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Some Aspects of the Farmers’ Problems fßy BERNARD M. BARUCH : (Reprinted from Atlantic Monthly) „ I The whole rural world Is In ■ fer ment of unreal, and there Is an un paralleled volume and Intensity of de termined, If not angry, protest, and an ominous swarming of occupational con ferences, Interest groupings, political movements and propaganda. Such a turmoil cannot but arrest our atten tion, Indeed, It demands our careful study and examination. It Is not like ly that six million aloof and ruggedly Independent men have come together and banded themselves Into active unions, societies, farm bureaus, and so forth, for no sufficient cause. Investigation of the subject conclu sively proves that, while there •* much overstatement of grievances and mis conception of remedies, the farmers are right In complaining of wrongs long endured, and right In holding that It Is feasible to relieve their Ills with benellt to the rest of the community. This being the case of an Industry that contributes, In the raw material form alone, about one-third of the na tional ' production and la the means of livelihood of about 40 per cent of the population. It la ob vious that the subject is one of grave concern. Not only do the formers make up one-half of the notion, but the well-being of the other half de pends upon them. So long as we have nations, a wise polltclal economy will aim at a Ihrga degree of national self-sufficiency and self-containment. Home fell when the food supply was too far removed from the belly. Like her, we shall destroy our own agriculture and extend our sources of food distantly and precari ously, If we do not see to It that our farmers are well and fairly paid theln services. The farm gives the nation men as well as food. Cities derive their vitality and are forever renewed from the country, but an Im poverished countryside exports Intelli gence and retains unintetllgence. Only the lower grades of mentality and character wHI remain on, or seek, the farm, unless agriculture Is capable of being pursued with contentment and adequate compensation. Hence, to em and Impoverish the farmer Is to flKlup and contaminate the vital 'jßrCea of the nation. *T"he war showed convincingly how dependent the nation is on the full productivity of the farms. Despite herculean effdrta, agricultural produc tion kept only a few weeks or months ahead of consumption, and that only by Increasing the acreage of certain staple crops at the cost of reducing that of others. We ought not to for get that lesson when we ponder on the farmer’s problems. They are truly common problems, and there should be no attempt to deal with them aa If they were purely selfish demands of. a clear-cut group, antagonistic to the rest of the commit Rather should we consider agriculture in the light of broad national policy, just as, we consider cl!, coal, steel, dye stuffs, and so forth, ag sinews of na tional strength!- Our growing popula tion and a higher standard of living demand Increasing food supplies, and more wool, cotton, hides, and the rest With the disappearance of free or cheap fertile land, additional acreage and Increased yields can come only from costly effort. need not expect from an Impoverished or' on happy rural population. It will not do to take a narrow view of the rural discontent, or to appraise It from the standpoint of yesterday. This Is peculiarly an age of flux and change and new deals. Because a thing always has been so no longer means that it Is righteous, or always be so. More, perhaps, than ever before, there Is a widespread feeling that all human relations can he Im proved by talcing thought, and that It Is net becoming for the reasoning ani mal to leave his destiny largely to chance and natural incidence. > Prudent and orderly adjustment of production and distribution in accord ance wlth consumption is recognized as flMee management In every business but <hat of farming, ret, 1 venture to s|y, there Is no other Industry in which It is so Important to the pub ite-rto the city-dweller—that produc tloc Should be sure, steady, and In creasing, and that distribution should be In proportion to the need. The un organized farmers naturally act blind ly and Impulsively and, In conse quence, and dearth, accompa nied price-variations, taarassHhe consumer. One year pota toes ret Tn tjie fields because of excess there Is a scarcity of the that have been displaced ’h'kiak* yggy for the expansion of the Btfno neresffi?: nest year the punlsh- Bfcfarmers ittaq.* y\r r fields on some other crop, and' potatoes enter the class of InxfljtMy on. Agriculture!