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WHAT THE SOUTH CAN LEARN FROM NEW ENGLAND
(Continued from page 453.) exerted upon the politics of America is no doubt largely due to the effec tiveness of their political machinery resulting from this system of govern ment. As Jefferson himself declared in speaking of New England’s influ ence in the War of 1812: “How pow erfully did we feel the energy of this organization in the case of the em bargo? I felt the foundations of the Government shaken under my feet by the New England townships. There was not an individual in these States whose body was not thrown with all its momentum into action; and although the whole of the other States were known to be in favor of the measure, yet the organization of this little selfish minority enabled it to over-rule the Union. What would the unwieldly counties of the Middle, the South and the West do?” jt I should like to see a movement started even now in every Southern State looking to the development of this township system of government. So long as the negroes voted largely, this may not have been expedient in all cases, but there is now no longer any reason why we should not secure for ourselves this most important piece of governmental machinery so often advocated by the political idol of our Southern people. In a letter to Samuel Kercheval in 1816, Jeffer son declared: “The article nearest my heart is the division of the coun ties into wards (townships).” Again, writing Joseph C. Cabell, he said: “As Cato concluded every speech with the words, ‘Carthago delenda est,’ so do I every opinion with the words, ‘Divide the counties into wards.’ ” On another occasion, he said: “Pub lic education and the subdivision of the counties Into wards (townships): I consider the continuance of Repub lican government as absolutely hang ing on these two hooks.” * Since I am saying so much of Jef ferson and his township system of government, I am reminded of a re mark made by Dr. Geo. H. Martin, Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education in a recent offi cial report. I quote: “More than a hundred yeare ago Thomas Jefferson laughed at Massachusetts for trying to be a commercial State without a piece of timber for a keel, and a man ufacturing State without wool or cotton, Iron, or coal. Neverthe lnpn nli a V, n Jl _ _ _ i« W“V “MU UUliC wen up to the present time, because of her leadership; she will never be handicapped so long as she raises men and womep of vigorous, alert and well poised thought and skill.” When we come to look for the rea sons which have enabled Massachu setts to overcome the natural difficul ties which Jefferson thought insur mountable, and not only to overcome them but to out-distance his own State of Virginia and all other South ern States, it is plain that nothing else has been more important than the superiority of Massachusetts upon the very points declared by Jefferson to be fundamental—general educa tion and the township system of gov ernment. When we consider that of each thousand native whites born of native parents there are in Mis sissippi sixteen times as many who can not read and write as in Massa chusetts, in Alabama thirty times as many, in Arkansas twenty-two times as many, and in Louisiana forty times as many, we have a fact which goes far to explain why the per capita wealth of Massachusetts in 1900 was fM49 as compared with $42b ini I Mississippi, $494 in Alabama, ?b<:u in Louisiana, and $503 in Arkansas the larger proportion of negroes in Mississippi explaining the State s especially low averages. It has been said that when the Pilgrim fathers came over they first fell upon their knees and then upon the aborigines, but if these were the first two things they did, the third thing was certainly to build a school house. Do you remember the ex tract from the Shurley memorial ad dress by Mr. Victor S. Bryant we pub lished in our last Educational Special. It is so appropriate just here that I can not refrain from reprinting it: “Mr. Shurley knew and taught that as long as the Southern la borer earned 50 cents a day, and the New England laborer $2 a day, so long would the South re main poor