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Subsoiling and Terraces.
T HAS BEEN assumed by many of our readers that I have advocated deep sub soiling under all conditions of soils, while I have uniformly tried to show that in my own ex perience, and that of others I have had oppor tunity to observe, there is seldom any advantage in subsoiling on level lands that need drainage more than anything else, and that on light sandy soils it may be a positive disadvantage. Where lands are light and sandy it is generally an advantage to get something of a firmer nature, a sort of hard-pan, below reasonably deep plow ing, to check the tendency of such soils to be leachy; and on U.nds where the sandy soil is too deep for the ordinary plow to touch clay, very deep plowing may be a disadvantage. In the level clay soils, subsoiling will do little good, for the loosened subsoil will at once settle back as firm as ever, and the benefit that might at times show will hardly pay for the extra expense. But there are lands all over the South where deen siihsoiliTifi- will ho of immon co hon oflt TVirtoA i aro the hilly lands of the Piedmont section. On these lands I know, from practical work on them, that a deep subsoiling is one of the very best means for checking the washing and gullying of the soil. I know, from having wrorked as steep red hills as are in cultivation anywhere, that if the land is plowed eight inches regularly and sub soiled six to eight inches deeper, and a sod is al ways turned when the land is broken for a hoed crop, there will be no need for terracing, if the crop is cultivated level and shallow and no fur rows made around the hills to catch a head of water. It is the shallow breaking and the lack of vegetable fiber to hold the soil together that have made the gullies in the red hills of the South. I know that the sod and the deep plowing and subsoiling will check washing better than all the terraces ever made, for I have practiced it with success. On hills that have for generations been scratch ed over and the humus completely worn out it will not do to abandon the terraces all at once. We must restore the humus by adding vegetable matter to the soil, and get a sod to turn when ever the hills are broken, and then keep them but a season in clean culture and back to the condi tions that will make more vegetable matter before another clean hoed crop is planted. But, given Uie soil conaiuons mat will resist washing, and then add the deep breaking and subsoiling, and you will need no terracing whatever. Farmers in the hills of Georgia who have taken my advice in this matter have found that I am right. Another great advantage in deep subsoiling of the red hills is the retention of the water in the land and the prevention of damage from drouth. A Northern man writing recently in reply to a Southern hill farmer on the red clay, told him that probably the land needs drainage, for they found that on upland clay in the North under drains are important. But the compact, glacier ground clay of the North is a very different thing from the coarser texture of the red lands of the South that have never been ground by glaciers, and the retention of the water is of far more im portance on these hills than under-drainage. I f believe there are terraced lands in the South on i hills covered with broken rock, where it would be £ of great advantage to dig deep ditches on the t upper side of the terraces and in these bury the rocks from the surface below the reach of the c plow, not for drainage but for the holding of the I water to soak slowly into the soil below. 1 But on all of our level lands I do not think, j and the experiments of Southern stations have i shown, that it does not pay to subsoil, while it I does pay to turn fairly deep. I __ I Notes and Comments on the Implement , Special. _ < nHAT PICTURE of (he man riding on a disk 1 plow looked very different from (he old- j _ time single mule scratching the soil with a toothpick plow. It also reminds me of the maps in the last issue of the Crop Reporter from the Department at Washington showing the distribu tion of farm animals in this country. In the map ' showing the distribution of horses, the large ma jority is shown to be in the North, while the map showing the number of mules In the various sec JUST WHA T IT MEANS. HERE are yet farmers living here who buy com and hay and flour from the West! What does this mean ? It means that the money that ought to go to the education of your children, money that ought to be used in improving your homes, money that ought to be used to build that sand-clay road which you didn’t come to town on today, is being used in those far Western States to edu cate people whose acquaintance you will never enjoy, to make beautiful homes you will never live in, and to build roads you will never ride over.