* the greatest and fun damentally the most impdifiaht ijf our American Industries. The..’<jJtles are but the branches of the .jyee of na tional ot* r-ojleep ly into tilted. ‘ r 'w<" all fiSSrish or decline wf|h.(he phovirt of the cities of the present nnl vereal dlstreee of the.i’arnwro, of a elnmp of sJvtfiUlon AmnW-WHie'fSnß jJt of thjjf crops in # ilngii year of their Inability to meet mortgages er to pay current bills, and how, seeking relief from their Ilia, they are plan ning to form pools. Inaugurate farm era’ strikes, and demand legislation abolishing grain exchanges, private cattle markets, and the like, we ought not hastily to brand them as economic heretics and highwaymen, and hurl at them the chargo of being seekers of special privilege. Rather, we should ask If their trouble la not ours, and see what can bo done to Improve the situation. Purely from self-interest, If for no higher motive, we should help them. All of us want to get back permanently to “normalcybut Is It reasonable to hope for that condition unless our greatest and most basic In dustry can be put on a sound and solid permanent foundation? The farmers are not entitled to special privileges: bnt are they not right In demanding that they be placed on an equal foot ing with the buyers of their product* and with other Industries? n Let us, then, consider some of the farmer’s grievances, and see how far they are real. In doing so, we should remember that, while there have been, and still are, Instances of purposeful abuse, the subject should not be ap proached with any general Imputation to existing distributive agencies of de liberately Intentional oppression, but rather with the conception that the marketing of farm products has not been modernized. An ancient evil, and a persistent one, Is the undergradlng of farm prod ucts, with the result that what the farmers sell as of one quality Is re sold as of a higher. That this sort of chicanery should persist on any Im portant scale In these days of busi ness Integrity would ecm almost In credible, but there Is much evidence that It does so persist. Kven aa I write, the newspapers announce the suspension of several firms from the New York Produce Exchange for ex porting to Germany aa No. 2 wheat a whole shipload of grossly Inferior wheal mixed with oat*, chaff and the like. Another evil la that of Inaccurate weighing of farm products, which, It la charged, I* sometimes a matter of dishonest intention and sometimes of protective policy on the part of the local buyer, who fears that he may "weigh out" more than he “weighs In.” A greater grievance Is that at pres ent the field farmer has little or no control over the lime and conditions of marketing his ' products, with the result that he Is often underpaid for Ms products and usually overcharged for marketing service. The differ ence between what the farmer re ceives and what the consumer pays often exceeds all possibility of Justi fication. To cite a single Illustration. Last year, according to figures attest ed by the railways and (he growers, Georgia watermelon-raisers received on the average 7.5 cents for a melon, the railroads got 12.7 cents for carry ing It to Ualtlmore and the consumer paid one dollar, leaving 70 8 cents for the service of marketing and Its rlska, aa against 20.2 cents for growing and transporting. The hard annals of farm-life are replete with such com mentaries on the crudeness of pres ent practices. Nature prescribes that farmer s “goods” must be finished within two or three months of the year, while financial and storage limitations gen erally compel him to sell them at the same time Asa rule, other Industries are In a contlnuon*- process of finish Ing goods for the markets; they dls tribute as they produce, and they can curtail production without too great Injury to themselves or the commu nity ; but If the farmer restricts Ids ofitput, It It with disastrous conse quences, both to himself and to the community. The average farmer Is busy with production for the major part of the year, and has nothing to sell. The hulk of bit output comes on (he tusr ket at once. Because of lack of stor age facilities and of financial support, the farmer cannot carry his goods through the year and dispose of them as they are currently needed. In the great majority of cases, farmers have lo entrust storage—ln warehouses and elevators—and the financial carrying of their products to others. Farm products are generally mar keted tit a time when there Is a con gestlon of both transportation and finance—when cars and money are scarce. The outcome. In many in stances, Is that the farmers not only sell under pressure, and