and New England prosper. That so long as a Southern State Bells the labor or her young men at ten, fifteen, twenty, or thirty dollars a month, and imports young men from Massachusetts to earn one hundred, five hundred, or one thousand dollars per month, so long will one State remain near the foot and the other at the ladder of wealth. But he also knew and taught us that the Southern laborer would earn as much as the New England labor er whenever he could do the same work, and his abiding faith in his own people, made him believe the difference not in nat ural endowment, but a difference in training. This training was the work of the school—the work of education. Although his opportunity to teach it was poor, he knew the hand should be trained with the head.” New England was wise enough to see that buying negroes to do poor work did not pay, and that educating her own children to do good work did pay. The South has fallen be hind because it has had the wrong end of both these propositions. Thank God, however, we are at last waking up and are beginning to train our own people, and we Bhall soon begin to give our Southern chil dren the same educational advantage* that the New England children have had, and so have our agricultural and manufacturing development such aB will make us worthy rivals of New England even In material prosperity. Just In this connection, moreover, I am reminded that while New Eng land has been far too wise to allow her children to he worked In cotton mills, or any other manufacturing en terprises, thousands of our own white children have been stunted in body and mind in order to make dividends for New England capital invested in the South. In Massachusetts no child under fourteen is allowed to work in a factory under any circumstances whatever; no child under, or between fourteen and sixteen, unless able to read and write,—and not only to read and write, but to read and write well enough to enter the fourth grade,— and no child is allowed to do night work under any circumstances. More than this, no child can be employed by any factory unless a sworn cer tificate as to its age be given by its parents, and this certificate approved as correct by the local school commit tee or their agent, and kept on file for inspection by truant officers whose duty it is to see that all children who ought to be are in school. Going further, the manufacturer must keep posted, a list of the names of all minors employed by him, and the JState employs fourteen factory in spectors, a part of whose duties it is to see that these laws are enforced. Massachusetts is far too wise to sacrifice her future by grinding out the lives of little children, however much the Yankee may be said to care for the dollar. It is with shame that we coufess that the same can not be said of every Southern State. Last of all, and most of all, how ever, I would have you remember that New England has forged ahead of us here in the South because It has lived up more fully to Jefferson's declaration: “Public education and the subdivision of the counties into wards (townships): I consider the continuance of Republican government as absolutely hang ing on these two hooks.” The spirit of Massachusetts i8 shown by the fact that in front of its magnificent capital stands a statue of Horace Mann, the great apostle of universal education, side by 8|de with a statue of Daniel Webster. When the South remembers to honor its great constructive leaders in edu cation and Industry no less than Its Presidents and Senators and Gener als, we shall soon reach the time when our Southern States may rie with Massachusetts In wealth and in political influence. nn the markets, inn NEW ORLEANS COTTON. Quotation* baaed on cotton sold on *pot terms. Low ordinary-....- It Ordinary-.....- H ** 3ood ordinary..— IS is 16 Low middling—___ H Middling.-. >6 Oood middling... 15 S Middling fair. IMI-I® Fair. l« ~ i« MEMPHIS COTTON. Good ordinary-IS *» Low middling--- —— li h Middling-15 Good mlddiLng-16 M GRAIN. FK KIJSTUFFS, ETC. CORN IN HULK Per llu*hel-No. I white 71: No. S m<ir<' e7o.; No. > yellow 6Ro. BRAN—Per 1 WV-«I 17. OATS- T’tr Mu*hel—No. S white. tiWa.; No. I mixed. 