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Editorial Page. The Right Way to Use Fertilizers. — ■ WOULD BE GLAD to know that every reader of The Progressive Farmer and Gazette has determined to begin this spring with a systematic rotation of crops on his farm, and to plan for its permanent building up in fer tility through good farming. But the prospect does not seem to be good yet for any general adoption of farming in place of growing crops for sale by means of fertilizers, for my mail is full of letters from farmers asking if it will pay them to use this, that or the other fertilizer mixture. It is a puzzle, with the best endeavors to help people, to advise them what fertilizer they should use on their land, as it is impossible for me to know what their particular 60il really needs. Many ask me for special for mulas for cotton, corn, oats, potatoes, and every crop they intend to plant, for, as I have often said, our farmers have gotten the notion that fer tilizers are sovereign cure-alls for all soil com plaints, and the greatest expenditure most of them make every year is for fertilizers. It would be a different thing if the land was growing better through this annual fertilization with complete fertilizers for every crop. But In the majority of cases it is not doing so, and the same old round of fertilization is adopted every year at a great cost, when more than half the cost could be avoid ed and the land bettered by a different course of treatment. I nave hammered at this idea for years, and will continue to do so in the paper and in personal replies to the fertilizer gamblers, for it is purely a gambling game to depend on fertilizers to make every crop vre grow. They may show a profit in the immediate crop, but the annual repetition of the practice leads to the need for more and more fertilizer, and more and more waste of money every year that could be saved by farming Instead of gambling on the chances with fertilizers only. Yet almost every letter I get from a farmer begins with the statement that he has a piece of poor land that he wants to grow a big crop of cotton or corn on, and wants to know how to mix a fer tilizer that will insure a large crop on land not in a condition to make one. Hence, I often read my correspondents a lecture In reply to their queries about fertilizers, and try to show them that they can save money and in crease the productivity of their land by good farm ing rather than by using so much fertilizer. If I were running a cotton farm, I would use the bulk of my fertilizers on the peas and crimson clover, and on these no ammoniated goods, but on many soils only acid phosphate or basic slag, for I would be sure that with an abundance of legume forage to feed I could make manure for my corn and be all the time getting all the nitro gen needed for the sale crops. Feed the legumes with what they need and they will feed the cattle and the soil. Profitable Corn Crops. n[D YOU NOTICE the accounts of the splen did corn crops the hoys made? And espe cially did you note the fact that one of the best crops was made without commercial fertilizer and but $8 worth of manure? The boy who used 1,000 pounds of fertilizer made corn at a cost of • 1 cents a bushel, while the boy who made corn with manure made It at a cost of 14| cents a bushel, or lees than half the cost where fertilizer was used. Then there Is another point. The manure added some humus-making material to the soil, and Its effects on crept for years may be seen while the residual effect of the fertilizer that added no humus will be far less. How much manure was bought for the $8, I do not know, for the price of manure varies in different localities Our truckers here, for Instance, use thousands of tons of New York stable manure that costs $2.7G per ton at the railroad station. At this price $8 would have added little to the acre. And yet, I know one farmer who bought last year 8,000 tons of this manure and made money out of It, while adding permanent Improvement to his soil. Another advantage of the manure Is, that It encourages the growth of grass. Right across the road from a place I have recently bought Is a sand ridge, where U Is fully ten feet to any clay. And yet, on that sand ridge there Is a sod of Kentucky bluegrass that Kentucky cannot boat, and no amount of commercial fertilizer could have ever made It, while the Increase of humus from stable manure and the growing of crimson clover have covered that deep sand with a rank sod. Is It not far better to Increase our crops through the growing of forage and feeding It and putting the manure out to make com for 14| cents a bushel than to spend our cash for commercial fer tilizer and make corn at a cost of 60 cents a bushel as many do? Mr. Batts made a great crop of corn, but it costs 65 cents a bushel. A farmer I know made 97| bushels over a whole field at a cost of less than 10 cents, because through years of good farming he has stocked his land with hu mus, and the clover sod gave him the crop with no fertilizer at all. For years I have been telling our farmers that It does not pay to grow com with commercial fertilizers. Not that they cannot at times show a temporary profit when com Is very high In price, but that In the long run they are losing money by so doing, instead of building up tbelr soil through legume crops and getting the humus back through feeding these. Cotton Still Our Best Crop. ■" ■" ■ '* " IT IS TRUE that cotton, aa it ha* been grown, ha* been the mean* of reducing the - fertility of the soil, but the damage ha* not been due to the crop, but because of bad fanning. With better farming !t is evident that cotton should be the greatest and most profitable money crop that can be made In the South. When a man makes over two bales of lint per acre at a cost of $10.96 per acre, as do some men I know, in a season like the past with cotton now worth 15 cents per pound. It Is evident that there are few crops that can compete with cotton for profit where the farmer farms Intelligently. That cotton has been, and is being, grown all over the South at too high a cost is certainly true, and that the majority of those devoting their exclusive attention to cotton have made no money u true Rut this is not the fault of the crop but of the farming. In the case of the man mentioned, had cotton been down to the lowest price, say 6 rent* per pound, he would hare made a fair profit per acre, while the cropper whose cotton costa 6 or 7 cent* per pound would have been a loser. There fore. it comes back to the fact