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PERMANENT PASTURES FOR THE SOUTH. I._why Pastures Are Needed, How They Will Pay, and How They Add to the Beauty of the Farm. By A. L. French. FARMERS ALL over America are—since the price of live stock has taken such an up ward turn — inquiring earnestly about pastures, and men are figur ing to see if they may find the real value of good pastures. Many factors have to do with the subject. There is the fertility of the soil to be con sidered. A rich soil filled with a. l french. humus, being much more retentive of moisture than a poor soil, will, of course, pro duce far heavier crops of pasture grasses. Then the average rainfall of a section and its distribution throughout the year has much to do with the productivity of grass, as well as other plants. The variety of grasses used is another factor to be considered, some plants having a far greater food value than others. Then the class of animal that is to feed on a pasture has a very great deal to with determining the income producing ability of the pasture, and hence its value to the farmer. Then when considering the value of pasture we must not forget the improvement that comes to nearly all soils—and especially those in clined to wash—from having perma nent sods covering them winter and summer, guarding them at the one season from losses that come through erosion by reason of the successive freezing and thawing of steep lands, and during the other from losses equally heavy caused by torrential rains and burning suns. And in the South all pastures are producing some legume almost con tinually and thus the soil is becom ing richer all the time in nitrogen. And all the time it must be remem bered that with permanent pastures there is no “seed time” or harvest as we speak of them in connection with other crops. Good soil, clear of all foreign mat ter, growing nothing but grass and clover, will during a term of years r-_ _ —.1 produce feed sufficient to graze as many head of stock about six months in the year as an equal area of like fertility cultivated will produce suffi cient feed to carry for the oth er six—with some extra feed from the cultivated area to aid the pas ture during times of extreme drouth. In the case of the pasture, the an nual expense is only a few cents per acre for grubbing and weed cutting, while with the cultivated area the expense runs several dollars per acre. But there are other advantages of the pasture. Having pasture, we nat urally have animals and these ani mals may be used many times as foragers or gleaners, and in that way make use of many products that would otherwise bring the farmer only their manurial value—sheep in the grain stubble fields, consuming weeds, briers, etc.; pigs In the pea stubble, making cheap hogs of them selves; cattle turning peavines and corn stalks into beef, milk or growth, are some of the further-off benefits emanating from the permanent pas ture. Then there is the beauty the pas ture adds to the farm. We all see beauty in the farm crops—‘the calm beauty of the maize (the giant grass) at sunset on a still day, or its grand er beauty when storm-tossed; the golden beauty of the ripening grain; the snowy beauty of the burstiug cotton; the many charms of the meadow with its sweet-scented clov ers. But the pasture holds a charm all its own to the writer; gently roll ing with its carpet of green, studded here and there with shade trees, it holds on its bosom the promise of fat pigs and calves, rollicking colts and lambs, cows with udders almost bursting as they come sauntering home at nightfall. No prettier pic ture is given us to look upon than the pasture, clean, every rod covered with grass, rich in promises that are always fulfilled. BEE KEEPING FOR FARMERS. XIII.