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PEACE TREATIES | By H. IRVING KING (Copyright. I'JIS. by liie McClure Newhpapfr Syndicate.) TREATY OF CONSTANTINOPLE, 1841 When the Present Egypt Was Evolved. The British possession of Egypt Is something Into wbleli England "Just iiiitunilly drifted." The force of cir cumstances was stronger (!iiih treaties and diplomacy, mid after the occupn tlon of the country subsot|iient to t Arohl Itey Incident In 1882. England found herself In the position of the mint who held the hear hy both paws around a tree It was more dangerous to lot go than to hold on. Yet up to the recent proclamation of a British protectorate over the land of the Nile ani) the setting up of a sultan Inde pendent of Turkey following the sid ing of the Khedive abbas with the Germans. Egypt remained a part of the Turkish empire, a vassal state paying an annual tribute of and governed nominally by a heredi tary vassal prlnee. It was governed under the treaty of 18-11, which the powers forced upon the sublime porte and Its victorious rebel governor of Kgypt, Mohemct AM. By lids treaty tlie western powers obtained their first foothold In the land of the Pharaohs. Mebemet AM was a Turkish officer who first went to Kgypt In 17P9 us commander of the forces. He did so well hi restoring order there that In 1805 the sultan appointed him gov ernor. But AM found his government constantly threatened hy the famous Mamelukes, a cavalry corps of the Kgypt la a army consisting of the de scendants of those Mliigrellun, Turk ish and other slaves sold hy Getdtlz Khan to the Kgypt Inn sultan In the thirteenth century who, nulling In re volt In 1251, made themselves masters of the country. The Turkish govern ment overthrew the Mameluke govern ment In 1517 and Kgypt became n Turkish province. But the military caste of the Mamelukes was continued as a portion of the Egyptian army until All's time. Massacre of the Mamelukes. In 1811, seeing that it was a ques tion of survival between the Mame lukes and himself, All settled the mat ter hy a massacre of the Mame lukes. The citadel of Cairo was the ■cone of the principal slaughter; the Mamelukes Vvere annihilated. Now Absolute master of Egypt, Mohemet AM threw oft his Turkish allegiance and conquered Syria In 1831-2. lu 18.‘!!1 ho defeated the Turks In so tunny engagements that It seemed as if his tiumiers were certain to wove In the mosque of St. Sophia. The powers took alarm. That old Idea which for so ninny centuries has prevented the Turk from being driven out of Eu rope—tlie Idea that the status quo at Constantinople must not be disturbed, lest the Turk being out of Constanti nople, a general war should ensue for TREATY OF SHiMONOSEKI, 1895 A New Power Arise* In tha East When Japan Declares War on China. The western nations woke up to the tact that a great power had appeared In the East when In 1804 Japan de clared war on the vast empire of China and speedily brought It to Its knees. The realization that a naval Olid military power of the first class had come Into being on the western shores of the Pacific was not a pleas ant one and caused a great fluttering among the "chancelleries" of Europe and was not viewed without concern In the United Slates. It was because of her war with China and her subsequent war with Russia that Japan occupies the posi tion she does today among the nations. The treaty of Shlmonosekl and the treaty of Portsmouth placed her among the lending nations of the world. The war between China and Japan arose over the affairs of Korea. In the olden days Korea had paid tribute to Japan and after the aboli tion of the Shogunate in 1868 and the coming of the Mikado Into his own. repeated demands were made upon the Koreans tor a continuation of this tribute. Chinese and Japanese In trigued at the Korean court for the predominating Influence In the land of the morning calm and transformed It Into a land which knew no calm. Japan Alleged Infrastion. In June of 1804 a Chinese array was sent Into Korea for the ostensible pur pose of putting down a rebellion which threatened the Korean king. Japan declared this to be an infraction of the treaty between herself and China made In 1885, and dispatched a Japan ese army which occupied tlie Korean capital and Its port of Chemulpo, and forfllled the route connecting the two cities. Somehow the rebellion disap peared, but the king of Korea found a Chinese army and a Japanese lac ing each other in hostile guise upon his territory and asked them to with draw —which they refused to do. The king appealed to the United States. Mr Gresham, secretary of state, ask ed China and Japan please to get out of Korea. China said she was per fectly willing to get out If Japan would. Japan said she would not get ont until Korea had reformed her In ternal affairs. It was evident that Japan meant war, and on July 8. 1804, England proposed that the United States Join with her In an intervention to prevent the war. The United States refused | Its possession—caused them to Jolt together for an armed Intervention | and AM was forced to give up Syria. |On January 30. 