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Editorial Page. A Big Drainage Proposition That Pays. LAST WEEK I was on a farm in the Dismal Swamp in Virginia that would be an educa tion to any of our Southern farmers to visit. This is the great 6,000-acre farm that the late A. W. Lindsay cut out of the swamp along the east side of the canal. The locks in the canal keep the water up 22 feet above tide, and the drainage is towards the Eliza beth River eastward. Mr. Lind say divided the great tract in to rectangles of about 80 acres by great ditches, and there is plenty of fall towards the river for good drainage. The farm coming into posses sion of his son, Mr. Frank Lind say, a manufacturer in Ports mouth, but the most enthusias Professor Massey, tic of farmers, he determined to make the drainage more complete, and to sink the water down so that he can grow alfalfa on that rich soil, as rich as the Delta of the Mis sissippi or the Yazoo. He bought a steam dredge and set it up in a corn field ditch and pumped in water enough to Uoat it and then cut his canal down-grade, the water ionowing, or course, tie nas now cut over seven miles, and is down to a tide-water marsh where he is straightening the channel of the creek to Elizabeth River to give him a short cut to tow his loaded barges to Norfolk. The whole canal will be ten miles long, 30 feet wide, and .starting seven feet deep at the upper end, is over 15 feet deep at the lower end. In the upper reaches where I went the water is sim ply trickling down in a little stream 15 feet below the surface where once there was a morass on high land. Ten feet below the surface the dredge cut through a bed of sea shells two feet thick, and these rotten shells will make a fine applica tion to the black soil. At the lower end the wa ter is eight feet deep in the canal, and Mr. Lind say intends to put in a lock so that he can take barges up into the farm to load, and can, if needed, back up the water in a dry time and irri gate the land completely. He has 2,200 acres in corn this summer that will make 75 bushels an acre. There are also 300 acres in Irish potatoes now being shipped, and I saw them digging potatoes that will run from 85 to 100 barrels an acre. He estimates his potato crop at 20,000 barrels. He has 125 hands on his pay-roll, and keeps a school for the white and one for the black children, and hauls the white children to school and back in wagon. Talk about bonanza farming In the West, here is a bonanza farm right near the seaport at Nor folk, and there are millions of acres of these Ewamp lands all over the South waiting for some one with energy to open them up—land, too, that an Illinois black prairie can not equal in fertility. Drainage is unquestionably one of the big prob ^emB all over our territory. rhe Weekly Papers and Fraudulent Advertising. THERE IS NO BETTER evidence of the new spirit that is abroad in the South than the active support the county papers are giving to the colleges ofr agriculture and the experiment stations, and the interest these papers are taking in getting matter of agricultural interest for their columns. The county papers can help greatly by wise selections of Buch matter, avoiding the sen sational fakes as a matter of course. But one of the most unfortunate things con nected with the weekly county papers is the fact that most of them seem to think that filling their pages with ads of patent medicines is necessary for their existence. In our town two weekly papers publish columns of local news items in short paragraphs, but each alternate paragraph is a puff of soma nostrum worked right in the columns that people are sure to read. In fact, many of these weekly papers get most of their living from the patent medicine fraud and can not be induced to drop the business The county paper and the church paper are relied upon by the makers of these nostrums more than are any other sheets. But they have more excuse for the practice than the dailies in the great cities which could afford to cut out the patent medicines, but will not do it, but publish columns of these and whiskey ads sim ply because they are profitable. There is some hope of shaming the religious weeklies out of the practice, but the great dailies, and weeklies like Harper’s Weekly, seem hopeless. Intercultural Fertilization. I AM GETTING daily letters from farmers all over the South, asking when, during the growth of a crop, it is best to apply a second or third application of commercial fertilizers. Now, I do not believe in the value of these second and third applications so far as the phosphoric acid and potash used are concerned. I believe that the time for the use of all of these that are needed is before planting the crop. Phosphoric acid and potash do not wash or leach from the soil as nitrogen in the form of a nitrate does. The soil will hold on to them for years till used up by plants, and I can get better results from these by being liberal enough with the ftrst appli cation so that no more will be needed. But with nitrogen the case is different, epeclal ly where the nitrogen applied at the start was in the form of nitrate of soda, which rapidly leaches from the soil, and which is always better and more profitably applied during the growth of the cron. But I have also (or many years argued that no cotton or grain farmer needs to buy nitrogen if he farms right. With a short rotation of crops, the growing of an abundance of legume for age and the feeding of it to stock, and using the manure on the land, the farmer can maintain and increase the productivity of his acreB without spending a cent for nitrogen. This is especially true with the cotton farmer who wisely exchanges his seed for meal and hulls, and feeds the meal