Newspaper Page Text
Sotei for October, 18")5.
The bulletins and reports ot Uip station r sent, free of chartc to all farmers in Miisissippl wlio apply for tliciu. 8. M. Tracy. Director. Agricultural College, Miss. Tile Draining. During the last three months the Sta tion has been in receipt of an unusually large number of letters in regard to the cost and effects of tile drains. As the matter is one which seems to bo attract ing increased attention, we give the fol lowing somewhat lengthy record of the work which has been done in that line at the Station: The first field in which tile was laid was a creek bottom of which the upper soil was composed almost wholly of washings from the adjacent hills, while the subsoil was a Tory heavy, waxey black soil, which was so retontive of water that it was impossible to work the land until very late in the spring1. The surface soil crusted quickly and often this crust would become so hard that a mule could walk over it in some places, but would occasionally break through the crust into a foot or more of mud. On such a soil of course it was impossible to secure a full stand of plants or to do satisfactory cultivation. The field was planted to corn in 1888, and although it had received a heavy application of stable manure, yielded only twenty-two bushels per acre. Tile was laid in the spring of 1880, the dis tance between the drains being from forty to fifty feet and the average depth three and one-half feet. During that year but little improvement was seen in the condition of the field, but in the spring of 1800 the eifect of the drains was very apparent in the bottered con dition of the soil, which was dry enough lor working fully two weeks earlier than in previous years. The wet "sour" spots had entirely disappeared, tho soil was more easily worked than ever be fore, and a full stand of cotton was se cured without trouble. The improve ment in the condition of tho soil has continued up to this time, and the field is now ono of tho most easily managed on the place. In is:u tile was laid in a field of black prairie soil, which bad been in cotton the previous season, when it yielded only one hundred and thirty-six pounds of lint por acre. In IN'.U the field was sowed in wheat, wl.icb grew well, was unusually free from rust, and which made an average yield of nearly twenty bushels per acre. In the spring of ISO;!, two years after laying the tile, the ground became dry enough for working as early as was a rich sandy loam in an adjoining field, and waH planted with corn on March 17, when the soil wag dry and in excellent condition for work. Tho field received an application of live hundred pounds of kaiuit per acre, which was spread broadcast and har rowed in on the day before the corn was planted. A perfect stand was secured, and at no time during the season did the ground remain wet so long that cul tivation could not be given whenever needed, and the yield was sixty-two and one-third bushels of shelled corn per acre. The corn was gathered ia August, and the stalks hauled off, after which the field was plowed and sowed to red clover on August 28. The clover also made a full stand and made. over three tons per acre, and the soil in that field is now as mellow and as easily worked as any on the farm. The third field in which tile was laid was a stiff yellow clay underlaid with an almost impervious "hard pan" which kept wator standing in every depres sion during tho spring and after heavy rains, while crops suffered severely from even short drouths. Tile was laid through the field in 1800, the lines being from fifty to sixty feet apart, and care being taken to have them run through the depressions and the places where tho hard pan camo nearest the surface. This field is near tho barn and for many years it had received liberal supplies of stable manure, but had never produced satisfactory crops from the fact that it was so hard that itcould be plowed only four or five inches deep, it was never in condition for workin? until very late in the season, and drouth affected it more severely than than any other land on the placo. During the four seasons since tho tile was laid thero has been a constant improvement in the condition of the field. Each sea son it has been worked earlier in the spring, has boon plowed deeper, has suf fered less from drouth, is ready to work very soon after heavy rains. Another field in which tile was laid was a long creek bottom, with a rich Handy loam soil, which was kept very wet until late in tho season by tho seeping of water from the adjacent wet clay hills, in which there were sovoral v.ot wnather springs. The only drain age needed fur this Hold was to cut off the Keep water from the hills, which was accomplished by running asinglo line of tile at tho foot of tho hill