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7 i a .....I . .. ,- it OF OUR NATURAL, RESOURCES. HE present .awakening ot the national IV4 lljC-" cnscience 0n e subject of the waste 1'' Hi ot our natural resources is one ot tne wYbfzS most encouraging signs of the times; but in this, as in other great national awakesrfntfs, there is danger that the movement may never progress beyond the stage of discussion to that of practi cal effort. Until the necessary legislation is secured, it is well for Us to take an occasional review of the present conditions of waste, and point to the ultimate absolute de pletion of our resources which must inevitably ensue unless the strong arm of the law be called in to enforce remedial and preventive measures. We have before us a succiret review of the question by Dr. George F. Swain in a paper presented at the recent annual meeting of the National As sociation of Cotton Manufacturers, in which the subject is treated under the four heads of Forests, Water, Lands, and Minerals, says the Scientific American. At the present time the people of the United Stales use annually forty cubic feet of wood per acre, as an offset to which there is a natural growth ol only twelve cubic feet per acre. In answer to the question, whether it is neces sary for us to Uie three times what we produce, attention is invited to the fact that, while in (ha United States we use 262 cuhic feet per capita. Gcmany uses only 37, France 25, and Great Britain 1,4 cubic feet per capita. Forest fires, most of which are entirely preventable, have consumed since 1.870 an average of 50,000,000. acres of standing timber per -year' T here is much unnecessary wasie due to careless methods of logging and sawing. For each 1,000 feet of standing timber that are cuf down, only 320 feet are put to use. Tanning establishments bark the trees and leave there to die. The turpentine industry, also, results in a large annual destruction of timber. It is not to ba wondered at that in the last nine years theprice of yellow pine at the mill has increased 65 per cent. Natural gas is allowed to wast in many localities with out resjraint; and it is estimated that a sufficient amount is lost to light all the, cities in the United States having a population of over r 100,000. ' At this present, rate of use and waste all the known supplies of ntWal 'ga$ will be exhausted in 25 years. As for oil, if is. sufficient, to state that at this Dresent rate of increase the '.euopiy vvill be ex hausted before, the year 1950i,'('.hhfld''h there ' has been an improvement of about 50 'pecent in Our methods of THE MFBERENCE ? HINKING men throughout this nation have been contending for years that there is practically no difference, no issue of practical importance, between the Republican party, which has con trolled the destinies of the nation now for almost half a century, and the so- called Temocratic party, which has acted as an aid or wet nurse to keep the Republicans in power. True, during a campaign for president everybody works up a sort of enthusiasm for one side or the other, and lines are drawn on imaginary differences, vand for months the battle rages fierce nnd strong. It has come, however, to be accepted before hand that the Republicans are to re main at the helm, and those who happen to reach seats in congress from disaffected sections, or localities where it is both unclean and untidy to declare one's self a Republi can, have been confined merely to stations which may' be termed straw men to be knocked down by Republican "argument,". It is a lamentable fact that most of the really valuable able men of the nation have long since identified them selves with the' dominant party, : presumably because it offers better emoluments to its votaries, , Rut when the time comes when the kickers within the Republican ranks, those who really, feel they owe some allegiance to the masses', become too strong, it has been readily found that there were enough traitors to pretended principles among the Democrats in office, to join with the regular Republican machine and aid in putting forward whatever measures jhe classes require fostered. This has been most,conspicuously demonstrated in the past few weeks during the consideration of the tariff Revision by the senate. But coming back to'lh'i fooposition that there is but one an mproverueni .rh'" "vV- pt.v in the country nAtidhallyV or rather that there is real- llUIUll'clI. c t.M" n'-i r 1 B ww. hiiu "" i , mine to cas e in. mereny whmiiik a imue uercf iiiiiuc ui uiu available Supply. By the middle of the pcxt century, the 'easily accessible and available coal in this country will have been exhausted. The situation wi'.h respect to our supplies of iron ore is even more serious ; for it is estimated that, if the present rate of increase of consumption continues, the known sup ply of .high grade ore will be gone by the middle of the present century. Twenty-five years is also the limit set for the exhaustion of another important mineral phosphate rock. Taking all our mineral products together, it is es timated that the total waste approximates $1,000,000 per day or over one-sixth the value of the total production. As to public lands, or lands in general, it is undeniable that we are failing to secure as large crops as we should, chiefly because we neglect some fundamental principles, such as the development of rotating crops, and so plowing on sloping ground as to prevent washing away of the soil. Althouah we have some of the richest soil in the world, the average yield per acre from 1897 to 1906 was 13.8 bushels of wheat in the United States as against 28 in Germany and 32.2 in the United Kingdom. The facts 