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HlSSISSIPn EXPERIMENT STATICS.
Notes lor August, 1895. The bulletins and reports of tlie Station are sent, free of charge, to all farmers in Mississippi who apply for them. 8. M. Tracy, Director. Agricultural College, Miss. Breaking Sod Land. About one-half of our injurious insects spend a part of their lives in the soil either as larva or pupa', and although they are present in the soil at all .sea sons, they are by far the roost common during the fall and winter. Many spe cies that exist in summer, as catterpil lars of various kinds, go into the soil as pup in autumn and spend the winter in a dormant condition and in the spring batch into the mature insects. Many species that injure growing crops in the mature state are injurious to the roots of grasses in their earlier conditions of life, and some species which are normally in jurious to grasses may become also in jurious to some cultivated itod when the grass land is broken up and other crops planted. As an illustration of this last we may mention the "corn stalk eater," a beetle which did considerable damage in Adams County in May of this year. Many com munications from the vicinity of Natchez indicated much damage being one by a beetle which is normally not injurious to corn, but is injurious to the roots of grasses upon which the larva feed. Investigation developed the fact that the lands where the beetle did the most damage had been in pasture the ear preceding, and that these lands are jaot broken until about the time of the planting of the corn. Last year the nia Jure beetles, had been attracted to the pasture by the droppings of the cattle nd had laid a largo number of eggs in Iho sod. These eggs hatched into grubs which worked upon the grass roots and Ibe grubs became mature beetles about Hie time the fields were plowed. Hut as the corn was planted in the fields already infested with the insects, the latter fed upon the corn as it was the snljr thing present in the fields. This illustration points to the fact Shut it is very important that all sod land should be thoroughly broken in ibe fall as this will destroy the food plants of many of our injurious ip"ct9 besides exposing them to tha s , , . . , . . iirface to toe destroyed by the chan"- .... r .i ' .. ng conditions ! the weather or to v- ... , ,. , . ..) picked up by the birds. In many- . ' .., 4, , ,' casijs to wait until the insects have r , . , , . . , ..ogun work is too late to apply a retnc n . , !rJ ay. A preventive is better ihan a rente ... A ih h"" ' y nearly overy case, and . .idtcingupcf sod land in the fall .a excellent remedy for many insects, tspecially those injurious to corn. Throughout the North it is and should lie a common practice to plow in the fall; the land is more thoroughly broken up and in better condition for planting in the spring. While the same condi tions so far as thu advantages of fall plowing occur in the South, yet the land washes more readily here and steps should be taken to prevent this. So that while it probably does not pay to plow in the fail as a rule in the South, yet this should be done in the case of sod, as the sod will largely prevent wash ing. This year in Mississippi more com plaint was heard regarding cut-worms 3a perhaps all other insects combined. These insects are the larvaaof night-fly-iirj moths which lay tbeir eggs at the roots of grasses. The cut-worms bo corny full grown in early spring and do considerable damage in gardens. They are always the most numerous on land jibivh has bitd considerable grass upon it the preceding season, Fall plowing n ill expose tho worms as well as destroy the f;))d pla-.it, and in this way much of he damage ordinarily caused by these tan bo prevented. ground. We use ten pounds of seed per acre, thus making one bushel cover six acres. Six pounds would be sufficient provided we could be sure thatall would grow, but it is better to loso a little soed than to have an uneven stand, and so we use the larger amount. The seed is sowed immediately after tho ground is harrowed, and is then covered at once by usingahoavy roller oralightsmooth ing harrow. We prefer tho roller, espe cially for fall work, as it presses tho soil about the seeds so that there is less danger from drying out, and the seeds usually begin to grow at once. With favorable rains soon after tho seed is sowed there is no troublo in securing a full stand, and by the time frost comes the clover will bo three or four inches high. Of course crab-grass and weeds will grow with the clover, but as these are all killed by the first heavy frost the clover is left clean for a vigorous growth as soon as warm