1841, a treaty was (■oneluded at Constantinople hy whl?h !In letnrn for the relinquishment ot I Syria and the renewal of tils allegl j mice to the sultan, AM and his descend ants were created hereditary rulers of Egypt. Egypt for Egyptians. In IRSI appeared an Egyptian col onel, Arab) Bey, who started the cry of “Egypt for the Egyptians.” He overthrew the ministry of that year and massacres of Europeans took plqce in Cairo nod Alexandria. He was Openly encouraged by Hie Turk ish government which, even when Arabi laid flouted the authority of the Khedive and, becoming minister of war, placed himself at the head of an armed revolt which swept the coun try, refused to declare him a rebel. He withdrew the budgets from the Ereneh and British financial advisers and manning the old forts and con structing new ones at Alexandria, threatened the fleets of England, France mid the United States. On July 10, 1882, the British ad miral demanded the cessation of hos tile preparations and the delivery of some of the forts Into British hands within 24 hours, or he said lie wow'd open fire. Cablegrams flew back and forth between Alexandria and Europe, mid the British Invited the French to Join with them In an intervention. The French refused and the French fleet steamed out of the harbor for Port Said. The American fleet with drey. At 7 n. m. the British fleet opened fire. The engagement lasted until noon by which time most of the forts hud been silenced. Fort Pharos fired until four o’clock. The next morning Arahl asked for a truce which was granted, and "under cover of which he' escaped with Ills army from the city. Seymour landed a force to restore or der la the city, the American marines binding also. A British expedition un der Sir Garnet Wolseley, was rushed to Egypt, and Arabi was crushlngly defeated at the battle of Tcl-el-Keblr, on September 13. Cairo surrendered fbe next day; Arab! was taken pris oner and exiled to Ceylon. The au thority of the Khedive was restored. Upon advice of the British, he abol ished the Dual Control and appointed a British financial adviser. Abbas succeeded Tewllk and an Englishman was appointed head of the Egyptian army. The treaty of 1841 was still observed until Abbas declared for Germany and fled to Austria, when a British protectorate was declared. to Interfere except ns a “friendly neu tral," and would joiq no other nation, even In that Interference, On July 31 Japan declared war upon the Celestial empire. The military and naval supremacy of Japan at once became startlingly apparent. A Jap anese army swept through Korea, ,anc advancing down the Liaotung penin sula, took Port Arthur. The Chinese were driven out of southern Man churia. The Japanese fleet destroyed the Chinese Jeet and captured Wei hul-wel. At the beginning of the war the Chinese emperor had commanded his generals; "Go drive me these pig mies Into the sea," but now a Jap anese array was ready to advance on Peking. Everywhere China was utter ly defeated. Negotiated Four Weeks. China thereupon authorized the American minister lit Pekin to trans mit direct to Japan a proposal for peace. Japan agreed to receive L! Hung Chang ns pence commissioner. He landed at Shlmonosekl on March 19' 1895, where he was met by the Marquis Ito, and after four weeks ol negotiation the treaty was signed on April 17. The complete Independence of Korea was recognized; the Liao tung peninsula, Formosa and the Pes cadores islands were ceded to Japan, and China agreed to pay a war In demnity of two hundred million taels, open four new ports and grant spe cial trade privilege to the victors. Korea had been occupied and organ ized by Japan during the war and. though Its complete independence had been guaranteed by the treaty, Jap anese influence was now supreme there. England was disturbed. Germany displeased and Russia angry and alarmed at tile treaty of Shlmonosekl. A great power had suddenly appeared to threaten Russian possessions and block her aspiration on the Pacific coast. The czar threateningly de manded the retrocession to China ot tho Liaotung peninsula. Germany and France backed up the demand ol Russia. Had Russia been alone to be considered, Japan might have thrown down the gauntlet then ns she did Inter. But in the face of threat from three powers, she dared not re fuse, and gave up the best fruits ol the war—which Russia stepped In an:; grubbed for herself. EAST MISSISSIPPI TIMES, STAEKVILLE, MISSISSIPPI I—u.1 —u. S. S. Mississippi, one of the Pacific fleet, passing through the Galllard cut of the Panama canal. 2 Actresses In New York who took part In the strike of the Actors’ Equity association. 