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Farm and Garden Work For March.
F YOU ARE so unfortunate as to have fail ed to sow your oats last September, and - did not get them in in February, you still have in the upper South a chance to sow this month. But in spring sowing in the South I would always sow the winter oats, as I have found that they will make heavier oats than any of the Northern spring oats. More seed should be used in spring sowing than in fall sowing, as the crop will not tiller as much. Now, our friends who think that oats will turn to cheat will find that the spring oats never do, since the cheat sown in spring does not head with the oats, as it will if sown in the fall. But if you sow oats mixed with cheat seed, the cheat will be there all the same to infect the land after the oate are cut, unless the stubble is turned at once for peas as it should be. GET READY TO PLANT CORN.—Now, the farmer who was wise enough to get crimson clover on his land to be planted in corn can afford to wait till it is fairly mature before turning It down. In all parts of the South we have plenty of time to make a crop of corn after the clover has done all that it can for us, and with the ex ception of the Lower South, March corn planting Is seldom the best. The best crop of corn I no ticed last year was made after the clover was en tirely dead. If you are so unfortunate as not to have the clover on the land you propose to plant in corn, the sooner you get the land deeply plowed the better. Spring is not the time for subsoiling, even on land where subsoiling is needed, for the surface may be in good condition for plowing while the subsoil will be in such a condition that the subsoiler will merely plaster It. Good deep breaking and thorough chopping up with a cutaway is needed before planting, for you are going to work the crop shallow from the start. Some advise deep cultivation in the early stage of the corn crop. I have tried it, and as compared with shallow work from the start, I do not like it. I will have a good deal more to say on this next month. aft PREPARATION FOR COTTON:—The prepara tion for the cotton crop is, of course, the greatest interest at present. I have seen cotton above ground in Florida the middle of March, but I am not speaking of the great upland crop. Few fully understand the value of a complete preparation of the soil for this crop, and few realize that the roots of cotton will run far and wide across the rows. Why not try an experiment in preparing part of your cotton land very thoroughly, fertilize broad cast and plant on the level? Then run a weeder over the ground before the cotton is up to break the crust, and as soon as it is fairly up run the weeder again both ways. You can go over very fast and will loosen the soil right alongside the plants and stop the grass just germinating, and will not hurt half as many plants as you will nave 10 taae out any way. You can use the weed er till time to chop to a stand. Then do not complain about the scarcity of la bor when you put a man and a mule to every cul tivator or sweep, but put one man with a pair of mules and a riding cultivator to do more and bet ter work than three men can do with plows. There is an awful waste of human labor in the South, and it is time to make a change. Make a change not only in the Implements used, but in the man ner of cultivation. Keep the two-horse cultivator going shallowly and never allow a crust to stay on the land. Especially in dry weather, keep stir ring an inch or two and keep the dust blanket on the soil to check evaporation. But more of this later. The thing now at hand is the complete pulverization of the soil in prepa ration for the planting. Throwing up rough, cloddy beds and then drilling the seed on them is not a good way to get a stand. Even where bed ding is adhered to, the soil should be put into the best condition before running a furrow and a light roller over the beds will put them in condi tion to retain moisture for the germination of the seed. Then plant as early as is safe in your sec tion. The German writer Goethe wrote: "Are you in earnest? Seize this very minute. What you can do, or think you can do, begin it. This is a good rule in all farm operations. IN THE GARDEN.—The tomato plants should now he well on the way in the hotbed and can be moved into glass or cloth covered frames to be hardened for setting out late in the month where frost is over and later northward. I once set out tomato plants at Raleigh, N. C-, March 1 .th, and on the 26th the mercury was down to 21 above zero. But the evening before 1 bent each plant down and placed a wisp of hay on it and then shoveled the soil over it, and the plants came through the freeze all right. The earlier we get tomato plants out and live, the earlier they will give us fruit. In all the warmer parts of the South the early Irish potatoes will be in the ground, If not above it, and in the upper sections where the crop may not yet have been planted, no time should be lost in getting them in. As far north as eastern North Carolina we can . . . . . ^ - a M _ __ ^ « W* uttte ine rioiv m iimuuus a ouop-u^aua | last week in March. If they get frosted. It is only a few seed lost, and if they escape, we will be iu early. If you did not get your early beets planted in February, sow them fct once. Onion seed may still be sown in the upper South If gotten In the first week in March, and will make good onions. Much later they will make sets only. Plants of the Prizetaker onion that were grown from seed sown in frames in January should now be traae planted. The early cabbages should have the ridges worked down and the soil well cultivated. A dressing of nitrate of poda along the rows will help greatly. As the plants get Into large site, and seem slow to head, running a one-horse plow deeply, with the moldboard off, will cut some of the roots and give a check that will cause them to head more rapidly. Plants of lettuce for the late crop can now be set, and for this purpose there Is no variety belter than the Wonderful. Plants of Succession cab bages from seed sown in frames early can now be set, but the seed for late cabbages should not be sown till late summer. A little garden corn may be planted. For this