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VII—Making and Caring For Stable Manure.
HE threefold value of stable manures— (1) in improving the texture of the soil, (2) in promoting bacterial activity, and (3) in adding to the available plant food in the soil—has already been spoken of in this series; and all that was said about the benefits of green manures applies with even more force to stable manures. Manures contain nothing that was not in the feed the animals consum ed; but these feeds have been chang ed, both in their physical condition and their chemical composition, by the processes of digestion, so that they are, as a rule, more quickly ef fective and more marked in their ef fects than green manures. Stable manures, indeed, may be said to be the basis of all really scientific and practical fertilization. There are, of course, exceptions to this rule—for example, they should not be applied directly to some crops—but it is a safe general proposition. The gen eral farmer should use commercial fertilizer as supplements to his home-produced manure, and not as a substitute for it. Stable Manures the Cheapest Fertil izers. The economy of feeding a great part of the crops grow on the land to live stock, of getting the full feed ing value of these crops and then of returning from two-thirds to three fourths of the fertilizing elements in them to the soil in a readily avail able and permanently helpful form, must be apparent to any one. Then when it is remembered that cultiva tion always has a tendency to reduce the humus supply in the soil, that this supply must be kept up if the producing ability of the land is to be maintained or increased, and that commercial fertilizers do prac tically nothing toward keeping up this supply, the folly of any one’s engaging in general farming without paying due attention to both the pro duction and the care of stable ma nures would seem to be too vident to be overlooked. What Stable Manures Contain. As already stated, the value of the manure produced by an animal de pends upon the feed the animal has had. There is in the manure that part of the feed material which has not been assimilated by the animal, and the waste products of its body that have been thrown ofT and ex pelled with this unused material. r or tnis reason sianie manures vary constantly and considerably In composition. The analyses usually published are averages of a great many, and are to be regarded only as averages. The thing for the feeder to remember is, that feeding with “rich,” nutritious feeds will produce manure rich 1^ plant foods, while* feeding with feeds low in nutriment can only produce manure of poor quality. The following table gives some analyses which may be taken as rep resenting a fair average of the com position of stable manures: Per ct. Per ct. Per ct. Nitrogen. Phos. ac. Pot Cattle solid.... 0.29 0.17 0.10 Cattle urine... 0.58 .... 0.49 Cattle mixed... 0.44 0.16 0.40 Horse solid.... 0.44 0.17 0.3E HorBe urine... 1.66 .... 1.50 Horse mixed... 0.58 0.28 0.53 Swine mixed... 0.45 0.19 0.60 Sheep solid.... 0.55 0.31 0.15 Barnyard mixed 0.49 0.32 0.43 Hen . 1.10 0.85 0.56 In other words, a ton of average horse manure contains plant food worth about $3.18, and a ton of cow manure contains about $2.36 worth. Every practical farmer knows, however, that for most crops and on most soils a ton of manure is worth much more, and it has already been explained why this is so. How Manure is Wasted. Notwithstanding the great value of stable manure and the very limit ed supply on most farms, it is un fortunately true that a large per cent of the plant food in it is wasted in stead of being returned to the soil, and in many cases much of the hu mus-forming and hacleria-aiding ben efit that might be obtained from it is lost. Whenever manure is left exposed to the weather the soluble plant foods ■ n it are quickly washed out by rains, if it is on the land where it is need ed, this does not matter, as the plant foods will be taken into the soil; but if the manure is lying in a hard packed barnyard that drains into a gully or creek, the best part of it is largely lost. Many farmers imagine that the manure left by their stock on the pasture is of little benefit, while the truth is that they probably get a much larger proportionate ben efit from it than from that which Is dropped in the stables. This is cer tainly true If this latter is thrown out under the eaves of the barn or allowed to get hot and dry and "flre fang.” Few farmers have any real idea of the great loss which occurs from their careless methods of han dling manure. "Experiments made by Roberts show that when horse manure is thrown in a loose pile and subjected to the Joint action of leach ing and weathering It may lose in six months nearly 60 per cent of its most valuable fertilizing constitu ents." \\ ben the liquid manure is wasted, as is so often the case, fully two thirds of the nitrogen and a large part of the potash in the ma nure is lost. Whenever manure is