and parallel with it to catch and carry oSf the seep water which would otherwise bavo to soak through the level land at the foot of tho slope until it reached an open ditch in the middlo of the field. This drain has been as satisfactory as have boeathe others, carrying off all the seep from the bill's and leaving the bottom field in condition for work fully two weeks earlier than before the tile was laid. Several other fields have been drained and the work bas been equally success ful in all. When the drains have been less than five hundred feet in length wo have found three-inch tile ample for draining the ground quickly and thoroughly, but for longer runs we have found it neces sary to use four-inch for the lower part of the drains, and this has been of suf ficient size for the extremities of the loncrest runs, about a uuarter of a mile The tile have beon put into tho ground to an average depth of throe and one- half feet and the expense of the work, including the cost of tile, digging the ditches, laying and covering the tile has beon fifty-one cents per running rod. Threo-inch tile have cost, includ ing freight, about S1S.00 per thousand feet, which is nearly three times the cost of such tile in Illinois and other Northern States. AWiost any clay which will make good brick will make good tile. The demand for tile is con stantly increasing, fully one-half the lands in the state would be irreatlv im proved by its use, and could it bo bad at the same prices as in the North. thousands of miles would bo laid in tho next five years. Wo have tried soveral other mothods for draining land, but none has been so satisfactory as is the use of tile. Urush drains work well for a few yoars, but as their construe won requires tne digging of a very large ditch they aro expensive, and they last but a few years. Drains made with plank cost fully as much as do tila drains, and those made by laying three poles or rails in the bottom of the ditch are but little cheaper. Open ditches take too much land, require too much worn in their care, and are too incon venient in cultivating and harvesting the crop, to be used except for main drains in the middle of a field. Thorough draining with tile will often cost as much as the present worth of the land, but when tho work is onco properly done, it is done forever. The Station fields which have been tile drained havo increasod their annual yield fully fifty per cent as a result of tho work, and such drains will bo found a profitable investment on all soils which remain wot until late in tho spring on account of their compact sub soil, or which aro rendered heavy and "sour" by continued seenam from nr- ronnding bill lands. There is scarcely a plani.Hiioii in the .Stale which would not be benefited by the uso of tile on at least some part of it, though we do not think it would be advisable for Missis sippi planters to practice th thorough drainage of all fields which is so often seen in Illinois and Indiana. Here it i3 rarely needed except on very low spots and for seepy hillsides. Insect Parasites. The entomologist often receives va rious caterpillars upon the back of which occur small silken cocoons such as is shown in figure 1. There are cer tain small insects which livo'cither upon or within other inseots, and these are known as parasites, and even an in sect which lives parasitic upon another may have a smaller species living upon it as a parasito, and in this case tho last named is known as the secondary para site. All Insects have their enemies and tho parasites play a very important role in keeping some of our injurious species within certain limits. Tho illustration given is that of tho tomato worm upon wlioli aro maay cocoons of a parasito. When tho tomato worms are young a small parasito often lays its eggs upon the worms. These eggs hatch into maggots which eat into the worms, and by tho time tho latter are full grown tho maggots have become mature, and form the cocoons along the back of the worm. Tho larvtu of the parasites eat the body of the worms b much that the latter dio instead of hatching into moths as would have boe tho case were it not for the action of the parasites. Tho cocoons produce para sites similar to tho one which laid the eggs in the worms in tho first placo. Wo do not know just bow much good these parasites do in controlling the number of insects. They cortainlrdoi " immense good in keoplng some injurious insects within certain limits, as were it. not for tbem there, would in many cases , Flfjure 1. be no check to tho increase of many species. Tho reason some insects are more numerous in certain years than in others is due in a large measuro to the action of the parasites. In years when an insect is numerous its parasites havo plenty to feed on, and ibis will cause an