weather comes, and is then so strong that any weed seeds which may still be in tho soil will bo so shaded that they will not grow, and tho clover alone will cover the ground. ISy the middle of May the clover will be ready for cutting, and should yield from two to two and a half tons per acre. By the middle of July it will be ready for cutting again, and if the season has been dry it will probably be worth more for seed than for hay, but if the spring has been wet the hay crop will be heavy. If tho second cutting is followed by seasonable rains, a third cutting will be ready in October, and this last cutting will usually be so uneven that it will bo worth more for hay than for soed. If the ground is to be plowed the next year it is better to pasture this third crop than to cut it, as it makes the very best of feed at a time when other pastures aro becoming short and dry. If, however, tho clover has a good stand, and is doing well, it will bo better to cut the third crop and so leave the ground clear for another crop the next year. We now have one field which has beon in clover three yoars, and which has made a better yield this year than ever before. Another field which had been in clovor two years was plowed in the fall of lSlW, and in lS'Jl produced seventy-six bushels cf corn por acre. Fertilizer iiisyootioii. Bulletin No. 8 by the State chemist, which is,now in press, will show the re sults of inspection of fertilizers for tho past season. The work embraces the inspection and analysis of all brands sold in the State, making about twenty analyses of each of the brands. All of the samples are found to be above the value guarante d by the manufacturer. Since the inauguration of the work in the State there has boen a very material increase in the value of the goods placed on the market! as is shown by a compari son of Bulletins 2 and 8 when values are calculated on the same basis. From a comparison of these two bulletins we find this increase to amount to an aver age of about one dollar per ton for each brand, or about five per cent, of the value of the goods. The average of the relative values of all the analyses of oach of the principal brands for tho past season is given in the following table. The results are calculated on the basis of $2.50 por unit for nitrogen, $1.10 por unit for water soluble phosphoric acid, $1.00 per unit for citrate soluble phosphoric acid, and 81.00 per unit for potash, twenty pounds, or one per cent, in a ton boittg a unit: lielative Value 1'er Ton. Fruit and Vegetable $ f3 Brown's Cotton and Corn Home Mixture Mobile standard Uuano.. Hed KUr lirand Norma riel Hoyal (J. lirand. Red Clovor. fled clover is being grown moro largely each year and is rapidly be coming o!ie of the standard bay crops of tho northern and central parts cf the Slate. For the black prairie regions, and for the bel ter class of lands in all parts of the St'iie, it is undoubtedly one vf the best paying crops which can be rpAvn, as it yields well, the bay com 'iarids n rjtiick sale at good prices, and its fertil.tng effect on the soil fully f'.vys the cost of the crop. At tho Ex jioriavnt Station it has given an average ) ieid of over throo tons per acre, and a large part of the hay has been sold at '.he bam for from ten to twelve dollars j'fr ton. iWiavu found late in Augustor early jr September the best titno for sowing the seed, though equally good stands lave been secured by sowing in February or March. When sown in the f;ll, a full crop is secured the following M:y. while if sown in tho spring it more than a year before a full cuttt'ijf i secured. For fall sowing we preft-i 1 ri d from which oats or some other early crop has boen harvested, and we have good success from sowing tn land which had been used for corn, iut it requires too much labor to put corn ground in good condition to make thatpraetici -enerally profitable. What ever land mvV bo used, It must be iilowed and harrowed until the surface 33 a,s smooth and mellow' as possible, as bu V'ed never jL'nuirvUes. wolion roas, 18 51) is 03 IS S4 17 40 17 14 17 U Producer 17 04 (iround Hone 17 00 llHt Ouano l 07 Cliieatro Bone Hi 93 K. K. K lti H9 1'laulers' Cotton and Corn 16 tw Champion Farmers' Choice lti 1 Eclipse Soluble (i uano 16 firt Hternes Kaw Bone Super Phosphate 16 19 Blood Bone ami B 16 is Gulf State Guano is 7s C. 0. liraud 15 57 Hairy Vetch. The "Hairy Vetch" has been grown at the Station for seven years, and dur ing the last two years has been tested by a large number of farmers in differ ent parts of the State. On all heavy soils, whether clay or prairie, it has done well and given excellent crops. but on sandy lands, even when well fertilized.it