals. Horses known to have been exposed to the action of the virus of glanders should be quarantined in exactly tho same manner as prescribed for thedoubt ful cases until sufficient time has elapsed to ascertained positively whether they havo become infected. Just the exact timo that it is necessary to quarantine those cases is perhaps largely a matter of opinion, but a quarantine of less than sixty days is of very doubtful utility. Tho disinfoct'on of all utensils, stables and otler places and articles with which glanderod or suspected horses havo come in contact should bo carried out as follows: All feed boxes, mangers, etc., should be removed and burned. The floors, walls and other portions remaining sbould bo thoroughly scrubbed with a lolling solution of corrosive sublimate 1 part of corrosivo sublimate to 1,000 parts of water or a solution of carlolic acid t pui't of u.l', a 0 jl wf.vH. When this has been done and the stablo allow, d to dry for thirty days it should bo thoroughly whitewashed and allowed to dry for two weeks longer. Tho feed boxes, mangers, etc., may now bo re placed with new ones and the staple oc cupied with perfect safety. All water ing places and articles of every de scription that liiive been used for horses affected with glanders should be thoroughly scrubbed with a boiling so lution of corrosive sublimate or ' car bolic acid as described above and not used again for thirty days. If the meas ure herein recommended bo fully adopt ed and rigidly carried out any and all outbreaks of the isease may be thoroughly controlled. Deep or Shallow Cultivation. Bulletin No. 'M vf tbe Mississippi Station ijaT''Wt!!SB'Jmr "Comparisons of dep fclil shallow cultivation have been made diring four years, and the results, with a single slight exception, have invariibly been in favor of the moro shallow vork. In all of this work ve have used Uternato plots In tbe samei'lelds. nsudly three plots for each platT ot work, anl all tbe plots each yea? wore cultivated ,he same number of times and on the sane days. In all cases the Iflrst cultivation was given to all tbe plots with a Thomas smoothing barrow' just as the orn waa coming up, and the'second cultvatlon was also tbe same for both, aid con sisted in 'barring off' with a om-horse moldboard plow, af'ler wbicb tin plots were hoed and ;himnd to a stand. Where deep cultivation waa folowtd tbe after cultivation (ws dono vith a bull-tongu when the gronnd waihard, and with a double abovel or a weep whan it waa more mellow, the fcject being to atir tbe soil at least four iba in depth. At each working aftei the barring off the soil waa brown tords the rows. Where shallow citlturcwaa followed all the oorlta$ion aftertbe first plowing was donej with a , ve toothed cultivator wbicb seldom los ened mora than two inches oftbeur face aoil. No attempt 'was mad to throw the aoil toward the rows, nd tbe whole surface waa kept iota and level as was possible. x I "A great amount of similar worh boon done at other stations, and 'in early every case the results secoid have been tbe same as barf. We hie examined the retards of 116 such tests made at thirteen stations and find that sixty-one tests of deep cultivation gave an average yield of 64.9 bushels per acre, while fifty-five tests of shallow cultivation gave an average of 74.7 bushels, a difference of tf.8 bushels per acre, or more than fifteen per cent, in favor of shallow cultivation. In only five eases out of the entire number did the deep culture show tbe better re sults. "Such a uniformity in results secured Jrom so large a number of tests at so many stations is not accidental, and during tbe last four years we have fol lowed the shallow culture systom for our general crop. The ground is plowed as deeply as possible before planting, but after the crop begins to grow the roots are disturbed as little as possible." Traps for Boll Worm Moths. , P. J. King, Mound Landing, Miss., writes as follows: "As there is some uneasiness of tbe boll worm making its appearance again this season, I write to know if you have ever experimented with lamps to de stroy the moths, and if so what kind of lamp is best adapted for this work." Kkpi.y. All tbe experiments which we have made in the direction indicated have shown that it is perfectly useless to put out lights in the cotton fields either for the boll worm moths or the cotton leaf worm moths. In fact the lights in the fields do much more harm than good. To be sure great many in sects are attracted to tbe lights and killed by means of the usual kerosene pan, yet among the lot thus killed thero are but few boll worm moths, and theso few are almost always females which have finished laying their