increase of the parasites, while in the next year, owing to the large number of parasites, but few of the host insect will reach maturity. Parasites never exterminata a species upon which they aro parasitic. They may lessen tho numbers of the host insect, but there are always a few which escapo attack, and these continue the race. II. E. W. Soil Analysis. It is frequently the caso that errone ous ideas prevail as to the value of soil inalysis in the selection of a fertilizer. A complete analysis of a plant and of tho soil on which it grew do not show, is is generally supposed, what kind and quantity of fertilizer would give the hest results with that particular crop an the soil in question. Tho ash ingredients of plants aro tho principal substances which they take from the soil. Analyses of tho as'u of plants, which havo grown on tho same soil, aro often very different. A hasty :onclusion drawn from this inirht bo that plants havo tho power of selecting from a soil just such food as is needed, while, as a matter of fact, plants have no power to resist taking up a certain amount of any soluble substanco which may como in contact with the roots un der favorable conditions; though it it does not uso such substances in tho building up of its tissues, a compara tively small amount will be taken in. Again: Iho chemist has, as yet, very limited ability to detormino what amount of tho different substances in the soil will be available to different crops, or oven to any special crop. Tho chemist can easily detormino what the sou is composed of, and tho total amounts of tho several substances pres ent; he can also determine tho total amount of ash in plants, and its compo sition; but tho character of tho fertil izers needed, as well as the amount which should bo applied, cannot bo de duced from those data. At present the best means of deter mining tho best fertilizer to be used is to try various combinations of tho dif ferent fertilizing materials, and differ ent quantities of each combination. Ihe cost of the fertilizer and tho in creased yield of the crop will indicate tho most economical combination and quantity. Tho results of field tests, which every farmer can mako for him self, should bo tho principal guide in the purchase and uso of fertilizers if the field experiments are prorjerlr planned and conducted with accuracy. Nothing succeeds like success," and nothing shows so well the most eco nomical fertilizer as the actual deter mination, by comparative tests, of that combination and quantity which gives the largest yield at the least cost. . W. L. II. Ho? Raisins. The Experiment Station has recently issued a bullotin on "Ilocr Raisin?" which should bo in tho hands of every stock-grower in the State. Tho rapidly increasing interest which isbointr taken in this branch of stock raising made tho demand for such a publication impera tive, a-!d the author. Dr. Uutler. has dono his work in a thoroughly practical manner. Tho first section of the bullotin pives a description of the most desirable form of an animal of the various broods, and also states the objectionable points which aro most frequently met with. Tho breeds described aro the Poland China, Herkshire, Chester White and Duroc-Jerseys. In this connection the score card adopted by the National As sociation of Expert Judges of Swine is given and oxplained. The selection of breeding stock is then discussed, tho great necessity for better animals being especially dwelt upon, while in the selection ot the boar "quality rather than quantity" is in sisted on. The "caro of tho boar" is given considerable spaco, and the neces sity for keeping him separated from the sows put forward as of first Imoortanca. In "tho management of thA limnil ur," a more liberal but judicious foedinc. to gether with better (are, are strongly urged. "Care of the pigs" somes in for considerable attention, and the main points made are that it will nay to rlve more attention to thorn while young, and to feed them more judiciously and liberally. The "feeding of breeding animals" is fully discussed, and a liberal ration of prain, plenty of clover or grass, and ex- eroiso nut forward as tlm nnini f special importance. It is insisted that early maturity cannot be maintained in the offspring unless the sire and dam havo matured early as a result of good caro and liberal feeding. The fdntinir section of the bulU-l.i " -j 'v iVbbVJi hygienic measures is urged, and tho worthlessness of "suro cures" is pointed out. Directions uro also triven fun venting tho introduction and spread of tho disease. The bulletin is now ready for distribution, and will bu to all w he desire it. Molos. A. J o w h c th c r ol oa a'rebpnellclal or injurious animals has, untir recently; been an open question. Some recent investigations, however, have