has not been satisfactory. The Station grew about ten acres of the plant this year, and the seed Is being distributed for still further trials dur ing the coming year. It is, practically, a winter growing pea vine, and its greatest value is in its early upring growth, wblcb yields good grazing before other panture plants have commenced their growth. The seed should bn sown in August, or in Seotember at the latest. We usually sow broadcast and cover with a light harrow, but have secured good erops by sowing broadcast among growing pea vines and trusting to the rains and fall lng leaves foroovering. The seeds will begin to grow as soon as the fill rains begin, but until about the first of Jan uary their growth is very weak and un promising. With the II rat warm weather in January the plants tak a stronger growth, and will often give good graz ing in February, and last until about the first of Mav, whon other fd he- comes prentlful. I: not pastured the plants make slender and straggling vines ten to twelve feet in length, and on good soil will make a dens mass of forage two feet deep. As they grow very rapidly from February to May they will bear heavy pasturing during tlio.e months, and so are of special value to dairymen. Tho plants begin to bloom in April, and if the samo ground is to bo used for vetch the next year, stock should then bo taken oil to give tho seed an opportunity to mature. The plant is an annual, and disappears dur ing the summer, but as it r-seeds the ground freely it does not need to be planted a second time, though it can never bocome a troublesome weed, as it does not grow well in sod. If it is not convenient to thresh and clean the seed other fields may be seeded by cutting tho plants as soon as the seed is ripe and scattering them over the new fields For the first sowing the ground should be well prepared, but after one crop bas been grown no further plowing is needed for several years. The Sta tion now has one field which was seeded in 1 SS0, and which has not been plowed since, bjt which made an excellent yieid last spring. For pastures it is fully equal to pea vines, and its fertiliz ing effect on tho soil is about the same. It also makes hay of the very best quality. It is difficult to save the seed in a marketable condition, and they are now sold at rather high prices, but it is easy to save them for homo use by cut ting the vines as soon as they aro ripo, and so only a few need be purchased for a start. The Station has a few of tho soed, which will be distributed free. Wheat. That wheat can be grown successfully in Mississippi has been shown very con clusively by the results of four years of work at the Experinien Station. Since a large number of varieties have beon tested, and many of them have been sowed on several different kinds of soil so as to make the tests of the best varieties as thorough as possible. The average yield on good land for tho four years has been nearly twenty-two bush els por acre, which is fully equal to that in tli o treat wheat-growing region of the West. .Kirlj ripening varioties have Invaria bly ,;iv n thebe11'1' and have al" most i niformly been fWS'frfV" . tho ftt" tack' of rust and blight which h..." been very injurious to all the late ripon- inr -crts. No marked difference in yield has been found between the smooth and tho bearded, or between the white and the red varieties, and the common "Purple Straw" and "Bed May" aro among the best of the varieties tested. The host yields havo been made on black prairie soil, though tho rich croek bottom lands in other sections have done nearly as well. On thin clay up lands the crop has been almost a failure. As wheat is a winter-growing crop which can be harvested and takon off the land in time for planting late corn, cow peas, or red clovor, a profitable crop can often be grown on land which would otherwise bo idle. It can be sown in October, or even as late as November, and can be takon of! the ground by the first of June, so that it can be grown betweon two crops of corn. During the last year the price has been unusually low, but In the West many farmers havo found it one of tho bust and cheap est stock foods which could bo grown, and it is especially valuable as a food for growing hogs. Last winter consid erable quantities of it were shipped into this State for use in feeding hogs, and if the price does not increase more than we now have any reason to expect, still more will bo used for that purpose during the coming winter. It makes excellent winter pasture, and when the land is not needed for other purposes from October to May a crop of wheat will nearly always give a good return on iu cost. Grapes. The