—A Press Bulletin of Great Value to lie© Keepers—Hand for Farmers’ Bulletin 307. By Prof T, C. Karns, Powell Station. Tenn. I HAVE RECEIVED from the United States Department of Ag riculture a press notice so full af valuable information for the bee keeper that I give it entire instead of my regular ar ticle. It was writ ten by Jos. A. Ar nold, Editor and Chief of the Di vision of Publica tions. His sub ject is ••Bees,” and the article is as follows: “There is money in bee keeping if it is managed properly. Bee keeping is being carried on with both profit and pleasure by many thousands of people in all parts of the United States, and while, as a rule, it is not the sole occupation of those who pursue it, there are many places where an experienced bee keeper can make a good living by devoting his entire time and attention to this line of work. “The average annual honey yield per colony for the entire country should be from 25 to 30 pounds of comb honey, or 40 to 50 poundB of extracted honey. The money return to be obtained from this crop depends entirely on the market and the meth ods of selling the honey. If sold di rect to the consumer, extracted honey brings from 10 to 2 0 cents per pound and comb honey from 15 to 25 cents per section. If sold to dealers, the price varies from C to 10 cents for extracted honey and from 10 to 13 cents for comb honey. All of these estimates depend largely on the qual ity and neatness of the product. From the gross return must be deducted from 50 cents to $1 per colony for the expenses other than labor, in cluding foundation, sections, occa sional new frames and hives, and other Incidentals, not, however, pro viding for increase. “These figures, however, are based on a system of good management. Bee keeping, to be profitable, re quires hard work, knowledge and ex perience. Much Btudy is required to insure success, it is unwise, there fore, for the average Individual to undertake extensive bee keeping without considerable previous ex perience on a small scale, since there are so many more details which go to make up success in the work Learn the ways of bees, how to han dle them, and what kind of equip ment is best. Then begin on a small scale, make the bees pay for therfl selves and for all additional appara tus, as well as some profit, and let the business grow gradually. “Above all It should be emphasised that the only way to make bee keep ing a profitable business Is to pro duce only a first-class article. We can not control what the bees bring to the hive to any great extent, but by proper manipulation wo can get them to produce fancy comb honey, or if extracted honey is produced It can be cdrefully cared for and neatly parked to appeal to the fancy trade. Too many bee keepers, In fact the majority, pay too little attention to mnkjng their goods attractive. They should recognize the fart that of two Jars of honey, one In an ordinary fruit Jar or tin can with a porl> printed label, and the other in a neat glass Jar of artistic design with a pleasing label, the latter will bring double or more the extra cost of the better package. It Is perhaps unfor tunate but nevertheless a fact that honey sells largoly on appearance, and a progressive bee keeper will appeal as strongly as possible to the eye of his customer. Much information along these and other lines in bee keeping can bf found In a new publication of the Department of Agriculture, Farmers Bulletin 3‘J7, entitled 'Bees.' Tht aim of this work is to give briefly the information needed by persons en gaged In the keeping or bees, and tc answer Inquiries that are frequently received from correspondents of the Department. It discusses the Ioca tlon, equipment, and stocking of tht apiary, the habits of bees and theli manipulation, the production ol honey and wax, wintering, and dis t-tfces and injuries. It also gives sue! general Information as how to obtalr and introduce queens, laws affertiny bee keeping, and Journals and booki on the subject. This publication car be obtained free as long as the sup ply lasts, by applying to the Secre tary of Agriculture, Washington, D C.; it may also be secured from Sena tors, Representatives, and Deleg&toi in Congress.” I have also received the bulletlr mentioned above, and And it bo ful or Information that I advise every reader who has any sort of lnteres, In bees to write for it at once. I do not know of another publication which in so short compass gives Just the facts which the bee keeper on the farm wants to know. Rlack-Root or Cotton Wilt. A correspondent in Russell Co., Ala., makes inquiry about means of checking the serious cotton disease. . black-root or cotton wilt, which is very common in certain sections in the southern parts of South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama. I regret to state that there is no application