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VIII—HOW AND WHEN TO APPLY STABLE MANURE.
HE CROPS on which stable manure gives the most mark ed immediate returns are those that have a strong root system and that require comparatively large amounts of nitrogen. Crops that need especially large amounts of wa ter during the summer season, when it is likely to be hot and dry, are also greatly benefited by the use of plenty of stable manure. The corn crop comes in both these classes and is a favorite, and a decidedly good place to use the farm’s supply of stable manure. But the effects of the judicious ap plication of stable manure are so generally beneficial that it is easier to say where it should not be used than where it should. Where Not to Use Stable Manure. It is poor economy, then, to apply stable manure to leguminous crops, because it is richest in nitrogen, the element which it is the special mis sion of these crops to get from the air. An exception to this rule, may be the case where on poor land sta ble manure is of great service in getting a start, especially of alfalfa; but even here It is likely that in most cases it would pay to inoculate the soil and to use the stable ma nure elsewhere. Fresh stable manure should not be applied to root crops—beets, car rots, etc., or to potatoes. It tends to make the root crops grow rough and forked, and favors the grqwth of scab upon the potatoes. The manur ing of the land is an excellent prepa ration for any of these crops, but the manure should be put on several months before they are planted—the fall before is a good time. For such vegetables as lettuce, cauliflower, etc., where a very rapid growth is desired, manure may be used in connection with other fertil izers, but it should always be well rotted before it is applied and thor oughly mixed with the soil. It prob L ably pays to compost the manure F with sods and sand for these crops and for potted plants, greenhouse beds, and so on; but aside from this, composting is usually a waste of la bor if it is possible to apply the ma nure direct. Manure Not a Perfect Ration for Most Crops. A heavy application of manure to oats or wheat may cause too great a growth of straw, if it is not supple mented with other fertilizers con taining phosphoric acid and potash. Indeed, manure is for most crops and on most soils a very badly balanced ration, and needs to be evened up with liberal supplies of the mineral elements. On most soils, however, the manure is of such great benefit as a supplier of humus and as a pro moter of bacterial activity that it should be the main dependence as a fertilizer, the commercial fertilizers being used as needed to balance it In the stock-raising sections stable manure alone is often depended on to keep up the soil fertility with the result that the soil is gradually de pleted of phosphoric acid. This is incomparably better, however, than the common Southern practice of de pending upon commercial fertilizers and exhausting the soil’s supply of humus and nitrogen. How to Apply Manure. Manure should in most cases—in practically all cases, it is safe to say —be applied broadcast. The scatter ing of small amounts in the drill or row is a wasteful and unprofitable practice. If enough is put in to be of any marked value as a • source of plant food, there is dan ger, unless it is very fine, that it may dry out and “fire” the crop if a : drouth comes. If the manure Is made fine and mixed with the soil, : it will decay and aid greatly in the | holding of moisture. This fining of , manure is another point that needs j emphasizing. A big lump of manure I is of comparatively little use to the plants, because the plant food in it is held so that it cannot be dissolved by the soil water. It is a mere clod, and a plant can starve among the richest sort of clods. These, then, are the two great points to be remembered in applying manure: (1) It should be made as fine as possible, and (2) mixed thoroughly and uniformly through the soil. The manure spreader has made it much easier to get the manure out on the soil, and has enabled it to be put there in much better shape than was possible by hand. Manure should never be piled in small heaps in the field, as it is sure to lose much of its nitrogen when left in this shape. When taken to the field the proper thing is to spread it on the land at once. Where Manure is Idkely to Give Rest Returns. As to where the manure should be used, it is merely a question of the best place, since it is needed nearly everywhere and practically on all our staple crops. The corn field is one of the best places; the cotton field will be greatly profited by It; it may be spread thinly as a top-dressing in the winter on grain and grass fields and made to yield great returns; it is needed in the orchard, in the gar den, and on the lawn. All soils seem to profit by It, too. While its effects are most marked on soils lacking in nitrogen and on those of a tight clayey nature, It gives good returns even on rich alluvial soils • and on newly cleared forest lands. Most Southern farmers will, how ever, probably find it most profitable to broadcast their manure for the corn or cotton crop; and to use it in the garden and on trucking crops. When the soil is what is usually call ed “rich,” it may produce too great a growth of stalk and leaves if used alone, but this can always be coun teracted by the addition of phosphor ic acid and, on soils needing it, pot ash for grain crops or cotton, and by phosphoric acid and potash for fruits, potatoes and root crops. No other fertilizer Is so much needed by most Southern soils, and not until stable manure, rather than commercial fertilizers, is looked upon as the great essential to the mainte nance of a fertile soil, will It be pos sible to economically build up the waste lands of the South. Next week’s article will treat of commercial fertilizers, what they are and what they contain. Don’t feed poultry in filthy vessels or on dirty ground. It is a certain way to scatter disease. Keep every thing sweet and clean.