3—Nelson Morris, one of the “big five” puckers whom the government charges w r lth profiteering and violation of the food law’s. NEWS REVIEW OF CURRENT EVENTS * WI Government Forces Concen trating on Fight Against High Cost of Living. FOODS IN STORAGE SEIZED Test Case Against Alleged Sugar Hoarders—Labor Situation Is Lit tle Improved—Kolchak’s Siberi an Armies in Flight—Rou manians in Hungary Defy Allied Com mission. By EDWARD W. PICKARD. Spurred on by the welcome, if long delayed action of the chief executive, all available forces of the federal gov ernment are devoting themselves to the task of reducing the cost of liv ing, and they are receiving the en thusiastic co-operation of state and municipal bodies and officials all over the country. Attorney General Palmer sent out Instructions bnd authority to confiscate at once hoarded food stocks, and large quantities of foodstuffs In warehouses were seized In Chattanooga, Tampa, Jacksonville, Fla.; Fort Sam Houston, Tex., and other places. In every case, according to Mr. Palmer’s instructions, the names of the hoarders and the amounts of food seized were made pub lic, for it was thought the publicity would result In the immediate release of excessive amounts of foodstuffs that have been withheld from con sumption. The attorney genera! cen tered his attention especially on Chi cago, not only because It Is the great est food storage center of the world, but because he had learned the spec ulators there had been particularly and perniciously active. The Chicago packers, naturally, are the chief tar gets, because they are alleged to be In control of the cold-storage business, not only there but all over the coun try. This they deny. Senator McKek lar has Introduced a bill for federal regulation of cold-storage plants and In supporting It he told of the vast amounts of poultry, eggs and butter In storage and of the apparent exorbi tant profits made on those commodi ties by some middlemen. Louis Swift says he has been and Is In favor of regulation of storage methods; and President Horn of the American Re frigerating association asserts his or ganization would not object to reason able regulatory measures, but that most of the suggested plans are too drastic. The government’s fight against the sugar hoarders also centered In Chi cago, and the first test case Is that against the officials of the Central Su gar company who were arrested a week or more ago. Henry H. Rolapp, head of the sugar distribution com mittee of the food administration, said the situation was serious, as canners and dealers were clamoring In vain for sugar. The railway shopmen’s strike entered Into tills, as 20,000,000 pounds of sugar was delayed In Cali fornia by lack of cars. Mr. Rolapp said that in a few days the arrival of cane sugar from New Orleans and beet sugar from the West would flood the market. The entire food crusade had Its ef fect on retail prices. In some Instances only slight and In others, notably po tatoes. very marked. The federal agents Intend to go after the retail grocers and butchers for profiteering, ns well as after the bigger game, and before long the suffering consumer may get relief that will actually affect his bank roll. ______ t In Boston a grand jury Investigation elicited the rather surprising Informa tion (hat the American people demand shoes of high grade and high prjce and scorn the cheaper grades, of which the manufacturers say they have large •stocks. In a way this Is borne out by the statement of a Berlin paper that American shoe dealers are making suenuous efforts to find a suitable market for their goods In Germany, fhe witnesses in Boston said their margin of profit was no larger than when shoes were selling at ranch lower prices, and that a decline might be expected, perhaps a year hence. The British, too, are attacking the cost of living problem with vigor. The house of commons had before It a bill to curb profiteering, and after a hard fight the measure was amended so as to empower the board of trade, after an Investigation, to fix wholesale and retail prices. Sir Auckland Geddes, minister of national service, said this, would operate In eases where com munities were likely to be bled by any combination, national or international, for the purpose of raising prices; and Andrew Bonar Law made It clear that the government had no intention of es tablishing a general system of price fixing throughout the country. Belgium is suffering, like most of the rest of the world, and the labor party there has suggested to the prime min ister a series of measures to arrest the increasing prices of necessaries, to en courage the home growing of food and to Insure the equal distribution of Im ports. The party wants the govern ment to fix the prices of foodstuffs and to control the prices of coal and cloth ing. Paris was the scene of some lively scrapping last week between the food vendors In the markets and the price vigilance committees and would-be purchasers. The committees endeav ored to prevent foodstuffs bought by the hotels and other large consumers from leaving the markets, asserting that the willingness of those buyers to pay any prices, however high, re sulted In the raising of all prices. Dur ing the fighting many stalls and shops were looted. The labor situation In the United States did not show marked Improve ment. In spite of all efforts to make them return to work, the striking rail-, way shopmen In many localities were obdurate, and the officers of their In ternational union were compelled to threaten them with expulsion from the union If they did not resume their la bors. Then delegates representing/ 500,000 shopmen met In Chicago and voted to go back to work. Before August 25 a general strike of steel workers throughout the coun try may be declared. The men have been taking a "vote on the question