therefore at a disadvantage, but are compelled to take further reductions In net returns, 1 In order to meet the charges for the kervlce of storing, transporting, financ ing, and ultimate charges they claim, art Often exces she, bear heavily on both tjqnsumai and producer, qnd hre. undecStlie-'**. trcl Of those pertertalhg the tervfiib ' U Is true that they are relieved of tfee risks of • changing market by sailing at one* i hot they are quite will lag to take the uafavorable chance. If the favorable one also Is theirs and they can retain for themselves a port of the service charges that are uni form, In good year* and bad, with high prices and low. While, In the main, the farmer must sell, regardless of market conditions, at the time of the maturity of crops, he cannot suspend production in toto. He must go on producing It he Is to go on living, and If the world Is to exist. The most he can do Is to curtail pro duction a little or tiller its form, and that —because he Is In the dark as to the probable demand for Ids goods— may be only to Jump from the frying pan Into the fire, taking the consumer with him. Lven the dairy farmers, whose out put is not seasonal, complain that they find themselves at a the marketing of their productions, especially raw milk, bepause of the high costs of distribution, which they must ultimately hear. 11l Now that the farmers nre stirring, thinking, and uniting as never before to eradicate these Inequalities, they are subjected to stem economic lec itures, and are met with the accusation that they are demanding, and are the recipients of, special privileges, Let us see what privileges the government has conferred on the fanners. Much has been made of Section 6 of the Clayton Anti-Trust Act, which pur ported to permit them to combine with Immunity, under certain conditions. Admitting that, nominally, this ex emption was In the nature of a special privilege,—though I think It was. So In appearance rather than In fact. —we find that the courts have nullified If by Judicial Interpretation. Why should not the farmers he permitted to ac complish by co-operative methods what other businesses are already doing by co-operation In the form of Incorpora tion? It It he proper for men to form, by fusion of existing corporations or otherwise, a corporation that controls the entire production of a commodity, ar a large part of It, why Is It not proper for a group of fnrniora to unite for the marketing of their common products, either In one or In several selling agencies? Why should It be right for a hundred thousand corporate shareholders to direct 25 or 30 or 40 per cent of an Industry, and wrong for a hundred thousand co-operative farmers to control a no larger propor tlon of the wheat crop, or cotton, or any other product? The Department of Agriculture Is often spoken of ns a special concession to the farmers, but la Its commercial results, It Is of ns much benefit to the buyers and consumers of agricultural products ns to rtie producers, or even more, I do not suppose that anyone opposes the benefits that the farmers derive from the educational and re search work of tile department, or the help that It gives them In working out improved cultural methods and prac tices, In developing bettor yielding va rieties through breeding and selection, in Introducing new varieties from re mote parts of the world and adapting them to our climate and economic con dition, and in devising practical meas ures for the elimination cr control of dangerous ami destructive animal and plant diseases, Insect pests, and the like. All these things manifestly tend to stimulate and enlarge production, and their general beneficial effects are obvious. It Is complained that, whereas the law restricts Federal Reserve banks to three months’ time for commercial paper, the farmer Is allowed six months on Ids notes. This Is not a special privilege, hut merely sneb a recognition of business conditions ns makes it possible for country banks to do business with country people. The crop farmer has only one turn over a year, while the merchant and manufacturer have many. Incidental ly, I note that the Federal Reserve Board has Just authorized the Fed eral Reserve hanks to discount export paper for a period of six months, to conform to the nature of the bust ness. The Farm Doan banks are pointed to as an instance of speelnl govern meqt favor for fnrraqrs. Are they n>i rather the outcome of laudable efforts to equalize rural and urban cnndl tlons? And about all the government does there Is to help set up an nd mlnlstratlve organization and lend a little credit at the start. Eventual!) the farmers will provide