allowed to heat” until the sharp, acrid scent of escaping ammonia can bo noticed, the farmer is losing money again, for the most valuable (limit fnml In li I.. escaping into the air. In fact, when ever decomposition seta in. there is likely to be aome loss of ammonia. I he mixing of lime or ashes with ma nure also tends to liberate the am monia In it, and should never bo practiced. Why Manure Should Ik< Spread as Made. For these reasons the sooner ma nure can be applied to the soil after it 1b made, as a general rule, the bet ter. For some crops, it may pay to keep the manure until It 1b well rot ted before using it; but for ordinary farm crops it does not pay. and there is always more or less Iobb of plant food. Where it can be done, the ma nure should be taken from the sta bles to the field every day. Where this is impossible, the best thing it to keep it tightly packed, with plentj of bedding, under the feet of tilt (Continued on Page 49.) Plant Wood’s Seeds 0 For Superior Crops C Wood’s 30th Annual Seed Book is one of the most useful and com plete seed catalogues issued. It (fives practical information about the best and most protitable seeds to plant for The Market Grower The Private Gardener The Farmer l A Wood’* Seed* arc (frown and A II selected with special reference to U Y tlie soils and climate of the South Y andeverv southern planter should have Wood’* Seed Book so as to be fully posted as to the l>est seeds for southern (frowinjr. Mailed free on request. Write for It T. W. WOOD & SONS, Seedsmen, • Richmond, Va. We ere headquarter* for Ora** and Clovtr Seed*. Seed Po tato**. Seed Oat a. Cow Pea*. Sola Bean*, and all Farm and Qarden Seeds. SIMPKINS COTTON SEED. You warn pur* '’Alewpllrl** oott >n Mod and ahouid bur onlr from the orttlnator in packet** put up and branded br him aim bia iUV lettered ! Trademark and Hitnatur* nhlrhiuar toe their purttr He war* id muu tlon* lor tber will b* on the market tel I hnf rou the? ar* th* "Hlmpk lna“ and Jual aa rood aa Himpkln* wtll ahlp r«u." but ln»lat on the ten ulna, which ar* onlr *oid br me or mr duir aulhorlLed afenla Youratruir W A. HIM PKI VS. Ralatth. V C. /WARLBORCT PROLIFIC CORN We are the orttlcalnra, we trow It pur* Will rleid Hitt p r cwnt. mor* lhan anr other varietr. the premium corn at ati the hi perl n rotai Htatlona Pric* F2 » per bu Excelsior Seed Farm Co Cheraw. S C. Triumph Cotton la ua*d atrnuri eiclualrdr br tit* Oov trnmatit in boll tntll aertlon* It will revolution)** the South. Trr It and b* conrlnnwl It rt*ld« mor* p*r acre, turn* out mor* lint, and t* earner than anr other bit boll cotton in th* world, n mi* ted bolla per pound. I.Xu pound* M«d cotton make a M pound baia Hta pi* on* and an *ltnth loch Our «ntlr* crop la planted earh rear from *eieot*d atalka and bolla. Our **»d ar* ■ u ar an t**d. Writ* lor calalofu* and price* WADE BROTHERS. Seed Breeders. Alataadar City. Ala. Improved Shoepeg Corn Won Itt prize Ml*al»*tppl »nd I ululana Fair, alto prtie Mlaalaalppl Mate l air. Hod Cob, weevil proof. Weep* well In field. Il 00 p*r peck 00 per bu . 6bu..lIJ.M THOS. K. TRIM. WiUonville. Miaaiaaippi, SEED CORN .,;. IMIMtOVI'.I* Cleveland Big Boll Cotton From carefully aeleefed *eed l.SOO Tha. need cotton to 600-fb bale 1 >4 bale per acre, upland*. Karen boll, prolific and very eaatly picked Wtth • tanda droueht well and fruit* heavi ly and early. 12.00 per bu.. 10 bu . SI 60 per bu.. f o b Order at once Supply limited T. A- CUMVI OHII. \Vlllt*(<>a. Tenn. PURE MOSBY PROLIFIC SEED CORN ■ in<*n from IM* r en r PfJr* flOB to>T bu*h<4. *h«*He*4. I « b h®t«> k a u!i, sufMK. atu CO H t A I, l'-llr*t lev! ttt-.l *"’»«*•. t>l • hr Se»>4 Curb l>e**t » it t a i **<’ * I »»rtUt III «*l »' » I »» *J * nftf ten bn ll 7i T H ntRIUH A**>t M • • Square Deal Seed Com Won pill roc*4*t *t st tr> ill Wofi4'« tJ Pill TT»* affflMtiK at Ibli *l«Mr _ offer* llAB* luf * o.|n th*t *rUI pro dure mof» i»f » * mm t. HIT *r,KH tt **ie nl »t AS per bu*hel bf S. F. EWING Harris!on. Miss SEEDS Von &«•«* OOOD l*ll» II M’.r.l* tv* fence !betr, vn(n»b.» Kie|4 Ud P «>»er Nrr.4 tor o«r DioOiAiaru* A w« will im1| u u> too KKr.K haviu iiAittur. sppii co. D*11m Tint Lewis’• Prize Cotton Seed tmfroir«l H jr*-| t if P|'!!>«| »*4 mp!4 frultib* for* pro fir (. *r.lr%! April l*t r*r. Iw> WO |*f cfffct SlU.ro : in Au|Ol !»<’ cntiel* lov *MI in i r onl of the «rei|| lertllart I I'fK* (ll bril Mfd I I 11 bj |l |.1 lot bit . to • u il fl (b i*c tm It rile f.»» «• reoi*»* to or t Inn tor. W ll. r t.»:W|s Uslita*. t.n SEED CORN I UACRE in.i iiiv/i .mo uni tt uirie 4 w and Heat Iti* White Cora la the World*—Vk*'■ a.ie«Ti'**!"» r UW’ 11 ,l u ,,ln Karlleel P°!?U; *>« au*e aro *u iro.u th »r .u« .* r^l Toi.l,.?1« ^ not lanoy more food eara. becauae aolentinoeil# handled “H*0* "v f» "iMa heara one ..r «axden*arfi**i^ *,1*,M* nation Bl« -.eed 1 ataloa KUKK^' *"1! pr,',l,*r,r <’«**««! and had ■ardeii and Dower aeeda frown. Write lor it today Add re**1" ftboul *»» •“'•t farm, grams. U4TKKI*’S MKKlTItOVHK. Hhrn,tn<l..uh. le*r«.