—Prof. T. C. Karns. SOME NOTES ON FEEDING. I.—With Proper Feeding, Many Ills of Poultry May lie Avoided. It is generally a hard proposition to impress upon the average farmer poultryman the necessity of proper feeding to obtain the best results from a given ilock of fowls. Some breeds are disposed to convert their feed into ilesh rather than into eggs, while other breeds are not so easily made fat. The non-sitting breeds, such as Leghorns, Miuorcas, Anconas, etc., owing to their active dispositions, do not take on fat as readily as the larger breeds. In view of this assertion it is well to bear this matter in mind and use some judgment in feeding, as it is an easy matter to feed such breeds as Hocks. Wyandottes and Orpingtons loo much, and as the Leghorns are not so large, they are not compelled to eat such large quantities to produce the number of eggs for which they are so famous. In feeding the larger breeds we should be careful to supply plenty of bulky feed, such as green feed, roots and vegetables to help add to the gross amount of feed. II.—Wrong Feeding and Iairk of Eggs. It is necessary to study the habits and characteristics of each breed if we wish to make a success with them. In nine enses out of ton where we hear this owrn-out ex pression, “My hens are not laying,“ if we will take the pains and look into the matter, we will soon learn that the trouble lies in improper feeding; not in the amount fed, but in the way of feeding. Fowls, like the human race, need a variety of feed, and this variety acts as a tonic and a cure for many of their ills. III.—Hnve a Hcgulur Time to Fred. Another Important factor in the production of eggs is the regularity of feeding. If the fowls are accus tomed to be fed at a regular time, they are not slow to learn to be on hand, and If this time Is changed, they will be more than apt to be on the lookout for the feed than to be looking up bugs and worms which they would have done, had they re ceived the feed at the regular time. IV.—A Good Hatton for Laying liens. A good ration that has been uaed in the South for some time in the way of a grain ration, is composed of the following mixture: 50 pounds corn, 50 pounds wheat. 25 pounds buck wheat. This we feed as follows: To a pen of 2 5 liens, we take two quarts and scatter it well into the straw of the scratch pens as we open them up in the morning, at the same time we supply about a half peck of green feed chopped fine. Again in the mid dle of the day wo repeat our grain ration, cutting it somewhat if they do not seem to be very anxious for It At the evening feed we again feed about two quart*. Thl* constitutes the grain ration for a pen of 2 5 hen*, but the hopper* are alway* kept filled with the following mixture: 25 I pounds corn meal, 2 5 pound* ship j stuff, 50 pounds bran. 10 pound* beef n< rap and 2 pound* charcoal. To thl* the fowl* have free acce*a at all hours of the day. V.—It I’ay* to l-red Green iWmr, Just now we are feeding a goodly amount of freshly cut green bone, which we supply in place of the beef scrap. With this mixture our S. C brown Leghorn* are shelling out the . egg*, when price* are the highest and the mercury in the thermometer is the lowest. C. P. MILLER. When sending egg* to market, grade them up alike It doe* not pay to mix large and small and tho»<' of different color* together. T C i Kama. Get My Price This Ad Saves You Dealer, Jobber, Supply Men, Catalog-House Profits. Not c 3y Can Beat It Buy dire. t from the bi^jjest spreader factory in the world —my price ha* made it. No *uch price as 1 make on this bigh-Krade spreader has ever l*een made before in atl manure spreader history. Here's the secret ami reason: | make you a price on one based on a 30.000 quantity, and pay Galloway the freight rs^lit to your station. You only nay for a. tual i material, lalxir and one small profit, bated on this enor mous quantity. my Clin* her Propoultton (or 1910 with lowest price ever mi<l<- on it fir t Kprcu'ler. No. 5. complete* with •tf*#| true W». 70 bu. nUc: or Galloway Famout W«fon Hoi, 4 suet, (rora 50 to 60-bu.—with our agreement t«* I*uv vou bark your money uftcr you try It twelve month* 11 It's not n pttyiuu investment How * that tor a proposition? If I .lid not bavo the r>evt spreader. I would not dure m.ike «mh »n oiler. 40.WX) larmi'ti huve stumix-1 their O. K. Wm- Calloway Company, ol America. on If. Thor »II frlml It 10 <U«-t fra*. ju*t like I a»k you !<i try It —tl 1»A Yh I'KKK. Drop tno a postal oik! lay -"••at!*>way. • etv 1 mo your Clint bor 1‘ropoaltlon artl lltif Sprra.lrr ll-.ok. Fro*, with low prkca <llro» t ft. in f«. t ty T F At tea, 4 Xaayu, Kane, ariteem* -•trfteo pull II a III, tnjr email Una* 7 loan. |km *.«■! a -tk. Mae# ueod the lalura. llalluaay murk ll.e leal It to lay a <1 .eon m ••**>. they eotthl all lie Uailnaay* 'TlK.uaan.la mure letter* Ilka tbeaa here * »1» Galloway Mat lorn. Waterloo. Iowa GALLOWAY —Frelabt°Prep«|^ „ „ , , H*r* Arr VmCtm You W*"" T« Know: The out %»r„4,r M»n» M. Jol.naon. I'«rk.t..n Minn -| Im.,. ,, k, K1 h .... h would not tr*do my Hall.,... iur any $tX> o..i» .»iv. *7? ' ?*U * 11 ■_"UiUlU woAITtwo’f.V^'W- V*-‘ “,,U oTU, l*»fti that hr rah and .rii. iwoofiLa Ian t in it with Uto lotitowa;,•• »**«r out In other Eleven PHCC—the LOWPSt ^'^"thr Patent* feara > un ol ready hate. The ONLY Vnd Iras Apron Force Fred SprradrrIn the World. From 54 to 70 bu. (aparllv, Willi CompIrieStnl Truck Sprradrr. only ISO.OO.