shown that they are not only beneficial but tery much so. Their food consists al most entiroly of injurious insects, mainly of the white grubs. To be sure an occasional kernel of corn or bits of gra-s aro found in thoir stomachs, but these compose but a very small per cent u hi 7 v riRiiro x. of the contents of the stomachs. How ever, in lawns it is sometimes desirable to get rid of the moles owing to tho unsightly appearance made by their runs. The Station his tested several kinds of traps and other methods of destroying them, and finds traps of tho general nature of figtiro 2 aro the best for this purpose. Such a trap as the one shown is easily set just above the runs, and no mole can pass without being killed. It is an easy matter to kill two moles a day with ono of tho trap3, and considering that tho traps cost but a dollar, they are cer tainly useful. U. E. W. No cure, uo pay, that is the way Por tor's Antiseptic. Healing Oil is sold for Barbed Wire Cuts, Burns, Scratches, u racked Heel, Saddle Galls, Old Sores, and all kinds of iufiamations on man or beast. Trice 2oc. For sale by WE Brumby. TASTELESS IS JUST AS COOD FOB ADULTS. WARRANTED. PRICE 50 cts. f!ll iFH1. It n T. ... . Paris T.f adlrlao Co., m. iMir' v.nuii'rjtn:-v(o wild last Tear. CliO bottlM nf b,u.ht tlirco Rroso alrandy this yi-ur. In nil our v.x- nevnr Bold im i.rtu-lo tliuttrave nm li universal ualii. lucuuu U8 your Tunic V. r,i AU.Ni,y,i;AItR A CO. Coleman, Harvey & Bobv, W E Brum by, M TBoswcll, Kosciusko. JlrH JW !mmMD IK . 3 flavs froiiiT!hun!r! 4. 2 J -2 days from Kansas City. Un (Jet. 29 the Santa Fe Route will inaugurate new and strictly limited fit ht-class service to South ern California. The California Limited will len-e Chicago at G p m daily, reaching Lob Angeles in 3 days and San Francisco in 3 J days, a saving of half a day. Time from this station correspondingly leduced. Equipment will consist of supf rb new vestihuled Pullman nalace and chair car and dininsr car, through to Los Angeles without change. This will be the fastest and most luxurious service via any line to California. Another daily train will carrv thronirh iml 'Ida tlj and tourint sleeper to tfati Francis co and tourist sleepers to Los An- civs, un a i present. 10. F. SIPSON, Southern Pas. Agt.. Uox V.)'2. flhatta. nooga. Tenn., Cetarrh Cured health and nweet liroat'i rectored hv SIi-'Hi'b Catarrh Pn'inerfv. Price 00c'. Nnmtl injector Ircu. IjL' psa i First-Class Restaurant I have opened up a first-class Res. tuarant, where meals and lunch-' eswill be served at all hours of the day and night. Lunch, 10 to 15c Meals, 25c Fresh fish every day 1 1 MI You can't tell how ar a Frog can jump; F. S. DuBard Can tell you many things about Groceries that will prove more interesting. That's His Business. To our already complete stock we are adding all latest . Fancy Groceries, so that the good housewife, farmer, carpenter, and every one wanting anything in gro ceries will be able to find it by calling on hiin. Every thing your heart can wish for will be found with DuBard. Deal with him, he'll fairly treat you. ou will find it pays. A.IIOUSSELOT Hair cut, Shave, Shampoo, Etc., Done in a satisfactory manner. Geo, JStilloelc will be employed to assist nie. wit ii itoiu: The Greatest Hailroad in the World Under one Management. Travel by the GULF, COLORADO, AND SANTA FE RAILWAY, The Established Popular Texas Line, Unsurpassed equipment, quick tiinH low rates and all modern umnfor'H. Two Daily Trains Elegant Pullman Palace Buffet Sleep ing Cars on all trains and also free reelining chairs. The (iulf, Colorado and Santa Fe runs through the best portion of Texas, as it is the only line which pusses through on the Divide of the black waxv soil and the red sandv loam. If you are croinc to ClaineRville. Cip- hurne, McGregor, Temple, Milano, Drown wood. San Anwlo. Houston, Galveston and the famous Lampasas springs of Texas, be sure your ticket reads: OVER THE GULF, COLORADO AND SANTA FE RAILWAY. Lampasas Stirino-R is thp celebrated summer an1 winter Texas Health and PleasurA reiort Wintor TmiriklH tick ets to Lampasas at low rates and liberal iimus on sale a' all principal northern and Southeastern points. TlirntKrll ti..L'.tu liLuivma rilrckti. sleeping car berths ttnd oil traveling information promptly furnished on writing or verbal application to any Santa Fe Route Agent. W. 8. KEEN AX, O. r. A.. Galvestm, Texas. Free Medical Kefcrence Hook (64 pages) for men and women who are afflicted with any form of private diseases peculiar to their sox, errors of youth, contagious diseases, female troubles, etc., Send 2 two cent stamps to pay postage to the leading f specialists and physician in this country, Dr. Hatiuvay & Co., 83 St. Charles St., Masonic Temple Building, New Orleans, La. 9-27 I2t Dill