nil the rapi tat and carry all the llabl'itles them selves. It Is true that Farm I.oa bonds nre tax exempt; but so art bonds of municipal-light and trnctlni: plants, and new housing Is to he ex empt from taxation. In New York, for ten years. On the ether hand, the fanner read of plans for municipal housing proj ect* that run Intiythe hllllons, of hun dreds of nilllions annually spent nr 'the merchant marine; he rends that the railways are being favored with Increased rate* and virtual guaranties of earnings by the government, with the, result to him of an 'ncrensed toll on all that he sells and all that he buys. He hears of many manifests tlons of governmental concern for par t'lcular Industries and Interests, lies cuing the railways from Insolvency Is undoubtedly for the benefit of the country us a whole, but what be of more general benefit than encpur • agement of ample production -the principal necessaries .of life and tbelr even liow.from contented producers tp. .satisfied cmpoipters? . *** ‘ While lb •■may has ..dituedod fUni' special governmental aid may he nee essary In tlic pcwral futewsr,' we nSis: aH agree thltf.ftl If fHHlcbi# t4Jse(fhli> aerh'.uJture and the production and dls 'trlbnijim of farm products arc not c cord<ii\ll.p same- opbortuhifies that art prcnlipd for other businesses; espe dally ab the enjoyment by the far me of turitb opportunities t*mld-hppetfM : bt even mure contributory to tile gen abstraction of thstr upward sffoita, We. as city people, see la high and speculatively manipulated (priced, spoilage, wsstd, scarcity, the results of defective distribution of farm prod ucts. Should It net occur to us that we have a common Interest with ths farmer In hla attempts to attain a de gree of efficiency In distribution cor responding to his efficiency In produc tion? Do not the recent fluctuations in the May wheat optlpn, apparently unrelated to normal Interaction of supply and demand, offer a timely proof of the need of some such stabil izing agency ns the grain growers have In contemplation? It la contended that. If their pro posed organizations bo perfected and operated, the farmers will have In their hands an Instrument that will ha capable of dangerous abuse. We are told that It will be possible to pervert It to Arbitrary and oppressive price fixing from Its legitimate use of order ing and stabilizing the flow of farm products to the market/ to the mutual beneflt of producer and consumer. I have no apprehensions on thla point. In the first place, a loose organiza tion, such as any union of farmers must be at best, eannnt he so arbi trarily and promptly controlled as a groat corporation. The one Is a lum bering democracy and the other an agile autocracy. In the second place, with all possible power of org-miration, the farmers cannot succeed to any great extent, or for any considerable length of time. In Axing prices. The grnjt law of supply and demand works In various and surprising way*, to the undoing of the best laid plans that attempt to foil It. In the third place, their power will avail tha farmer* nothing If It ha abused.' In our time and country power Is of value to Its possessor only so long ka It Is not abused. It It fair to say that I have seen no signs in responsible quarter* of a disposition to dictate prices. There seems, oa the contrary, to be a commonly beneficial purpoee t* realize a stability that will glv> an orderly and abundant flow of farm product* to the consumer and ensure reasonable and dependable returns to the pro ducer. < In view of the supreme Importance to the national well-being of a pros perous and contented agricultural pop ulation, we should be prepared to go a lung way In assisting the farmers to get an equitable share of the wealth they produce, through the Inaugura tion of reforms that will procure a continuous and Increasing stream, of farm products. They are far from get ting a fair share now. Considering his capital and the long hours of labor put In by the average farmer and his family, 'he Is remunerated less than any other occupational class, with the possible exception of teachers, 'reli gious and lay. Though we know that the present general distress of the farmers Is exceptional and Is linked with the Inevitable economic readjust ment following the War, It must be remembered that, although represent ing one-third of the Industrial product and half the total population of the nation, the rural cpmaiunltles ordi narily enjoy but a fifth to a quarter of the net annual national gain. Notwith standing the taste of prosperity that the farmers had during the-war, there Is today a lower standard of living among the cotton