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By. , , , W(3DDSE[IB IPUMXEffiESS 4P Efvsaxr tomxaa y f EEADUEES ®[T STToDjDQJIDS 9 second half. Its pioneer trade routes arc 1 now the great routes of steam .* ’• f ■ transportation between the Rio Orande and the Canadian border and be- :: ' tween the Mississippi and the Pacific. It established the first water routes . / ' ; * ,V ~ ~ . . from the headwaters of the Ohio to the mouth of the Missouri and of the ' < ' . ' Illinois, opening the first water connection for steam transportation between ' M the Ohio and the upper Mississippi and Missouri, developing the Ohio river > , states on both sides of that stream. * ' ' - ~- tvery state now on the map west of the Mississippi was penetrated by V. , - , Its business pioneers, establishing the first centers of trade. The whole west ' s . . ► • Is interested with St. Louis In celebrating this great event, because In V. ' rounding the first great city of the trans-Mississippi west the pioneers >• ' • > ‘ made the western beginnings now explained in a* -* Eu,. ' scores of other western cities and in actual thou- . - •!. A. sands of other incorporated towns, which, if they 77 tera —I their expectations of becoming so. The invi- .. WRIGHT AEROPLRNJ: _ORV/J.l£ Louis fully appreciates its position B as the'pioneer i Fnince - Laclede landed at the foot of what la city of the great west. Ilia |S| I now Market street, organized the village and As there were less than 200 houses including ||| II I resid(>d there for 11 yeara - He named the new outhouses and barns, in the St. Louis which incor- &i WM i 111* I slta St. Louis in honor of Louis XV.. the reigning porated in 1809, it could not have had much over fH || I sovereign of France. The territory was trans -900 people. The town was already the chief seat Bt - 1 ferrod by Franco to Spain by secret treaty in of the western fur trade, with its trading stations || - ' ,62, but :t ' vi,s not announced in the new village pushed to the headwaters of the Arkansas and far 1 until October, 1,04. In 1803 Spain retroceded the towards the sources of the Missouri and the Yel- I sotereignfy 10 1- ranee and on April 30. 1803, lowstone. Doing business wholly by barter with I FnUM * S ° !d aU ,ho ,erri,ory west of the Missis almost no money in hand, in sight or in circula- \.W-\ ’ s , i|),H nvpr - U,,own as tho Louisiana purchase, to Won, with resources represented almost wholly by lilrl Jw the ,!|nted S,a,os for $15,000,000, Napoleon re the spirit people; with ax rifle atyengthens of opening tip the United States of the futunf'to i t,le era ot Hie keelboat and pirogue to pioneer the the Rocky mountains and beyond them to the Fa- I st( ;amboat on western rivers. Loading its first OLIVE STR£ET TODAY —■• — may imagine if we can, how they appear to the men whose It still had his companion explorer, William Clark, to stand for the spirit of the American and French “makers of destiny’’ who thought little more of starting a thousand miles into the un known west from St. Louis than the average St. Louisan now thinks of starting for the Pacific coast in a sleeping car. From a village of 900 inhabitants to the fourth city in vhe United States, with a population of three-quarters of a million, is a wonderful achievement, but. it sinks into insignificance when compared with the giant strides of the past cen tury in the world of science, commerce, the arts and every field of endeavor which makes for a higher and better civilization. It is a severe strain on the imagination to at tempt to bridge over the gap between the mean ing of an airship crossing the Mississippi river at St. Louis this year and what the ancient keel boats of 1809 meant, as they landed at the foot of Walnut street, where the town was founded in 1764 by the pioneers who had paddled and cor •delled their bateaux painfully up the river from New Orleans under Laclede as he advanced in the bold atteippt to control the fur trade of half a continent with his handful of men. The keelboat then was no more out of date than the airship is now. It was the best modern boat in 1809 which could be equipped by the capi tal of St. Louis, of New Orleans or of Philadel phia. Because of it Philadelphia and St. Louis commanded the east and west movement of busi ness as that north and south was commanded by New Orleans and St. Louis, as soon as their first fleets of koelboats were regularly organized. It helped to make great history, even >f it did have to be pulled up stream by a rope dragged by men on the bank. This distance in point of change in the way things are done is almost impassable for the grandfathers not only navigated the river in keelboats, but lay fiat behind the goods the boats were loaded with while they were being shot at by Indians along the banks. It is almost if not quite as hard now to imag ine what the world meant before the age of steam as it is to think out what will be its mean ing in