— T. B Parker. --Jj Lions shows that the South has the majority of mules. But there is another phase of the matter not shown in the map. This is, that the mules were not raised in the South, but bought from the Northern and Western breeders, and paid for out of the Southern farmers’ crops. With only mules on the farm you cannot raise mules, and while the mule is probably the best work animal in the South, we should keep more horses and mares and raise the mules instead of buying them. “The one-mule plow and the single sweep are going to give place to more modern implements,” says the Editor; and this is going on. for l get many inquiries where to get the best two-horse cultivators, showing that farmers are thinking on this matter. Agricultural improvements move slowly, but all the same the tide Is setting that way in the Soutii, and one looking back twenty years can see how great the advance has been. J» Then the Editor says: "Cheap labor has never made any country rich.” This, too, reminds me of a visit I paid to a fine farming section in Penn-! ylvania. It was up on the high plateau in War en County, a mile or so south of the New York State line, where I lectured at a farmers’ Insti ute. I had a large and attentive audience of well Iressed, and mainly young men. I was told that hree-fourths of these men were hired farm lands, who were getting $25 to $35 per month md board, and that every one of them was look ng forward to the time when he would have a arm of his own. And the appearance of the arms and farm-houses there showed that th<* arniers were thrifty, for ail they pay such high sages. And they are growing crops that are not marly as good money crops as the cotton crop iut the labor they have is used in the most pro luctive way. They are intelligent men who art* dred on the farms, and they use the most im >roved machinery, and know how to use it, and saving plenty of horse power the human labor is vorth double that usually employed on farms in he South. These farm bands do not take half-holiday Saturdays, they do not run off to baptising* and unerals, or go on excursions as the negroes do, jut they have a purpose In life, and are saving heir money for the time when they. loo. win .ave to pay the same wage*. Mr. French well places humus at the head of ‘fficient farm tools, for no matter what median cal contrivances you have, the humus .. nor«>* .;»r> 0 make a mellow and productive soil. Mr. I'rench talks about the spots that naturally make 1 good seed bed, but how about the hard gall* where the plow Jumps out when It strike* them? It takes harder work to break them because tb<> tumus is not there to help, and the first thing In be improvement of a gall Is to get the humus here to help you. Jt I have been on the farm of Mr. Clarendon Davis n Alabama and know that he practice* what he preaches so well for tho one-man farmer. Wo want more one-man farmers, but want all tho jne-mulo farmers to get spunk enough to get nore team, and no young man with the proper ‘tiergy need remain a one-mule farmer v< Mr. Hufflne# Is right about tho bull Make him work enough to give him exercise and prevent his jetting vicious. When on*- of our A A M boy went up to take charge of Mr. Vanderbilt's cow* at Biltmore, l went over there when In Asheville lo lee how he was getting along. He had the bull In the tread-power runlng the cream separa lor ami churning butter, and he did it very well Indeed, and it was good for tho bull, too Jl The day of the hoc farmer is passing. The hoe Ik a costly tool, for It takes a man to every hoe, mid one man with a wcoder early In the season can prevent more weed* than ten men can chop nut. Even in the garden tho hoe is of llttio use If we have one of the *•«»>-w orkltig hand-wheel cultivators. Cotton prices are abnormally high thl* season, ret there nre plenty of men who will not make any uroflt on their cotton crops. If their work is count 'd at a fair rate. ’I beae are tho very fellow*, loo. who are likely to try to increase their acreage thl* year. Honestly, don’t you think a farmer should he«i ate before ho complains of the high price* of ’arm products which he might rals.*? .riant lotion One Seed at a Time '[-Equally Spaced-“Thick” or “Thin’n ^VITinSwJ»p2f^Mt!25|<lJ.tll ’’huve'lla.'nr or “ore. °r » P«ck or lew to the acre- <,n« to five alone and continue* togrow even If cbiiiUiM,1* l.rf*orlt *“'1 einenaeof chopping, aa each plant standi >‘ale» of cotton on saute land* that now vV.. i /* * ' J* ing— no cluster::-— no skip*. l'roduoe b Ledbetter Seed Planter I crack or cru»h bmsI. Hu,, i ,1,,1. vl> Uoc“not /// W A A regularity, also Pea*, horghutn.Mmet.^ue.X"1^ ^W// // y^^ « Write For Books Free^W* Hniff •H* we^iny ^ orjbct ter*y e t Jreinlt114, now*. uJ*a v<M I m.. YOUr If your dealer does not *ell the LetllM tur.vl ."liM _ * WUF prepay the freight. Absolutely guarantee.! to pi... -' X \ A.RrvStf? CtmnnlnfT youmevery way or money refunded without on.-VA 1/ V“UFF,UU tlon. Write for book, showing this and other style* \ /jffl' EXPeUSe The Southern Plow Co. ,sijr_ SuNjfiK —alKO half tin* time anil I • work. i'lanta utand alone. 123 Camp St. Dallas, Texas "H-n'-wng.' Vlr'h We iihip promptly from Dalian. Tex.; Little Kook. Ark.; Juiknon Min*. Y*^ [Yi>T* \5^V plant ban room to ^r°W ev*” * * C*,°P' ( “Provide wide rows and |.l<-mTo7 m,'!!? V! °f “,ntf,Uin* thc »*>» Wendt I for the aHHiManr•». .if *i tyor *!«•“ ," tw" n tin* (limits in the rows I *°r U‘e ad' f 8 tfh ln,;:,,"ral r"Tin °* ",r Weevil, whirh do more ujcuns " *l than the farmer can do himself by any known I «„ the THE HARRIMAN seed dropper ■ 'v ' ” csu'!-,?t,droi»s,|hr for " "'*ully following Oils advice be I \\ Ws fjMfej wani it ,nd h'Jt'Z " milar Interval# Juat where you ■ r ift. no ex i!r nil v»* V rn,,ujh ' »> »'»»* to In.urea g.,.„| atund - fl Can W, fV |, M ,i,.i ,.,‘h .< hotu>ln« out. s,,.,id„nl have loin-mil,dor ■ also be [\IV A ^•d»dforuM(n this droiaK-r, and I huahel win plant 4 i I permits Vh‘ low ‘ 1,;" ' ■’ wheel r, gulat-adepth and It Irm J^jS^riaillla u._._Ing quirk germination. Pj !’an** ^LxBrllg labor, money „,M| i,,*r‘,.1'. »*'• •«»• rn.„,gh iti„ tli.t yr»r In ■ ' ^ li Wnie TODAY and we^»,nil'','! 'I' HJS ,u[ "•* " lhr«*f Ilmen over, I ■ CORN ySWjKgfra —ofUiswork ol hi, W„ ' OWISI ISO I-PIMIP ■ PEAS, 1 1 U,,,cr- »«•> ) uu Wb. r« lu buy II. E BEANS TH* MNuraeTURMQ co.