vineyard of the Experiment Sta tion contains nearly two hundred varie ties of grapes, of which about one hun dred and fifty bore fruit this year. Among so many kinds there has been found a wide difference in value, but so many of the varieties havo made such a vigorous growth, and have produced such heavy crops each year that the possibility of growing grapes here with tho highest success has been fully demonstrated. Several varieties have yielded more than fifty pounds of fruit to each vine, and some vines have pro duced from four to six pounds each in eighteen months from the time tbey were planted. But few have been seri ously affected by any disease, and In sects have given very littl- trouble. Among those which have given the heaviest yield have been the Cham plon, I ves, Perkins, Ilorbetnont, Con cord, Triumph, and Delaware. The earlier ripening sorts are Champion, Goldstein, Moyer, Moore's Early, Nor folk, and Early Market; while among the late ripfning sorts are Jefferson, Gold Coin, Mrs. Munson, Ilerhomont, Triumph, Carman, and Norton. Among those best in quality are Brighton, Duchess, Nectar, Gold Coin, Empire State, Herbemont, Delaware, and Moyer. While nearly every variety In the vineyard bas something to recommend It, nearly all have their weak points also. Minv of the sorts which give If uU oT ITS -jesT q"G:r.' a?-4 so n In growth, or so liable to divnf, as to be almost worthless for uenera! cuiti na tion, wh'ie many of th strong, r grow ing and liner appearing sorts ptvduc; very insipid fruit. Taking all things into consideration, probably tho best varieties to grow for home use, where the vines are to receive no special at tention, and the fruit is not to bo mar keted, ar Concord, D-'lawar", Ives, l'erkins, Niagara, (told Coin, Mrs. Mun son, and llertieniont. The Southern Farm OazottD. Those interested in progressive agri culture will welcome tb appearance of a new paper devoted to general agricul ture, which will be established at Starkville, Miss., in the near future. The editor will be Mr. Edwin Mont gomery, who made such a success of the Southern Live Stock Journal in its early history. There is no better writer on general agriculture and stock raising in the South "than Mr. Montgomery, and with the business management which the paper will receive a live, up-to-date paper is assured. It will be a neat, six teen page weekly, and cannot fail to take a prominent part, right from the first, in the development of the agri cultural interests of Louisiana, Ala bama and Mississippi. The new paper should receive a liberal support from the Gulf States at least, as it will sup ply the greatest present need of the ag ricultural interests of that section. The Cotton-Leaf Worm. This insect is now quite a stranger in this State, but a few reports have been received of its presence in small num bers in Warron County. It is easily de stroyed with paris green applied in a dry form by attaching osnaburg bags at the ends of a six-foot pole. It is now too late, however, for this insect to do any marked damage, and as the cotton plants have grown quite rank owing to exces sive moisture, the worms will do good in getting rid of some of the leaves and letting in the sunlight. III J Poor i Health means so much m you imagine--serioJ tatal disease t..t. .i trifling aflmertsnerift. Don't play ith tf scai gut health "wiumJ a53 TV i Brown's TtVT1 nun (Bitters j !fflsS hive m 3 van i Die ifri "Micim.rt. very in, V W'f fa". It Cures Dv$tensfa ya.. ... . I m m r F "wuiisy Mfl II' irourjies. Constipation, Bad Blood 4 --- Mervnui n-.f Women's complainti) n :t only the sreiiuine-ithajmJ ' liars on the vrarwr MahZZ will send set of ten BeauSriSv BROWN CHEMICAL CO. BALTIMOltf Subscribe Grandest O pportiinity of vYoarXifc- irai i tie im in :. A Paradise of Bargain; Cost of goods not considere The sales are what we want y3, ilt-C,t Hi J.';;S v..ii, We want to close out our enti stock of summer goods regardlJ of cost, and you will find it toyo interest to pwimine our eoodsW fore buying elsewhere. 1 S. ABRAHAM & G Pbm iiiiiiaiaiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiu HOTEL TROLIO SALOON T CANTON, ieM IRiVlVK ORSI, Proj)r .$1 Mpf . l $ " ' It (I Murry Hill Club, bottled by dintille-ry, per qt W. II. McRrayer O. F. C. Whisky Old Oscar Pepper Old Kentucky Taylor". Maryland Club-Bourbon James E. Pepper Old Crow Belle of Anderson Beech Fork, sour mash Rook wood, sour mash Lincoln County Ky. Jack, bo'bon or rye Pure white corn whisky Blackberry, Sweet Catawba, Souperii"n .r. . Rock and Rye, Peach end Honey i. . Holland Gin. . Brandies of nil kinds Imported Ale and Fortar Budweieer and Scblitz ! 1W i Promptani carof ultUu ' 1 1