'as above set forth relating to the exhaustion of our fuel supplies indicate that in the future years water power as a national asset will become increasingly evi dent. To utilize the full hydraulic power of the rivers it will be of greatest importance to reduce the extremes of flow so that the waste of water through floods may be made a minimum. Statistics show, moreover, that the annual damage done by floods is increasing and has risen from $45,000,000 in 1900 to $118,000,000 in 1907. The Mer rimac river discharges at its periods of highest flood sev enty times as much water as jt does at its ' lowest stage, and ten times as much as its average flow throughout the year. The regularity of the flow may be increased by the preserve ion of the forest, whose presence tends to retard the run-off of the rainfall, and by the construction of res ervoirs, which will hold back the flood and allow the sur plus water to be drawn off as needed, thereby increasing the averaae flow throughout the ye jr. Particularly neces sary Is it to protect the forests on steep mountain slopes, with a view to the prevention of floods and resulting de struction of the arable lands in the lower valleys. In the Tenth Congress on International Navigation held in Milan in 1905, the engineers were unanimous on this point. M. Lafosse. the French delegate, describes the evil effect of stripping the forest as follows: "The soil, swept bare of its forests, exhausted by the ' abuses ot grazing, loses quickly its vegetable stratum. Washed periodically, and carried away by melting snow and summer storms, it is soon disaggregated. The waters run toward the low points, rolling before them gravel and boulders, and even tearing out loose sections of rock. A thousand rivulets cut out beds, the torrent is formed. wn. Ktfin. the banks are broken down, and a mass of mud, stones and rocks invades the valley, destroying i ever) thing as it passes. Most of the countries of Europe have learned the les son and taken steps for the careful preservation of their forest; and this has been done, not merely with a view to increasing the timber supply, but in the interests of navigation.- Over half a cen'.ury ago. the French government entered upon a policy of forest protection and reforesta tion, and up to the. 1st of January. 1900, they had acquired no less than 620 square miles for these purposes. The . efforts of our own government to solve this question on af the Democrats, it is not amiss to consider constitute an issue. what really would Oi the question of tariff is really the only issue that coul be raised, and if any fa r minded man can distin guish any difference on this question between the Repub lican and Democrats nationally, he has been able to see deepw into the capers of men than has the average think er and student of passing events. The Republicans repeatedly declare for tariff for pro tection to American interest, meaning in the most liberal scope, the interest of the monied classes, more especially those engaged in monopolistic manufacturing and the con duct of great industrial enterprises. The, Democrats, with equal vim and enthusiasm, pro claim for a tariff for revenue only, whatever that means, for really it does not mean anything more than does the Republican declaration. Everybody knows that it requires all the revenue that is derived frorrtja protective tariff to keep any way in reach of the current revenues levied by congress from session to session, so: that in actual fact, there is not a particle of difference between tariff for revenue and tariff for protec tion, to far a the burden of it upon the masses goes. As a matte of fact there has never been but one man the manhood or the for free trade, which) wouIjnean that we should have the privilege of buying in thefsarne markets in which we are compelled to sell. That nan was Grover Cleveland, and it was be cause' of thisJosition more than all else combined that he was ejected t$e last time. But the fellow never worked at it for a mhyjle after he was elected. He rolled , into the lap o Wa!Kj2reet financiers and his free trade ideas went f" stesmnever to awaken again, during his time in office. - V' 1 , iff nominated for! president who had knowledge tstond against the tariff and . Th facj-iath sitheittiqrjSwec eitnei;:ir-i i. i .' j tuny farmer against th on such an issue. he American people are opposed to tariff ction or for revenue, and if given an oppor- ij the- question. direct would, elect , pnv eld most conspicuous politician in the land A i LITTLE LAY SERMON. HE good Baptist brethien of Chicago are mightily stirred up over the decla tions of Professor Foster of the Uni versity of Chicago, that science has been as valuable to civilization as re ligion. In his baccalaureate sermon at Northwestern University Dr. Pradley of St. John's M. E. chnrch, South St. Louis, declared that the doctrine of ev olution applied to and was illustrated I of ihe fittest dotrines. creeds and dogmas. LA committee from trinity Protestant Episcopal church of New Rochelle, which refused to permit the burial ot Thomas faine's body in its consecrated ground because he was a heretic, makes the reparation of a pilgrimage to his grave. The pope of Rome adheres to his theories on Gregorian chants and modernism, while the local organ of the M. E. church denounces papacy because a Roman Catholic senator defeated a constitutional amendment pro hibiting the appropriation of public funds for parochial schools. Governor Stubbs of Kansas is assailed for ap pointing a Roman Catholic on the school textbook com mission, and the Missouri supreme court knocks out the Presbyterian merger. ' ' At first blush it will appear that only