purpose, plant the Adams Early. It Is not a su luiu, uui luu uc pianicu earner man mo wrinkled corn. As soon as It is up, plant some of the Country Gentleman sweet corn. This is as early a variety as will do well In the South; the extra early sorts seldom succeed. The later and better varieties of garden peas can still be sown. I use for this planting the Premium Gem and Nott's Excelsior, both dwarf varieties that need no sticking For the taller sort, I use chicken-wire netting, and And this the best and cheapest thing to use in the garden for beans and other climbing plants, as It will last a life-time if rolled up and put away when not In use. Then, too. it is so much neater than brush or bean poles. Cattle Feeding in the South. H. JACKSON, of Salisbury, Maryland, has Just put In his barns for stall feeding this - winter, 375 young Western steers. And yet we have correspondents in the South who im agine that it does not pay to feed cattle. Mf .T KOft ft fi a t ti # 4# i. a a. a -- -- K-/ " vv IVUU uin cum, i even at present prices. Instead of selling the raw material. He has six or eight large silos and with 20 tons of corn silage per acre he gets a great amount of excellent feed, and with the manure made gets an Increasing growth of corn and other crops. He makes Immense amounts of peavlne -nd crimson clover hay and cuts up corn for silage that would make from 76 to 100 bushels of corn per acre, while all over the South are men who are making about 16 bushels of corn per acre and declaring that they cannot afford to feed cattle Of course they cannot till they grow enough to feed them on, and the only way to get It Is to feed as much as one can grow, knowing that he will be able to feed more and more as his crons In crease through the use of ft,e manure and the growing of the legumes for the stock. With the great Increase In the price of beef there Is every Inducement for Eastern and Southern farmers to eed cattle In winter and thus not only get manure but cash for the spring work. Then there Is another point It has been well shown that the tick, the bane of cattle raising iu the South can be abolished, and the farmers re lieved of the quarantine. As fast as the united farmers In any county adjacent to the quarantine line rid their county of ticks, they will get north of the line and have the best chance for feeding cattle. Some day the farmers of the South will wake up to the great waste that they are making In letting their valuable cottonseed meal go out to enrich the land of other people through the feeding of It, and they will be stirring themselvee to grow silage snd hsy to enable them to feed In a proper way the vast amount of meal that goee abroad. When all the food sources of the Southern farms are utilised no one can estimate the wealth that will come to the farms and the farmers through stock feeding. The Western plains no longer supply sll the cattle needed, and every year the making of beef will be more and more profitable In the East, snd with every fanner growing feed and feeding some cattle In winter the days of bumblebee cotton will be ended. How They Do it in Denmark. □E REAR a great deal a beet the wonderfully . prosperous dairying that la carried on In Denmark. Away up there as far north ae the Inhospitable land of Labrador on this side. the farmers are well-to-do. and supply a large part of the dairy products that Raglaad needs A writer In an English paper who visited Denmark says: ''Oa a farm of CSO acres I visited, everything la so arranged as to produce a regular supply of milk the year round, and not keep England waiting for the butter she won t produce for herself. On this farm there were ISO cows. 14 borsee and 40# pigs, and 11 men and women to look after them and the farm work. The owner Is a Misled by a manager, a feeding master and a foreman He told me that be could easily keep more cowe and more pigs and produce larger crops If he could only get the labor.” Rut note that this man has more than one herse to every 1* scree and keeps a large stork at cattle and bogs. He has cemented pita to catch all the liquid drainage from the stables and saves everything In the way of manure, snd makes won derful crops of forage on that land where men have been farming It since the dawn of history, while right here In the South, where the land has been cultivated In a far better climate for a hue area or two year*, we are talking about ”*rom* out” land. * It la the cattle aad the manure and the rotation of crop* that have made the difference, aad ham kept tbo*e old landa In a cold cllcaatn Increasing in production, while our virgin eotla bare hs*ra wasted. The demonstration work of Dr. Knapp and his helpers la rousing our people to the fact that large crops can be made la practicing a good method on a fewr acre* What w* now need ta demonstration* that take In tba whole farm, showing that by good farming, a proper rotation of crops, and the feeding of stock, we can makn the farm Increase In the production of our money crop and make good crops ail around wbila using but a fraction of the commercial fertilisers for which our farmers are annually spending millions Of dollars they need nnl ..J for what they Deed not buy. S Ur. Duller well says that *lbe disadvantage* of » system of cropping which does not give profit able employment throughout the year to men and I'-nms are many and far-reaching as affecting tb* labor and other economic conditions of tb# farm.” You will note that the Danish farm, with It# ong winter, keeps 3] hands, and would keep more I* they could be had. I have a ne«r neighbor who works «00 sere# of land and a large part of It Is used for truck and berry culture He keeps 20 hands all winter, and Increases to 7 6 In summer, and makes money • noiigh every year to buy a doten farms In many parts of the South. He makes a good deal of manure, but last year bought 3.000 tons of N#* York stable manure at a cost of $3.75 per ton de livered. as he finds that while using over 70 tons of fertilisers he cannot keep his land In the best condition without stable manure too. This man started with nothing but youth and energy on as poor a piece of sandy soil as can be found, noth ing but sand and sassafras bushes, and recently refused $100,000 for hla land.