that cotton 1* a very profitable crop where a man farms right, nnd a bad crop for the man who devotes all his atten tion and land to cotton and gambles on n little dose of 2—8—2 fertilizer, and expect* his cotton to pay for everything else he ne^ds. Rut all over the South there is now a wave of Interest In better methods that promises much for the future. usage Urange Hedges a nuisance. _ • i KARS AGO there wa* a grent furor for planting o*age orange for farm hedge*. - and In *omo of the best section* whole neighborhood* were lined with the*e hedge*, and farmer* thought that they had a permanent fence that would not cost a great deal for the annual trimming. For a time all went well. Then It was found that the roots of the hedge* ran ten or twelve feet into the field* and no crop* could be grown anywhere near them. *o that the lo«* was greater than the co*t of keeping up good fence*. Then It was found that the plant* would die out here and there, making gapB in the hedge, and the farmer* began to tire of the hedge*. Thon there was a revival of interest In them when a company with a patent plan of running wire* on the line of the hedge and cutting dltche* along side to prevent the roots from running out, ex ploited the whole oountry and got many to plant hedge* on their plan, the company promising to care for the hedge for a fixed price till estab lished. When I had charge of the agricultural Interest* of the Miller School in Virginia, one of thl* com pany's promoters got the ear of the board of trustees and persuaded them to plant three miles of their hedge. In vain I protested that I knew all about the worthlessness of the hedge, but it was planted, and I told them that in less than five years they would be glad to get rid of It. All of which turned out true. Now it is found that the osage orange Is the greatest of all harborers of the San Jose scale, and no matter how carefully a man sprayB his orchard trees, if he has a hedge of the osage orange, it will be always furnishing a fresh supply. In Maryland it haB been ordered that these hedges muBt be sprayed or destroyed. And there comes the trouble, for one had aa well try to kill sassafras and persimmon hushes aa th® hedges, for every root cut will sprout, and the hedge will got wider and wider every year if th* sprouts are allowed to grow, and it takes years of cutting to clean It up. Every one who has the worthless thing on hit land should at once set about Its destruction. Grub out all signs of roots as far as possible, and then watch for the sprouts and keep the mower running along the line of the hedge, for If the tops are constantly cut off the roots wnl finally die. Permanent Pastures in the South. OFTEN GET LETTERS from Southern farmers asking for methods for making a permanent pasture In the South and what grasses to aow. I usually advise starting with orchard grass and redtop with Kentucky blue, grass on the red clay upland, the bluegrass to form the Qnal sod. Of course, in most places the Bermuda will finally creep in. but the bluegrass can be maintained, I am sure, if the pasture has the proper attention. Simply left as a pasture and no further attention given. It Is certain that the field will finally be covered with broomsedge. You cannot maintain a good pasture constantly n » M • A 4 i. U MMt. U M A I A .A a — t- I _ _ ii. . a — — '-* •**»!* imp yui;r phate out of the land In the formation of their bony ayatem. and expect the aoil to maintain ila productiveness. Broomaedge la nature's means In the South for curing man * waste, and we would have had a howling wilderness but for the broom* sedge and the pine tree. But a pasture can be maintained In the South and broomaedge kept out If the pasture la treated properly. When the A. 4 M Collego was started at Ra leigh. N. C, we had one building on a alight eleva tion surrounded by a waits of brickbat* and »mall rocks on aa poor a piece of land as could be found In the neighborhood. The land was cleaned up and deeply broken and cowpe** sown and turned under the following fall and the land prepared and sown to bluegras* and rye grass for a lawn and parade ground. Every one there knows that a beautiful lawn was made One day a man from Ohio was visiting the college. In a trip look ing for land, and standing on the lawn, he said to me: "I have always heard that you could not grow grass In the South, but thla looks like yon could." And we certainly can If we give It proper attention. At the old experiment farm at Ra leigh. now the poultry department of the station, there I* on the top of a bar* unahaded hill a sod over twenty year* old that Is as strong and springy a* any In Kentucky; and Just auch a sod can be maintained on any of the red clay hill* of the South If cared for. Up In Maryland, not many ml!*# from the city of Baltimore, there la a section of rough hill* that were notoriously poor many year* ago. The own er* went into the grating of cattle, getting thin cattle from the West In spring and putting them on the grass and selling to the butcher* In th» fall. They only used two-year steer* with their bony system well formed, and the** did not «x haunt tho land an calm* and younicor cuttle would. The land carried few at first. but every spring the sod was dressed over with S00 pound* of raw bone meal per acre, and every year th* sod grew denser The land has been unbroken for more than fifty years, and to-day feeds more cattle by several time* over than It did at firs*, growing such a mat of grass that more is trodden down than Is eaten Now. I do not believe that there Is an old red. galled hill in the South that could not be main tained In sod and Improved In the same way and the broomsedge kept out by the ranker growth of the better grasses. Especially if once In sli or seven years a dressing of lime Is brushed in with a smoothing harrow, and weeds and rank tufts of grass from the droppings are mown off occasionally. You cannot eat your oake and keep it too, and this 1m truo of a permanent pasture V)U must feed the sod to keep it improving. Dressed with bone dust annually and limed once 1n Mix or seven years, wo can maintain a sod on clay soli In the South. On the lighter, sandy soils of the coast region llermuda and Texas bluegrass can be maintained In tho same way, the one for summer and the other for winter. Experiments that have been made at the etn tlonH, and especially at the Ohio Station, show that the effectiveness of manure !h greatly increas ed by the addition of even as little a* 40 pounds of acid phosphate or floats to a ton of manure.