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$500 More a Year Farming: How to Get It !
By a System of Cropping That Will Furnish Work for Men And 1 earns Every Day In the Year. By Taft llutler. - = HE COST of growing any farm crop is moat Important factor in determining the profits re sulting from its production, in this cost two very large and important Items nre tho cost of the man labor and the expense of keeping the work stock. Heretofore, our system of cropping and methods of doing farm work have not been such as to give proper consideration to the import ance of reducing tho cost of these items of expense. For from four to six months In the year, particularly during July nnd August nud from December 15th to February 15lli, both men and teams are usually idle, and some of the work stock frequent ly for the larger part of the year. While this Is not universal, It Is too general for economical farm pro duction. The disadvantages of a system of cropping which does not give constant profitable employment throughout tho year to both men and teams are mauy and far-reach ing as affecting tho labor and other economic conditions of the farm. Minu s* Is Demoralising. Any laborer of a type to do Intel ligent or satisfactory farm work. Is not willing to work only eight or nine months In the year, unless paid a full year's wage* for the shorter period of service. In fact, good la bor demands constant employment, and any system of farming which en forces a period of Idleness on labor must bear the burden of supporting the laborers during the period of Idleness as well ns when they aro working. Furthermore, a cropping system which does not furnish con- s slant work for farm laborers is de moralising In Its Influences on the laborers and begets inferior service. It matter* not that a largo part of our farming Is done by negroes and othor tenants and that these are largely at liberty to work or play as they may see III. the cropping system which offers opportunities for long peritxlB of Idleness Is extravagant ami demoralising on all farm lalx»r. Where coltoti is the chief crop tho portlou of tho year during which the team* are idle Is oven greator than that stated for tho laborers. This Item of expense Is not given sufficient consideration. Counting tho limited period of usefulness of a work ani mal. Its cost, tho Interest on tho In vestment and the expense of feed and care, it costs not far from $100 to keep a farm horse or mule a year. To permit this animal to pass half the time In Idleness when he Is more efficient and healthy If kept at regu lar work. Is an expense no farmer can afford. No non-breeding animal should be kept In Idleness on the farm. In planning a cropplug system, this question of supplying regular work for men and teams Is, of course, not the only one to be con sidered, but it is one which should receive more consideration than has been our custom In the past. The lflrKer tho place glveu In any crop ping system to a crop that requires “ large amount of hand or human labor, tho more difficult It becomes supply constant work for the teams. Conditions differ widely on differ ent farms and in different localities. The character of the soil, the market -'I demands or facilities, the amount aud kind of labor, the supply of work stock and farm machinery and numerous other varying conditions must largely influence aud determine the selection aud arrangement of crops and the areas to be planted to each. Hut to improve our present defective cropping system, wherever a period of idleness or overwork for men or teams now exists such a re duction and shifting of some of the crops now grown, with the addition of certain of the most desirable new crops to 1111 in the vacant periods, must be arranged with a view to giving more continuous employment. For instance, w hen the picking of the cotton crop requires so much of all the available baud labor as to pre vent the use of the teams in prepar ing the land aud sowing winter-grow ing cover aud forage crops, the acre age in cotton should bo reduced and the laud used for an increase in the acreage planted to these winter growing crops. Again, when tho cultivation of corn and cotton so occupy the avail able forces in May and June as to seriously interfere with the harvest ing or planting of needed forage crops, changes or reductions should be made to distribute the work more equitably. During the latter part of July and August when the cultivation of the corn and cotton has been finished crops should bo arranged that will occupy the men and teams either In planting, cultivating or harvesting. Prepare land in Winter for Next Season's Crops. The preparation of the laud dur ing the fall and winter for the next season s crops of corn and cotton will largely reduce the labor of spring preparation and cultivation, and while furnishing work duriug the late fall and winter for men and teams will also relieve the pressure of spring work to an extent which may permit of the piauting of other crops to be cultivated or gathered duriug the idle period which al ways follows the laying-by of the cotton crops. 