431 ii. HAY-PerTon. In Halce—No. I U9 50. No I Bl 50; choice. IS2 50 CORN MEAL bbl.-fl.45 to IS 50 FLOUR, hard wheal. Kansae patent* 16 Si to •6 50. MISSISSIPPI. LOUISIANA, A NO ALABAMA LIVE STOCK. BEEVES— Choice-« to 6 Fair to good-8 to ss Oxen— Fat-... 31* to 4** Oxen—Common to fair _.. it* to s', COWS AND HEIFERS— Choice—..... >H to • Fair to good. Si* to M Old poor row*, per head_SR 00 to 11 00 BULLS AND STAGS— Buila-SH to 81* Stag*....—. 8»» to SS YEARLINGS— Choice. 850 to 800 lb*, per lb. a*, to *v* Choice sio to 350 pound*. 4 to 6 Common, to fair. 3 to IS pai .\r Choloe. 300 to no lb*.. par lb. 4W to 5S Pair to good, per baad.le 00 to ft oo MILK OOW8 Cboloo.4s:> oo to y> oo Pair to good ... lft 00 to SO 00 8PRINGP.K8 Cboiee..—.4*. oo to »oo Common to fair....... le oo to C oc HOGS Corn fed. i>er lb..._...._... ft to U Corn fed pigs w to IK lb* . par lb. ft to 0 Mast fed. per lb. ..... 7 to ft HHEEP Good fatabecp. per ib.... 4)4 to e Common to fair, par bead.It.00 to 1.00 RICK. CLEAN-PER POUND Honduras.. S\ to ev» straight*. I to ja» screening*. IS to m No * actual sale* at.. IS to tS Japan, bead. I to 3S straight*. IS to IS screenings.. is to lH No. 3. actual aalea at .. m to SS ROUGH. Honduras (bbl. 163 lbs )...4 I 75 to 13 oc actual sale* at. 340 to 3 M Japan.. I W. to 3.0* actual sales at . I !ftJ to 8.7* Hic« bran, according to analy*i*.. lh oo to lo 0C Hlcc i>oli»h. i*er ion from mill*... *6 uu io t7 Ot NEW YORK PRODUCE. Old potatoes, $l@l,25 per 180 lbs. In bulk; new, Southern, per bbl., No. 1, $email@example.com for while; red, $firstname.lastname@example.org; culls, 75c.@$l. Sweets, 50c. fe$l per basket. Texas yellow onions, per crate, $1.50@2; white $1,500(1.75. Cabbage, 40@76c. pel bbl. Asparagus, $email@example.com per doz bunches. Cucumbers, $firstname.lastname@example.org foi N. C.; 75c. @$1.25 for S. C. and 50c @$1 for Georgia. Eggplants, $1.2E @2 per crate. Green corn, $email@example.com£ per crate for N. C.; $1@3 for Fla.; and $2 @3 per 100 for N. O. Horse radish, $2 @3 per 100 lbs. Kale 25©50c. per bbl. L<ettuce, 60c. 0$i per bbl. Lima beans. $103 per bas ket. Okra. $1.50 0 3.50 per bbl. Ovsterplants. $20 3 per 100 bunch es. Peppers, $2 0 3 per box for large Parsley, per bbl., $10 2. Peas, large slxe, Baltimore, 75 0 85c. per basket; small, 75 0 80c.; Jersey, large slxe. 14-bbl. basket, $1,120 1.37. Radishes, 50075c. per 100 bunches. Rhubarb. $101.50; per 100 bunches. Scallions, 50 075c. per loo bunches. String beans, green. 1-3 basket, 30 0 60c.; wax. 25 (<i 75c. Spinach. 30 0 60c. per bbl. Squash. 75c.0$1.25 per bbl. for w hite; yellow , 76c. 0 $1.60. Turnips. $2 0 2.50 per bbl. for rutabagas; w hite. 60c. 0 $2 per 100 bunches. Tomatoes, fancy Fla., per carrier, $1.5002; choice. $1.1201.60. Wa tercress. $10 1.75 per 100 bunches. Apples, $3 0 5 per bbl. Peaches, $1 25 0 1 75 per carrier for Oa.; Tex as. $1.750 2 per bushel. Plums, $2 25 0 2 50 per carrier for Karly June, and $1.75 0 2 25 for other sorts Sweet cherries. 9 013e. per qt.; sour. 80 10c. Currants. 100 12c.. per qt Strawberries, 4 010c. per qt. Blackberries, N. C., 6 010c. Per qt. Rnspberrles, 6 0 9c. per pint Huckleberries. 100 12c. Gooseber ries. 7 0 9c. Muskmelons. per crate. $1.50 0 2. Watermelons, $30 0 50 per 100. Butter, 23 He. for factory; 28c for creamery specials. Kggs. 190 22c. l.«*t hr teach honestly and boldly that education In not only the bent thing In our civilisation for which public money can be used, but that with the exception of Ignorance It la also the moat expensive.—Dr. Chaa. D. Mclver. Farraiig is Profitable In The Southeast There la no better occupation for the Average Man than Farm ing and no Sectlou la Superior to the South for a Good Farmer. Farming la a Oreat Bualneaa and should be carried on by the Appli cation of the Beat Bualneaa Princi ples. The Proper Location, the Study of Soils, Seed Selection, the Wise Choice and Rotation of Crops and Careful Cultivation will bring Assured Success. We are In position to Aid You In the Selection of the Proper Lo cation In Districts which Present Splendid Advantages and Oppor tunity. in writing tell us what You Want. M. V. RICHARDS, Lmm* BmU Waslilngton, - - - - D. C.