the age of the perfected airship and aero plane. Every contrast possible in the St. Louis centennial week of pageants is a challenge to look backward and forward in the attempt to find out what a hundred years already mean, as the first success in the attempt to find what it is to mean shortly, for this generation and for the grandchildren of this generation in 2009. The makers of the centennial week program were keenly alive to the opportunities for spec tacular effect suggested by the most striking events of the world’s progress. The aeronautic events such as balloon races, aeroplane and diri gible balloon contests, suggest the future possi bilities of transportation in contrast with those of 1809. For comparison with automobiles and aeroplanes the bateau of Laclede’s day, with its stumpy mast, its cordelle and its sweeps, is an educational feature of the water pageant, which includes crafts of all the kinds which now ply the waters of the Mississippi. The Veiled Prophet’s pageant, unique and picturesque, is another fea ture which is full of romantic interest. The edu cational parade, the parade representing 3,000 of St. Louis’ industries, the profession of a thou sand raayqrs and the other events which find a place on the program all suggest that as a great week for St. Louis its centennial week is still greater, as it belongs to a hundred years of his tory-making for the continental United States. The city of St. Louis was founded by Piewe Lcclede Liguest in 1764. The territory west of the .Mississippi river was then in possession of i ' * V ‘ // WJSI3S/Pp7p/vFRKf£L3OAT J/V J 609 steamboat in 1817, it had more than doubled its population of 1810 In 1820. From 4.000 in 1820, two decades of steamboating gave it 10,409 in 1840 About that time it began its great transcontinental work with the “prairie schooner,” reinforcing the steamboat in overland transit. With the trans continental overland movement, to Oregon as well as California, growing, in 1850 it had 77,800 people and was beginning its work as the lirst pioneer of railroads lo the Pacific. After bringing the first locomotive west of the Mississippi in 1852, it more than doubled its population in that decade, reach ing 185,587 in 1800. With the foundations of the states now west of the river, already laid along its first trade routes in 1860, it advanced in the next two decades to 350,552 people. Chicago was pass ing it in population then, without being able to take from it its historical place as the “first great city of the west,” the pioneer and founder of the west of the present. Since 1880 it has doubled its population once more, advancing from 350,000 to over 700,000. At its present rate of increase, re sponsive to that of the Mississippi valley, St. Louis is doubling business in a little over 10 years, its bank clearings increased from $292,000,000 in 1809 to $3,074,000,000 in 1908. Its tonnage of merchan dise received and forwarded was 20,162,000 tons for the first six months of this year. Its bank resources reported June 23, 1909, at $385,881,000, more than double the total of the tenth year back. Such figures illustrate much more than local progress. They are mid-continental before they become local, in the sense that the people of the whole area between the Allegheny and llocky mountains are now exerting new energies and util izing new forces of growth, unforeseen even as late as 10 years ago. As the percentages of this growth are of course greatest west of the Missis sippi river, St. Louis has almost "made itself over” in 15 years in growing up to the new growth of the country. Since it began work for the world’s fair, celebrating the Louisiana purchase, it has learned to look back on itself in the last decade of the nineteenth century as “old St. Louis.” In looking back to the older St. Louis of 1809, it can boast that as a frontier outpost it led the progress of the continental United States. In looking for ward, in i(s centennial year, it can see that the greatest results of the history it has made are only the beginnings of greater results, which belong to the immediate future of the continental United States, whose progress makes the frontier town of 1809 the midcontinental city of 1909. ! GRAFT FOWL BONE ON JAW. An unusual surgical operation was performed at St. Joseph's hospital, in Omaha, recently. A por tion of the jawbone of Lucretia Norris was re moved and a piece of chicken bone inserted in the place of a diseased section. The gin is six years old, and was born with a malformed jaw. It was to remedy this that a bono from a freshly killed chicken was Inserted. r - ■ ... ■■■-—V State Capital Notes Weekly Budget of State News Items Gathered by Oar Special Correspondent at Jackson. I'- J ACKSON The State Fair, Hammer and nails and brush, We’re putting things thro’ with a rush. is the song of the Fair Grounds workmen these busy October days. And the result of this splendid chorus may be seen