farmers 0/ the South than in any other pursuit lu the country. In conclusion, It seems to me that the fanners tire chiefly striving, (or a gen erally beneficial Integration of their business, of the same kind and charac ter that other business enjoys. If It should he found on examination that the attainment of this end requires methods different from those which other activities have followed for the same purpose should we not sympa thetically consider the plea for the right to co-operate, If only from oar own enlightened self iiilerest, in ob taining all abundant and steady flow of farm products? In examining the agricultural sltua lion with a view to Its Improvement, we slafll be most helpful if wo maln taia detached and Judicial viewpoint, remembering that existing wrongs may be cbiefiy an accident of unsymmetrl cal economic growth Instead of a crea tion of malevolent design and conspira cy. We Americans see prone, ns Pro fessor David Friday well says In his admirable hock, “Profits, Wages and Prices," to seek a “criminal Intent be hind every difficult and undesirable eco nomic situation," I can positively as sert from my contact with men of large affairs, including bankers, that, ns a whole, they are endeavoring to fulfill ns they see them the obligations that gy with their power. Preoccupied with the grave problem* and heavy tasks of their own Immediate affairs, they have not turned their thoughtful personal attcntloa or their construc tive abilities to the deficiencies of agrl cultural business organization. Agri culture. It may be said, sulWr* from • belr preoccupation and neglect rather ban from any purposeful exploitation by them. They ought now to begin to respond to the fanners’ difficulties, which they must realize are their own On the other hand, my contacts with :he farmers have filled me with respect for them—for their sanity, their pa tience, their balance. Within the last year, and particularly at a meeting Tailed by the Kansas State Hoard of Agriculture and at another called by Cie. Committee of Seventeen, I have gjet; many of 'HM-Waders of the ne 'arm movement, and I testify In all that they are endrttbring to leal with their problems, not ns pro fjtpt< rs of a norrpjr Jim as exploiters of tbe hapless consumer, q<Jt as murcfV>s,s; iw -igopOHsts,-tui? ns nines', ment bei)t..pp l,l\e, Jmproignienl ajf.the common weal. „ sj .'.V. e can and must ■ meet such men urd such a cause half way. Their irdttlnesi la oar buiineee —tbe aetlonb •ml good than 111 tfe* mh #f other Industries. Tin spirit •< Antriraa democracy la unaltaruMy opposed. alike to enacted ••portal privilege hnd to the apecial pHvileg* of unequal op portunity that arltoo automatically from the failure to correct glaring economic Inequalities I am opposed to the Injection of government Into business, but I do believe tljnt It Is an essential function of democratic gov ernment in equalize opportunity so fnr as It Is within Its power to do so, whet her by the repeal of archaic statutes or the enactment of modern ones. If the antitrust laws keep the farmers from endeavoring scientifically to Integrate their Industry while other Industries find s way to meet modern conditions without violating such stat utes, then It would seem reasonable to And a way for the farmers to meet them under the same conditions! The law should operate equally In fact. Re pairing the economic structure on one side Is no Injustice to the other side, Which Js lu good repair. We hare traveled s long way from the old conception of government as merely a defensive and policing agency; and regulative, corrective, or equalis ing legislation, which apparently Is of a special nature. Is often of the most general henotlclal consequences. Even the l-'lgst Congress passed a tariff act that was avowedly for the proton lon of manufacturers; hut a protective tariff always has been defended as a means of promoting the general good through a particular approach; and the statute hooks are Ailed with acts for the benefit of shipping, commerce, and labor, IV Now, what la the farmer asking? Without trying to catalogue the re medial measures that have been sug gested In his behalf, the principal pro posals that hear directly on the lm pmvomeat of hla distributing and mar keting relations may bs aomsiarlred as follows: , First: storage warehouse* for cot ton, wool, anti tobacco, and elevators for grain, of sufAclent rapacity to meet the maximum demand on them at the peak of the marketing period. The fanner thinks that either private capi tal must furnish these facilities, or,the state must erect and own the eleva tors and warehouses. Second: weighing and grading