In all the plants. They demand $1 an hour, a 44-hour week and better work ing conditions. Such a strike will af fect more than a million men. As congress has not yet acted on the Plumb plan, the railway brother hoods are waiting. Meanwhile the Plumb plan Is getting some very hard knocks from Industrial and railway experts, some of whom assert It would Increase the cost of living. Charles Plez says the Plumb bill Is about as bad as it could be made, adding; “As a shipper and citizen, I should like to be told what advantage or profit the public will get outside of the privilege of paying the yearly deficit.” Mr. Plumb told the house committee on In terstate commerce that he either had or could procure evidence proving that a systematized plundering of all the railroads has been conducted under the direction of the Morgan and Rock efeller banking interests. More Interesting than Important was the strike of the members of the Actors’ Equity association, which, starting In New York, spread to Chi cago. A number of theaters In both cities were forced to close their doors. The actors demanded recognition of their association and various reforms In the conditions of working. The dis pute was carried Into court by Injunc tion proceedings. A situation arose at the Chicago stockyards which may tench union la borers a lesson In the matter of ob serving their contracts. Federal Judge Alschuler, mesllufor, ruled that the employees who quit work during the recent race riots had violated their pledge not to strike for one year and thus had lost their seniority rights. Union officials objected violently to this, but It seemed likely most of the packing house workers would abide by Judge Alschuler’s rulings, for the present at least. In New York 1,200 Interior decorat ors quit work; and representatives of 21 international building trades unions began planning for a national strike because of a dispute there between two unions of plasterers. Considerable uneasiness, not to say anxiety, was caused in the capitals of the allied nations by the news that the Kolchak government of western Siberia was “on the run" If not quite collapsed. The bolshevik armies gained repeated victories over Kol chak’s forces, and at last reports the latter were hastily moving eastward. The admiral’s plight,was laid to short age of guns and ammunition, and large supplies of both were dispatched to him from the United States by way of the Pacific ocean. Whether they would reach him in time to save his troops from disaster was uncertain. Better news came from both north and south Russia. On the Dvina a force of British and Russians de stroyed six battalions of bolsheviki, taking 1,000 prisoners and many guns and advancing its front 12 miles. In Volhynia the Ukrainians have taken the railway center of Lutsk and the , fortress of Dubno, and the bolsheviki also abandoned the Important city of Vinnltza in the Ukraine. General Den ikine’s armies were making steady progress toward Odessa and at the northwest corner of the Black sea they were only 50 miles from a junc tion with the Roumanian forces. The Roumanians who occupied Budapest were a stubborn lot and flatly refused to take orders from the allied commission there and get out again, declaring they would remain until a stable government was estab lished. The pence council at Paris was a bit flabbergasted and feared that if Roumanla were permitted to defy its orders, Germany and other enemy countries might be encouraged to do likewise. The Roumanians threatened that If they were forced to withdraw they would strip Hungary of everything portable, ami Indeed they are said to be doing that now. Their representatives In Budapest said the only policy for Hungary was union with Itoumanla under a Roumanian ’king. Antonesco, tho Roumanian min ister to Paris, says Roumanla does not favor the Installation of Archduke Jo seph In power, considering him reac tionary. The situation was strained but the pence council was hopeful of nr. amicable settlement. According to an edict of the peace conference, Austria Is to be known as the Republic of Austria, the word “German” being eliminated. There Is a movement In Vienna to re-estab lish the monarchy, but the entire armed forces of the country, there and In other cities, are demanding that the republican form of government be re tained. • t After long delay, the British gov ernment has found a man to represent It In Washington, but only temporar ily. Viscount Grey has agreed to fill the post of ambassador until a perma nent appointment has been made, early next year. Great responsibility at to the position Just now, for financial and treaty relations between the two countries must be readjuute* The London press predicts that' h will have some difficulties, and lh Dally News says his path will not be smoothed by the British government's “sustained refusal to make any ap proach to a solution of the Irish prob lem.” ” Presumably Viscount Grey will come over soon and will be ih Washington when the prince of Wales visits out national capital. That young man landed In Newfoundland and Is now making a triumphal tour of Canada.' The death of Andrew Carnegie re moved one of the few survivors of