Mark Tapley in religious ethics could extract anything encouraging from such a conglomeration of seemingly irreconcilable atti tudes. But as a matter of fact. whe"n an evangcl'cal com mittee can be drawn voluntarily to within sight of the monument to Thomas Paine, the other discouraging differ ences appear trivial in comparison. It has been just a century since Thomas Paine vyas born, the same Thomas Paine whom the then president ot the United States called "that filthy lit'Ie atheist," despite the fact that Paine, ex pressly declared his belief in God. But entirely aside from his religious or anti-religious views, the most signifi cant and hopeful sign of the whole affair is that this vrv matter of theological opinions, or the lack of them, can be waived-and something like justice can be done to the memory of the man to whom America owes so much a debt whose magnitude has been dwarfed by the bitterness of nearly a centtry of theological mhd slinging. The services which Thomas Paine rendered to the struggling colonies rightly made his theological views com paratively inconsequential from a public viewpoint, and to quarrel over them for a hundred years, ignoring the tre mendous impetus and sustaining strength which Paine gave to ihf. struggle for American freedom, is like taking away the credit of victory from a general who won the battle on a white horse instead of the conventional black. That he won the battle should be the fact that counted ; and it is gratifying that even in this tardy centennial year of Pa ne's birth the church can to some extent at least recognize the large service he rendered in matters wholly separated from religion. The American religious world seems to be just awakening to the fact that on his monu ment Paine is credited with being the author of "Common Sense, not "The Age of Reason." which so deeply offend ed the pious and obscured for ten decades his fame as a patriot whose country was the world and whose religion j was to do good. No orthodox believer is bound by Paine's I views on relicious matters, but. every orthodox believer and PLEADS A FAILING CAUSE. felLLIAM MARION REEDY, the ratFier shining reflector of the St. Louis Mir ror, was the victim of at least two seri ous distorting refractions in his latest issue. Leading off with a tremolo pro test against the "persecution" of Emma Goldman, it is quite natural that Mr. Reedy should drift into a denunciation of society for as serting the right to kill a man who had killed another man.. It ma possibly be true that in some of her interrupted or' prevented speeches Miss Goldman might have'said some; things which would not have trampled on the constitution) op stirred her brother and sister anarchists to use the- torch and bomb. It is also possible that there are some ethical argument to be advanced against capital punish ment. But as society is constituted, which is mainly along: the lines of human nature, it cannot take very many chances with people ol the Emma Goldman stripe, nor can it quite bring itself to condone the practicing of dead ly feuds in the corridors f its court bouses. Miss Goldman's champion declares "the poignant facl is that Emma Goldman is persecuted because she opposes the dominant political idea and that anyone can be so per secuted when some fat-headed 'cop rules that his or her views are in opposition to the powers that be. The ignor ant police are judge, jury and executioner for opinion s-. sake." . . Such rabid statements controvert themselves. Their very expression, under assured immunity from being called1 to account, is the strongest sort of evidence that there is no curtailment of legitimate free speech in this countrj and not enough curtailment of hydrophobic frothings. The teachings of Emma Goldman and her iik have cost many worthy lives, from two presidents of the United States to brave wearers of star and helmet who sacrificed them selves on the altar of duty. There is vastly more abuse. of free tpeech than unwarranted interference with its fress exercise. Up in St. Louis the other day a ward heeler shot so. constable. A friend of the latter killed the murderer ii the court house where he was being arraigned. Socieiy is possibly very crude as yet and it may have failed in many of .its duties, but for such a Tude and primeval crime it must mete out the crude retributive justice of pun ishment, just as it often answers the primordial brute vengeance of anarchism by the self-preservative exercise of repression. It is eminently to the credit of society, as- nrwAp fA nrimi-n! n if nvisl nnnpur fo fke -ethical Jipers who decry it, that it does not resort tt Mosaic retaliation,. I but confines itself to such measures as it conceives will i afford protection with the least possible display of the re vengeful spirit. The apologist for the anarchist murderet" pleads a tailiug cause. sort. Some of this same causeless rancor is at the bottom of- the furore which Dr. Foster's book had created among the , , . , A ... Chicago Baptists a book which would have caused him Sixty of ihw years graduatmg class at Annapolis arc to be burned a few hundred years ago. but which most reported physically detective Inasmuch as the young men enlightened people believe at the present day. Professor were presumably perfect in body at the time of the admis Foster, however, makes the mistake of taking himself too ! sion anA the physical examination for entrance is severe seriously, falling to the same error as his critics. He de-! 