of agricultural products, and certlAcatlon thereof, to he done by Impartial and disinterested public Inspectors (this Is already accomplished to some extent by the federal licensing of weighers and graders), to eliminate underpay ing, overcharging, and unfair grAdlng, and to facilitate the utilization of the stored products as the basis of credit. Third : a certainty of credit sulliclem to enable the marketing of product! In an orderly manner. % Fourth: the Department of Agricul ture should collect, tubulate, summa rize, and regularly and frequently, pub lish anti distribute to the fanners, full Information from all the markets of the world, go that they shall-he as well Informed of their selling position as buyers now are of their buying, posi tion. . Fifth; freedom to Indurate the busi ness of agrlrultura by mean* of con solldated soiling agencies, co-ordinat ing and co-operating In aiicli way as t pot the farmer on an equal footing with the large buyers of (ils products, and with commercial relations In other Industries. ' When a business requires specialized talent. It hns to buy It. So will tile fanners; and perhaps the best way for them to get It would be to utilize some of the present machinery of the larg est established agencies drilling In farm products. Of course. If he wishes, the funner msy go further and engage In Hour-milling and other mnnufnotuecs of foial products. In rojt opinion, however, he would be Wise to atop short of that. ■ Public Interest may be opposed to all great Integrations;.butt In Justice, should they he forbidden to the farmer and pennltted to others? The corporate form of association can not now be wholly adapted to his.ob jects nnrf conditions. The looser co operative form seems more generally suitable. Therefore, he wishes to be free. If he llnds It desirable and feas ible, to resort to eo-operatlon with his fellows and neighbor*, without lim ning afoul of the law. To urge lhat the farmers should have the same lib erty to consolidate and co-ordinate their peculiar economic functions, which other Industries In their Helds enjoy, Is not, however, to concede that any business Integration should have legislative sanction tn exercise monop olistic power. The American people are as (irmly opposed to Industrial as to political autocracy, whether at tempted by r.ural or by, urban Industry. For lack of united effort thb farmers as a whole are still marketing tfielr crops hy antiquated methods, Or hy methods at all, but they are surrounded by e business world that has been modernized to the last minute and la tirelessly striving for efficiency. This efficiency Is due In large measure tu big business, to united business, to In tegrated business The farmers now seek the benefits'of such largeness, un ion and Integration. the American farmer Is a moder%of the moderns In the use ot labor saving machinery, and he has made vast strides In recent years In scientific tillage anil efficient farm management, but ns a business In centner with other businesses aglrenlture Is a "one h-vse shay" In competition win. high i ower autonjohLies. The American farm r la the greatest sad most Intractable of •Individualists. While 'industrial pro 4rtuctln ul.Ul uhl pha-ses of the huge com merclnl mechnnlsm anji. lts myrlod ac cessories have articulated and co-ordl anted iHentsetve# all the way from nat ural raw materials to retail sales, the hUidneiV'nf agriculture bus gone on In much, the tme man fashion ot the back wopdi of Hie first part of the nine- century, wlieu the farmer \ro •elf sufficient and did not depend upoa, or car* very much, what the great werld was doing. Tho result Is that the agricultural group Is almost ns mnch at a disadvantage In denllni wlti other economic groups as the Jay farm* er of the funny pages In the hands of sleek m-hnn confidence men, who soli him acreage In Central Park or lha Chicago city hall. The leaders of the farmers thoroughly understand lids, and they are Intelligently striving to Integrate their Industry so Unit It will be on an equal footing with other busi nesses. As an example of Integration, lake the steel Industry, In which the model la the United States Steel Corporation, with Its iron mines. Its coal mines. Us lake and rail transportation. Its mean vessels, Us by-product eol.e ovens, Us blast furpaces. Us open hearth and Bessemer furnaces. Its rolling mills. It* tube mills and other lunmifarturlns. processes that are carried to the high est degree of finished production com patible with the large trade It has built up. All this Is generally conced ed to be to the advantage of the con sumer, Nor does the steel corporation