on every hand, so great is the improvement in every section of the grounds and buildings. The management has put every part of the place in order and now there remains only the finishing up and the painting, whitewashing and other incidentals, and the whole will be in readiness for the Fair, Gel. 24-Nov. 5. The first exhibit to catch the eye and hold the interest of the visitor will be tire great poultry show, the house being on the crown of the hill. This show is strictly a home institution, no foreigners being encour aged to come in with their giant stocks, and take the premium from our own line home raised fowls, and then sell out to ignorant buyers. Instead of anything of this sort we have Mississippi, Louis iana and Alabama fowls, and they arc the finest ever. It is simply beyond the power of the best fancier to estimate the financial benefit these fairs have been to our people; especially to the small farm ers, who have been thereby encouraged to add to their yards, or to go into the busi ness as a business. Last year saw every pen filled. This year so many are the entries that every pen is filled, and many new ones are being put in place for the later entries. And we are going to have all kinds of fowls, turkeys, gee.se, ducks, birds and, mayhap, the beautiful pheasants; the latter just for show, along with the pea fowls. Near the poultry house are the dog kennels, and these promise to make a better show than has ever been the case before. Along the board walk the spaces have been taken by various concessions, and it will present an unusually brilliant scene down its full length. Within the great coliseum, up and downstairs alike, the space will be entirely filled with exhib its and booths, in which exhibiting mer chants will display their wares. lint it is the Agricultural Building that draws the daytime crowds. There are all the entries for premiums, the home-farm displays, the fruits, the vegetables, the dairy products, the A. & M. College dis plays, and various other educational ex hibits. There, likewise, is the wonder ful Corn Club exhibit, and there will foregather the young farmer boys of the State; the men upon whose broad shoul ders the State’s future depends. The housekeepers, the cooks, the nee dlewomen, and the artists of every kind, both household and fine arts, will there make their displays, and in consequence the place will be very popular with all the visitors. Outside the space is well taken up with the usual variety of exhibits, but the display of machinery, or fencing, or bug gies, and similar necessities on a farm, are much larger than usual, or so the re quirements for space indicate. And then there is a great place left open for the amusement companies, and these are great. The secretaries had a time securing those people; but once accom plished, they have a right to be proud of their job. Last year circumstances made them fall down on this feature of the fair, and the resultant exhibitions on the Midway were “no great shakes,” as the small boy says. This year they will be something really fine, and the people can have some thing worth while every evening on the gaily decorated and brillantly illumi nated pike. Nor is the fair the only place where the visitor may find entertainment. The whole city has taken a greater interest this year in the success of the fair than has ever been the case before this, and ns a result they are throwing open their homes, and preparing to entertain on a much more extensive scale than ever be fore. The theaters will have good at tractions on that week, ami the place and people generally arc making ready for the biggest time they have ever known; even in fair week. As for our guests, we hope to have them with us, from every city, village, hamlet and rural neighborhood in the State; and once here, we hope to hold them until they and theirs have seen all that is ours to show; and enjoyed all the pleasures incident to the greatest fair in the gulf coast States. Next week we shall give our readers a program of events, .so that each one may know just what to expect on each day, and may regulate his visits accordingly. I. I. and C. Crowded. President 11. L. Whitfield, of the In dustrial Institute and College, says: “All the dormitory room of the college is filled, and no new students should cor respond with the president. 