an industrial age that has passed when men of vision made Incredibly large fortunes In ways that were not consid ered reprehensible. His avowed de sire to die a poor man was not real ized, for though he gave away more than $300,000,000, it Is believed he left an estate worth nearly $500,000,000. Henry Ford’s libel suit against th< Chicago Tribune resulted In a verdlcl for the plaintiff, who was awarded nominal damages—6 cents. The trla’ of the case had lasted many weeks, af fording pecuniary profit to a few per sons and amusement to still fewer. DAODOTENINGPj FAIRYTALE 0 6y Mary Graham 6onner |ii * 9 turnon. F^K| MOTHER EUCALYPTUS’ STORY, “I must tell you the story Mother Eucalyptus told to her friends," said Daddy. “We'd be delighted to hear the story,” said Nancy, “but we have no Idea what sort of a mother she was; X can’t even pronounce her name.” “It Is a bit hard," said Nick. “I guess I won’t try. But tell us the story, Daddy, and tell us whether she was a mother person or a mother ani mal or a mother bird or a mother Osh," “She wasn’t any of those,” said Daddy. “What was she?” asked Nancy. “I can’t Imagine.” “I give It up," said Nick. "Well, as neither of you 'think you can guess,” said Daddy, “I will tell you that she was a tree. “Yes, Mother Eucalyptus Tree told this story to some other trees when they were all talking about their fam ily histories and what they were fa mous for and what they had done. So I shall tell yon her story.” “Do,” said Nancy, “for now 1 know Just what she was I want to hear.” “Please go on, Daddy.” begged Nick. “‘Friends,’ said Mother Eucalyptus, 1 must tell you that we are very use ful, we have been very useful and we will still be very useful.’ - “All the trees nodded their heads politely and bowed their branches and said, ‘Pray continue.’ “ ‘We can give forth lots of oil. In stead of giving a sirup like our frlejjds the maple trees give (at least we have heard that they gave maple sirup, and as for being our friends, we consider all trees our friends), we give oil. “‘That makes us useful. We do good that way. For this oil that we give cures sicknesses sometimes and drives away* bad germs. Our leaves are perfectly fine as regular little doc tors and hospitals. If it weren't that we needed them they would probably go Into hospitals, wear caps and aprons and have patients as nurses have. “ ‘And some of our leaves might dress themselves up as doctors and carry little bags with pills and could say td different people: “ ‘Please show us your tongue. And please tell us If your appetite Is good.’ “ ‘They can’t dress up and go as doctors and nurses to the hospitals, but they’re useful just the same. “‘Our dear little baby blue gum seedlings also do a great deal of work.’ “‘How Interesting your story Is,’ said the other trees. ‘Do go on.’ “‘Thank you,’ said Mother Eucalyp* tus Tree, ‘for liking my story. It 1? a comfort to feel that one Isn’t Idling one’s life away. I would hate to feel that I was an Idle tree and did noth ing at all. I am sure I would be most unhappy.’ “ ‘You can’t be unhappy because you aren’t Idle and because you do good,’ said the other trees. ‘That must be the secret of your happiness. You’re so busy.’ “ T do believe you’re right, trees,’ said Mother Eucalyptus Tree. “ ‘Well,’ she continued after a pause, 'the baby blue-gum seedlings take up water very quickly and can drink or sap It up without any trouble. “ ‘So we used to be planted where there were marshes and we would drink up the marshy, unhealthy water because It wouldn’t hurt us, and we knew It would hurt others. Oh, how many mosquitoes we’ve driven away, because we nuyle the land no longer marshy and so they didn’t jlke It. “ ‘We used to be planted so we would do this work as a regular busi ness and we did a lot of good. But whenever we get the chance we do what we can, for we know we are given these helpful leaves and seed lings to do a special work for the world. And we do It whenever we can, and enjoy doing It too.’ “ ‘You’re a fine tree, and your family Is a fine family,’ said the other trees admiringly, and Mother Eucalyptus, smiled and bowed a roost polite “ Thank you.’ ’’ Small, but Warlike. The African pigmies are fierce and warlike, and each little fighting man carries at his belt a bottle, of poison (for arrows) so deadly that the slight est wound from a weapon envenomed with It will kill a man. Colonel Roose velt, while on his famous hunting trip, sent some of these arrows to the Smith sonian Institution, with a tag attached suggesting carefulness in handling them. Those dwarfs build dome-shaped houses In a circle, the chief’s resi dence In the center, and at a distance of 100 yards from the village a sentry box big enough to hold two little men Is placed on every path, with a door way looking up the trail. The New Way. A little four-year-old. who Is most emphatically opposed to having her face washed, said to her grandmother the other day: "I am not going to wash my face any more." "hen asked for an explanation, she said: "I’ve decided to have It dry-. cleaned." Why Rats Should Be Exterminated. One rat will eat or spoil fou* bush els of grain a year. It costs $2 or $3 a year to feed a rat on your place.