'he A"" " Presents itself : What do they do to the. claies very heroically that he wrote his book to "save the ! dets in their four years course through the Academy r church;" but the church doesn't need any saving of that ft"? physical sljortcommgs of the graduates are generally' Creed and dogma no longer seriously impede it. for nelecls OI .v,s'on or. s"8" cara.ac eccen.riciues. . ne i ter is ascrmea to immoaerate cigarette smoKing, wnicro should be within the preventive jurisdiction of the authori ties. If the heart fluttering should be due to the suscepti bility of the young seadogs to the charms of sweet femi ninity, and this is more likely, then the cure for cardiac eccentricity might be more difficult. In the cases of only eight or more of the sixty defectives are the defects seri-: ous enough to be disqualifying; and it is proposed to find, places (or the Annapolis discards in the coast artillery But he-e is occasion for another quizz : Why should! at young gentleman whose physical conJition is not good, enough to make a midshipman be s'il! good enough to make a lieutenant of artillery? The mathematicians ot Annapolis will please answer. , ii, i the very eftective reason that creed and dogma in the encumbering sense in which Professor Foster views them ltt e more than survivals and relics ot tne past, like i . :.L : , -L J i .l L-i: : U J L.. L: J.L. - P: -- a SCaK commensurate wim 119 uiinji innuc tuuu.u icucivc ' anQ every oiner ueuevcr is uuuuu uy.uis ucui iu i nine as the hearty co-operation of every state of the Unjon. j an American citizen or as a friend of liberty and humanity. are . F.I I charms and amulets, the curious souvenirs ot tne days when people really believed in infant damnation and elec tion and predestination and a literal hell and a devil with "really truly horns. The higher critics, as a general' thing, waste entirely too much time fighting the rickety windmills of the past, while the church,S whose office of caretaker of the windmills is only a legacy and a coincidence, wastes much time in fighting the Don Quixotes who attack the venerable arms that look so grotesque in the light of modern day. .t, I r I . . II .1 I here was probably never a battle tought in all tne i . . I I ij- world in wnicn every soiaier ana every unicer on eiuior side believed and fought exactly the same. Many a man in the ranks did not accept in its entirety the issue for which the battle was fought. Many believed that their officers were not running things quite as well as they them selves would have done. Probably some of them were not uniformed in the proper styie, and their weapo.is did not always tally. But in the long run it is not so much the uniform he wears- and the weapon he wields as the man in the uniform who holds the weapon, which really counts. The little turmoils of doctrinal differences are only passing camp brawls in the by-corners of the field, only outbursts of temporary passion. All along the line the battle is waging toward the ultimate triumph of right. The great church. of God doesn't need any little books of men to save it and it cannot he lost by all the assaults of all the atheists and agnostics and orthodox bigots of the past, the present or the years to come. The world is steadily moving toward the goal and victory of A little more cross and a little less creed, A little more beauty of brotherly deed ; A little mote bearing of things to be borne, With faith in the infinite triumph of morn. A little less doubt and a little more do Of the simple, sweet service each day brings to view; j A little more cross, with its beautiful light, Its lesson of love and its message of right; A little less sword and a little more rose To soften the struggle and lighten ,the blows; A little more worship, a little more prayer, With the balm of its incense to brighten the, care; A little more song and a little less sigh. And a cheery good day to the friends that go by. A little more cross and a littie more trust In the beauty that blooms like a rose out of dust; A little more lifting the load of another. A little more thought for the life of a brother; A little more dreaming a little more laughter, A little more childhood, and sweetness thereafter; A little more cross and a little less hate. With love in the lanes and a rose by the gate. A monument of marble or granite, to cost about $3,500, is: to be erected by the United States government in the Con federate section Finns Point National cemetery at Salem,, N. J., to mark the resting place of 2,403 officers and mem of the Confederate army and navy who died as prisoners at Fort Delaware, between 1862 and 1865. The adop tion of a monument for the purpose is due to the fact that it has been found impossible, because of the imperfect records, to place distinctive headstones at each individual grave, as contemplated by the act of congress. Commis sioner Oates has arranged to place wrought iron feices; around Camp Chase Confederate cemetery ne'ar Colum bus, O . and aroufid the Confederate cemetery a'. Nortfn Alton. III. Wehster- b G'jn. is alleged upon- his- Lee Phillips, one of the wealihiest planters of county, was shot and. killed Tuesday night Worsham. at Worsham's home near E-jp--a. It that Worsham had been away from home and return found Phillips. Phillips is said to have been insolent,, and. as Worsham was already in a suspicious fram? of mind, he pushed into the house past Phillips, and, reach ing for a gun, shot Phillips, killing him instan'ly. It is all right in books for a girl to have a worships her from afar, but outside of books him to come a little nearer. lover whxj she wBotsu Still, it is not Iee majesty to remark that President is better qualified for an umpire than a pitcher. , m . . m . . , Mr. Roosevelt killed a hippopotamus the other 6aX Next to shooting the family cow this is said to le ttas most exciting form of sport known to man.