whatsoever, either of kainit or of any other fertilizer or of any poison, that will be of the slightest help in delaying the spread of black-root in cotton. It Is useless to try to grow on land badly infested with this decease, any of the ordinary varieties of cotton. The only two that l can recommeud as largely resistant to this disense are the Dixie and Dillon. Seed of theso two varieties are extremely scarce, but small amounts can prob ably he obtained next winter. These varieties were originated by the U. S Department of Agriculture. Among ordinary varieties. Jackson Is one of the most resistant, and this te the parent of the Dillon alluded to above. The chief aim now should be to prevent the spread of black-root helps to which are the following (11 Keep rattle from tracking In winter across the diseased fields or spots into healthy fields. (2) 1'se a separate set of scrapes etc., for the diseased fields (3) If there are any slight en largements on the roots of any cot ton plants in a black-root field, direct your main attention to keeping out of the land for about two years all crops that have rather fleshy or succulent roots, such us ordinary varieties, all vegetables, etc. You can safely use the field for any of the grass-ltke plants and even for peanuts and Iron cowpeas. J. F. DUGGAR. One Two Year Old Stud Colt For Sale HUfldiH br*d and la bmk> to nark w«*«ha K» Um . ha* with Mark mane a d tail. BERCY K. SJMPSON. - Klara. Mim I OUR LAND EXCHANGE Firms Wintrd or Offered For Sale or Rent In thU department ere ihell pub Ith offtrlnfi of all land w»nt«| or offered for mU or for rrnL We do not extend our general adeortte* »ng guarana* to thi* (Uparfmrnt Im-rum ever* purchaser abould aee land f*tr hlrna*if before buying, but no man I* per mi fed to of fer land for aal# In thi* department until he ha* ft ret ihnwn ue *ati*f«r«ory ref*r*nr#aai to honoely and financial re*|M>n*lb llty. GOOD FARM—KOU HAIK *• *«*"••• UV/V/U rMIXlTI 60 in rultiration, ID la party re. one mile from rharte’ml arhcaol (land water, apiendid cofnn»unlty For particular* ad ^rttl C. BRASS ELL. Morton. Mi**.. Rout# 1. Wanted Wantod—Good farm land in Mi.« . for t4ti00«iu(ty In a iM.utlful Chi' into nuburtMti home. worth |"7. Um eubjoet to a mot t of I2> on b>n* time at 6 * Will rent for t-V. U) per month Aleo want and for a 91.900. e.|ulty In a high elaai Chicago lot worth 11.Hr 0. E. Ci L , I*. O. Ilox f*04. Chicago. H. L. WILLET SEED CO., AUGCOTA, GA. Lookout Mountain Potatoes 4 cars. Vetches and Crimson Clovers 1 car 1 lot importers. Velvet Means, Cowpeas, I ennuis, Japanese Millet, Sorghums, Mur Clovess, Large Jobbers. (let prices. Stute amounts wantetl. , Mexican June Seed Corn For Sale Selected and nubbed. $J.OO per bushel. Will mature planted as late as July 15th. II. A. BEATTIE, - Starkvllle, Miss. Breeder s Cards AND Farmers’ Exchange We will insert ads. for oar Progressive Far mer and Gasette readers in this department and la this style type at the rata of 4 cents a word for one week; two weeks. 6 cents a word; _ three weeks, 8 cents; four weeks, 10 cents; three months 80 cents; six months. 60 cents; one year, 80 cents. Each word number or Initial (including name and address) oounted as a se parate word. Send cash with order. If the rate menu high, remember it would cost 8620 for pontage alone to send your ad. hr letter to each home to which we carry it at this low rata. Stamps arreptad for amunnto lam *>»■■» fi Walker Hounds for sale. John Drennan. Dur ant. Miss., R. F. D. No 8 Pure-bred Rambouillet Rams, Graham A Mc Corquodale, Graham. Texas. Registered Berkshire Pigs of the finest breed ing. Dr. Geo. A Love, Brookhaven, Miss. Decring Com Harvester and Shredder. One Shepherd Dog. J. L. Jones. Okolona, Miss. Seed Irish Potatoes, Bovees and Cobblers: 11.60 per bushel. W. H. Lovelace, Marion, Alabama. Wanted—Buyers for nice, new, 40 pound Feath er Beds at $10.00. The Stokes Furniture Co , Bur lington, N. C. For Sale—80 acres, level black land, all in fine timber, mostly oak- ash, poplar, etc. Geo. C. Hogaboom, Basic. Miss. Wanted—Registered Jersey and Holstein Bull and Heifer Calves. Immune to tick fever. B. H. Smothers. Wilsonville, Ala. Registered Poland China Pigs, and Pure Bred Angora Bucks. Prices to meet Boll Weevil con ditions. Jno. L. Lord, Hermanville, Miss.