Inconsiderately dump Its products on the innrket. On the contrary. It so sets that It Is frequently a slahllizlng Influence, as Is often the ease with oth er large organisations, it Is master of Us distribution as well us of Its pro duction. If prices are not satisfactory the products are held hack or produc tion is minced or suspended. It Is not compelled to send n year’s work In the •market at one time and lake whaleier It can gel under anch elrrumstaneea. It has one selling policy and Us own expert department. Neither are the grades ami qualities of steel determin ed at the caprice of the buyer, nor does the latter hold the scales. In this sin gle Integration of the steel corporation Is represented about 40 per pent of ike steel production of America. The rest Is mostly In the* hands of s few large companies. In ordinary limes the steel corporation, hy example, si ald litres all steel prices. If this Is permissible (It Is even desirable, hecn'nse stable and fair prices are essential to solid and continued prosperity) why Wftuld It he wrong for the farmers to utilize contrsl Agencies Hint would have simi lar effects on agricultural products? Something like that Is what they are aiming at. Some farmers ft cored hy regional compactness and contiguity, such ns the cltrus-frult-rnlsers of California, al ready have found a way legally to merge and sell their products inte grally and In accordance with seasonal and local demand, thus Improving their position and rendering the con sumer a reliable service of ensured quality, certain supply, and reasonable and relatively steady prices. They have not found It necessary to resort to any special privilege, or to claim sny exemption under the nnil-lrust legislation of the state or nation. With out removing local control, they have btlllf op a very efficient marketing agency. The grain, cotton, mid U>- hgyoo farmers, and the produce** of hides and wool, because of their num bers and the fastness of their regions, for other . rensons, have found Integration s more difficult Insk; though there are now some thousands of farmer's co-operative elevators, warehouses, creameries, and other en terprises of one sort and anothst.-wltb a turn-over of a blHlru dollars a year. They are giving the farmers business experience and training, and, so far as they go, they meet the need of honest weighing and fair grading; but they do not meet the requirements of rationally adjusted marketing In sny large and fundamental way. The next step, which will he g pat t|rn for other groups, Is now heltig prepared hy the graln-ralsers through the establishment of sales media which shall handle grain - separately or col lectively. as the Individual farmer may elect. It is this step—the plan of the Committee of Seventeen—which has crested so much opposition and IS thought hy some to he In conflict with the anti-trust laws. Though there Is now before congress a measure de signed to clear up doubt on this point, the grain producers are not relying on say Immunity from anti-trust legisla tion. They desire, and they are en titled. to co-ordlnale their efforts Just as effectively as the large business In terests of the country have done. In connection with the selling organiza tions the United States Grain (Irowers Incorporated Is drafting a scheme of flnanrlng Instrumentalities and auxili ary agencies which are Indispensable In the successful utilization of modem business methods. It Is essential that the farmers should proceed gradually with these plana, and elm to mold the error of acrspptne the existing marketing ma chinery, which has been so laboriously bIH up by long experience, before, they have a fried and proved substi tute or supplemenlary mechanism. They must be careful not to become enmeshed In their own- Reforms and lose the perspective of their place Iti thp national syatem. They must guard against fanatical devotion to new doc trines, and ahould seek articulation with the general economic system rather than Its reckfeas destruction as It relates to them. V To lake a tolerant am 1 sympathetic vW of the farmers' strivings for bet ter things Is not to give a blanket endorsement to any specific plan, and st'll legs to applaud the vagaries of some of their leaders and group*. Neither should we, on tin- other hand, allow the froth of hitter agitation, falae economics, and mistaken radical ism to conceal the facts of the farm ers' dlsadrantigcs. and the pra< llcahll- Ity of eliminating them hy well-con sidered measures. It may he that the farmers will not show the business sagacity ami devehq the wmjo, legder to carry through sound plans; bur bat possoiillt; U ct not Justify thf