11 is not possible to outline a cropping system that will fit a suf ficiently large number of farms to justify the attempt, but Just what the system should be is not the im portant question. It would not be exactly alike for nny two farms, probably. The main point aimed at is to call attention to the Importance of the question with a view of inducing each reader to give more thought and attention to the subject. Of course, it Is not possible to plan a cropping system that will completely and equitably distribute the work for both men and teams throughout the entire year, nor is this necessa rily desirable, but the aim should be to furnish as near continuous work as possible for both men and work stock to the end that both will be better off atid the net profits of the farm Increased. The growing of feeds for live stock may be so fitted into our present cropping systems as to largely solve the problem of furnishing constant labor for men and teams throughout the year, and it is in this way that the growing of more live stock will bo made profitable rather than by permitting it to displace any of the crops now regularly grown. PLOW THE GARDEN EARLY. Did You Ever Not© the Difference Between the Family With a Gar den and the One Without? Messrs. Editors: If I were asked the most valuable point gained from experience in my many years’ work with the garden, my prompt res ponse would be: “Have it plowed in winter.” When I have read of the large yields of corn in the recent issues ol The Progressive Farmer and Gazette, I would run on down the column to see if the land was not broken in winter, and I can tell you, I have scarcely ever been disappointed. Y'ears ago I read in some farm hand book: “If the garden is plow ed and bedded in winter, it will make it much earlier.” By proof, I found it a wonderful truth. The soil is pulverized by the freezing, the ridge dries out sooner than a level, the warm soil is on top, the seed bed is firm, and what better condition can we ask? When I have done this, I have gathered cymlings, and to spare, the last of May. Of course, they are not the whole dinner, but prepared with butter and cream, they make a most delightful side dish, and un less they come in early, we do not care for them. I opened my safe not long since, and got a breath of the “June time,” and what do you suppose it was? Why, a dish of pickled beets—they were put up during the summer, while the sugar was still present—in winter they are stringy and insipid. A small thing you say, our lives are made up of small things. Another vegetable used as a relish Is the parsnips. They are good, and easy to raise, never have to be dug or protected, and come in at the scarce time, last of February. Compare the family who has these things with one that cares only for meats and sweets, and see the dif ference. In our garden we have a long row so that the plow may go each side, and in it asparagus, grapes, sage and perennial herbs, and even a little rose nursery. Some of the choicest va rieties have been left here, and since the good man works them around, they out-bloom those on the lawn, and when I go in to get vegetables for dinner, their beauty and sweet ness lift my thoughts to heaven, and I am sure the burdens of the $ 1 2 for lespedeza. MRS. PAMELA C. READE. Underground Drainage With Goal Slag. Messrs. Editors: The writer saw a farmer cutting narrow ditches about 4 to 6 feet deep, just large enough for the hired man to have standing and working room, and filling them up with coal clinkers from near-by cotton mills, which gave him the ma terial for the moving. It filled a most excellent purpose as a blind ditch, and was filled with clinkers up to about 16 inches of the top, when dirt was filled in. The percolation was perfect and a series of those ditches emptied into a large open central ditch and drained medium wet land perfectly. H. EUGENE FANT. Money in Hay. Messrs. Editors: I have baled 1,000 bales of hay this year. I keep an expense account with everything I raise and find I get more clear money out of hay. I have a loader made by John Deere Plow Co. I got 21 4-horse loads off of 7 acres. I sell my hay for $15 a ton, $8 for grass, $12 for lespedezia. D. A. STRATTON* Como, Miss. Get My Price This Ad Saves You Dealer, Jobber, Supply Men, Catalog-House Profits. Not:3y Can Beat It Buy direct from the biggest spreader factory in the world —-my price has made it. No such price as I make on this high-grade spreader has ever been made before in all manure spreuder history. Here's the secret and reason: I make a price on one based on a 30,000 quantity, and pay Wm. Galloway freight right to your station. You only pay for actual rrwitdcut™^ material, labor and one small profit, based on this enor mous quantity. nci my i uocncr rroposmon tor i»xo witn proof—lowest price ever made on a first-class spreader. No. S, complete with steel trucks, 70 bu. sire; or Calloway Famous Wagon-Box, 4 sixes, from 50 to 60-bu.—with our agreement to pay you back your money after you try It twelve months if it's not a paying investment. How's that for a proposition? If I did not have the best spreader. I would not dare make such an offer. 40,000 farmers have stamped their O. K. Win. Galloway Company, ol America. on It. They all tried It 30 days free, just like I ask you to try It—30 DAYS KREE. Drop me a postal and say—“Galloway, send mo your Clincher Proposition and Big Spreader Book, Free, with low prices direct from factory.” T. K. Stlre, Oswego, Kalis., writes me—“Often pull It with my small buggy team. Does good work. Have always used the .. before. Galloway mueh the best. It going to buy adoaeu more, they would all be Uallowejrs, Thousands more letters like these here. 819 Galloway Station. Waterloo, Iowa GALLOWAY KKHF® Here Are Facts You Want To Know:— The ONLY Spreader Hans M. Johnson, I’arkaton, Minn.: “I Dewey Hicks, Kl Reno, Okla.: “Have With MALLEABLE would not traile my (ialloway for any 1145 nseda-, a «I36 machine. Couldn’t think and STEEL lor ALL spreader l have ever seen.” or chaiiKlnx even." Parla that break and tlarrett Mathias, Mathias, W. V'a.; “It Is C. C. Johnson, Morrison, Mo.: “Tint t »_ lh , worth two of the ■ "’ Isn’t iu It with the (ialloway." apreaders ^ ****” iievm My Price—the Lowest ‘P^\»s8n.e *.*•«. Patents With Exclusive Roller-Feed- SfiJil kfSL **"' $25 to $50 Alone ready have. - «= tnd less-Apron Force Feed Spreader In the World. From 50 lo 7o-bu. Capadlv, With Complete Sled Truck Spreader, only *!W.OO.