eggs. Many of tho insects killed by the lights are insects which prey upon the boll worms, or are parasites of them, so that the lights kill upon the whole more bene ficial species than injurious ones. SAW FOR HIMSELF. Mr. Dowrtle Visits Mexico and Sees the Effects of Cheap Money. Meridian News. Through the courtesy of Col. H, M. Street, The News has been per mitted to give to its readers the following letter from Mr. J. R. Dowdle. of this place, who is now sojourning in Mexico, a country that affords a snlendid illustration of the effects of the free cohingi! of silver. This letter is commended to those whe, like Mr. Dowdle be fore liis trip into Mexico, are not fully satisfied about this grout question, and who honestly wish to be led into the ways of truth. The laboring people, especially, will find here food for reflection, find . tnrwn whose . mlt i-orlo yon, l whose daily bread for themselves j and wives and little ones are eo greatly involved, will hardly be' clisprsed to pin their faith to the .ieachments of the free silver ad vocates when the facts are so en ti rely at variance with the theories advanced by their. Head Mr. Dowdle's letter: Moxtehky, X. L., .Tun 8. ISO."). Col II M Street. Meridian, Miss.; Dkah Sut: You will t'oubtless remember that you requested me to join a sound money league, which I decided not to do, pending further investigation . As f ou will observe from the hcading'of this lttUr, I am now in the Republic of Mexico, where free coinage of sil- cr ralgns supreme, and have an obied k'Sson Mhich I shali not for gvf, 0'cir.inon (Ly-lafcrei's' wnjres are are Vtfy iuwrarging fr0m 37 ' to 75 cents a clnj in Mexican mon ey, and it take one dollor and eighty-five cents of this money fo get one dollar of ours. Wif hiugrto purchass n negligee sliftt, I ttas shown oMft worth about one (Mlflr in Meridian. The price hen? nve dollars. . The people are anxious for the i':i.i ... . I viihcu ouues 10 adopt iree coinage at 16 to, hoping it will benefit Mexico, but intelligent people here from the States admit it will not benefit tw to do so. Before "ounno here I heard it eaid that Mexico was the most in America; I do not find it so. I now auiiwme you to sign my name to the sound money roll. Youis truly, J. R. Dowdlk. . Two foi ffig- For the advantage of those who desire to take Thk Du kant IlKkAi.rand the Kosci usko Star we offer both pa persforTwo Dollars, which is only 50 cents more than the subscription price of each. In Poor Health means so much more than ryou imagine serious and iatal diseases result frorrH r tniiing ailments neglected. r Don't play with Nature's r greatest gift health. "youirefeelin. out of sortj,wM and generally e. nausied, nervous J tlavi. ma .... ... W r . w" ' worn, j big the most Telia, ble strengthening mediciiie.whichu Brown's imn n;. ters. A few bot. ties cure-bene6t comes from the very first dose-a ' JH1M yn- im,tl. ...A vr. , I I s pleasant to trie. It Cures Dv.cDeDsia. Kldnev and I x,Mm M Neil ml?, a Trnnklaa Constipation, Bad Blood a Mala! KItt..K... vi r iiiuiui iu iici viiii Mill-nan a " - wailalVlllA Women's complaints. fat nnll!.......:H. 1. , . .....y . ,"- :i nas crossed red f "lies on the vraow .ill others ar sub- i ii uies. u.. recc:,.t 01 two c. stamp, we P will send set ot Ten Beautiful World s I Fair View .nut honk In. w W ORANGE BLOSSOM. Is the famous remedy of Dr. Jno. A, McGill, for all diseases peculiar to ladies: It is the one natural cure for female troubles because it is applied right to the diseased parts. It is as safe and harmless as a flax seed poultice, the first applicat ion drawing out fever and soreness and stopping at once those distress ing pains from which so many women suffer. Don't take internal remedies for female weakness! Common sense re quires a direct application to cure leucorrhcea, ulceration, profuse and difficult menstruation, inflammation, congestion, falling and dropsy of the womb, ovarian and fibroid tumors, kceration of cervix, and all diseases of these organs. Every lady can treat herself with Orange Blossom, Send your address to Dr. J.A McUtll & Co., 2&4 Hubbard gdurt, Chicago, Ills, for a free sample, and a book giving tut directions for home treatment. SOLD RY ALL DRUCCISTS. JOURNEY &KIMER Leading Ll id Koscinsnr, Miss. Ci:::;',::!; ikii! Drummer's Trade a Specialty Tht comparativtvatue ofthnatwociti t It known to moit person. They llluitrate that greater fuant3t7i. Not always most to be dsirX. .'. These cards express the beneno"1 lty of RipansTabules As compared with any previously kaovrt DYSPEPSIA CURB. a a Alpsot TaKules : Price, 3 ,nt ' b Of druggists, or by mail. MNNS CHEMICAL CO.. 19 ' Rtmwn I Iron Bitters Y i i m i A