1 want this information known all over Missis sippi." County Schools the Best. State Superintendent of Education Powers has received a very encouraging letter from Dr. S. A. Knapp, special agent of the bureau of plant industry of the national department of agriculture, in which he states in very decided terms the reasons why the country agricultural high school system should prevail rather than the congressional district high schools, as have been suggested in some quarters. One of the most essential reasons is that the county school is much closer to the people, and less expensive to the student, than would be the dis trict high school. Hightower Sees Good Times. President G. R. Hightower, of the Mis sissippi division of the Farmers’ Union, linds much cause for encouragement to tlie cotton-holding movement in the fact that the State and national banks are carrying unusually heavy deposits for this season of the year. “According to the latest statement ol the auditor, the State banks in Missis sippi are carrying .1,000,000 in depos its,” says President Hightower, “and the national banks have deposits aggregating between $5,000,000 and $10,000,000. “There is no reason why a good por tion of these deposits should not be used in support of the cotton-holding move ment. The banks unquestionably have plenty of money and I believe they are going to give the farmers of the State all possible aid and encouragement in hold ing their cotton when the farmers desire to do so.” Has Benefited Every One. The School Improvement Association in Mississippi has done splendid work along the lines of activity and cndcavoi which the name implies, viz.: The per manent material improvement and up building of the rural schools and inci dentally inculcating in the minds of pu pils a due appreciation of the advantages and beauty of order and the care and en hancement of the fabric provided for tbs development of their intellect. Mississippi to the Front. Mississippi is squarely to the front this year in the line of fairs, aa has al ready been demonstrated by those held, and the people of the State will have no reason to be ashamed of the showing which will he made at the big roundup exhibition, which has been built up from so modest a beginning that the managers and the visitors of half a dozen years ago have difficulty in recognizing the locality as the same, while the scope of the enterprise has been increased a hundred fold. Will Be No Change. There is so much discussion and specu lation extant concerning the position ol superintendent of the penitentiary, as to which there is a current impression that the governor will shortly be called upon to make an appointment to the office now held by C. 11. Norlands, that it will doubtless be interesting to those who are figuring on the possibilities, to know that there is no likelihood of Governor Noel taking up the matter until the middle or the latter part of next year. Verdict For $15,000. The jury in the case of Harris et al. against the Jackson Gas Light Company, a suit for damages growing out of the electrocution of Sim Harris in Jackson last March, in which action the sum of $25,000 was asked for, after being out about one hour, returned a verdict for $15,625. Hightower is Gratified. President G. R. Hightower, af the Mis sissippi Farmers’ Union, who is devoting his time and energies to the development ot the business of the Farmers’ Ware house Company, seems quite encouraged at the way in which the various locals and the district Farmers’ Union Ware house Associations are taking up the centralization scheme. Mr. Hightower is advising the producers of the staple to sell, but sell moderately, and not at tempt to rush the staple. Insurance Opinion. In reply to an inquiry relative to the status of unauthorized companies in the event of a fire, and whether an author ized adjuster could adjust the loss for such a company without violating the law, Insurance Commissioner Henry re plied in the negative. He states further that the supreme court of Mississippi more than twenty years ago decided that no legal adjustment of a boss could be made for an unauthorized company. Prize for Rural School. The Mississippi Agricultural and Me chanical College has provided for a $25 cash prize for the best kept rural school in the First congressional district. This is the second collegiate institution to oiler such a prize. South Mississippi Col lege, at Hattiesburg, having ottered a similar amouijt for the Sixth district. Ihe competition will be kept from now on, and at the state teachers’ convention of 1910 the awards will be made. Checks for $25 Coming In. Chairman L. R. Moseley, of the Taft banquet invitation committee continues to receive letters containing checks for $25 from Mississippians who are willing to give up that amount for the privilege of breaking bread with the president ot the United States, and incidentally sit ting down to what is to be the finest banquet ever provided for any occasion iu Mississippi. Urges Agricultural Schools. To enlist the Farmers’ Union in the campaign for the establishment of an agricultural high school in each county, is the purpose of a strong address issued to the membership of that organization by State Superintendent of Education J. N. Powers. Prof. Powers urges the farmers to use their personal inlluenc# with boards of supervisors, and induce them to order the necessary special tax they levy for the establishment of thest schools, ns they are authorized to do in law passed at the last session of the lea* islature.