with his roughage. The wheat growers of eastern Maryland have long since found that this is true, and the ma jority of them have not bought ammonia in a fer tilizer for many years, and during that time have seen their crops doubled and trebled over what they were when using a complete fertilizer and depending on it alone. I am heartily in favor of the liberal use of fer tilizers, far more liberal than the cotton farmers la general use. I know that the men who have for years been dribbling 200 pounds of 2—8 2 per acre have wasted their money and impover ished their soil, and that If they had dropped the first “2" and doubled the money spent for the other plant foods, there would have been more profit, provided they had the help of their cottonseed meal and the legume forage. I have consistently opposed the growing of the corn crop wdth the use of the complete commer cial fertilizers, knowing well that the best prepa ration for the corn crop Is a clover sod on which the farm manure has been spread in winter. And I also know that it Is the phosphoric acid and potash that make the cotton fiber rather than the nitrogen, and having plenty of nitrogen be coming available through the whole growth of the crop from clover and peas, and the residue of the manure used, there will be ‘‘weed*’ enough »huuui cijJiMu auuiin u i 111 me lcriiiifctjr, for the main use of the nitrogen is to maintain the vital activity of the plant. But where the farmer Is merely growing cot ton and gambling on the chances with fertilizers alone, it may be of value to him to use nitrate of soda during the growth of the crop, provided he has used an abundance of phosphoric acid and potash at the start. If he haB used only 200 pounds of 2 8 2 at the start, then he might add more phosphate and potash with the nitrate and risk results. But this is not farming. It is merely growing cotton with the aid of fertilizers, and the man who farms right can afford to use phosphoric acid and potash far more liberally, and never needs to spend a cent for ammonia or nitrogen in any form. Go to work and determine to have a farmers* in stitute at your place and make arrangements for it. Then go to the institute prepared to get out of it all that you can. Have plenty of questions that you intend to ask the speakers. It does not matter if the speakers make no set BpeecheB, if you will ask questions enough to keep them reply ing. I once started to make an address, and the farmers pitched in with questions that took up my entire time, and I made no speech; but all the same, they got what they wanted, and that was better than anyone’s set speech. Short Extracts from Answers to Corre" spondents. A CORRESPONDENT asks about planting a second crop of potatoes on land where one good crop has been grown this season. It would be better to plant the potatoes in anoth er piece of ground, but they can be planted, If necessary, oh the same land. Cut them in halves and put In a sort of windrow and cover thickly with straw or pine leaves till they show signs of sprouting, and then plant in deep furrows and cover lightly at first and then gradually work the soil to them till level. • • • It is usually too early to sow crimson clover at laying-by of cotton, and the sowing should be made about the time of the first or second picking The seed will usually germinate then without preparation. Here the practice is to go through tlie corn in August with a light one-horse harrow and sow at once after the light stirring of the soil. Where peas have been sown In the corn you can let them grow and mature till the leaves begin to fall and then sow the clover seed among them, or can cut the corn and shock it and mow the peas for hay and then lightly disk the stub bie and sow the clover seed at any time in Sep tember. • • • There is nothing that can be done for the red spider on cotton that would not cost a good deal Spraying with strong soapsuds is about the best thing, and dusting over with flowers of sulphur Is nlso Rood. But in the cotton field these are cost ly remedies. If the weather turns wet. they will not do much damage, but In dry weather they flourish. Spraying even with clear water will help destroy them, for they can not stun ! damp nc-ss. But even that Is a laborious and costly Job. • • • You can apply nitrate of soda to cotton at any time during the growth of the crop if the plants need help. If the land makes a strong weed. I do not think that the application will be needed, as the effect of nitrate Is mainly to encourage growth, the cotton being made by the phosphoric arid and potash. • • • With heavy fertilization you can plant late cabbage seed and set the plants in late August and grow a good crop. • • • The clearing of limber at any season will have no effort on the fertility of the solL • • • To get a crop of vetch and rye. the best time to bow Is in late August. Why Peas Fail to Bear. "WO FARMERS In South Carolina write that they can not make peaH for seed. The vines grow rankly, but finally die before reading heavily. They have been growing peas for years, and on their other crops have used a great deal of cottonseed meal and nltrnte of aoda. and one of them thinks that it Is an excess of nitrogen that causes the deuth of the peas. I think not, and unless they have the regular pea wilt, I am satl-fled that It Is the deficiency of phosphoric acid and potash, especially potash, that causes the failure of the peas. There Is no crop grown on the farm that takes these foods away from the soil more rapidly than pens If they are removed from the land and no return made. Peas will get nitrogen from the ulr, but they must be kept supplied with phosphoric add and potash, und much of the so'l of eastern South Carolina Is especially deficient in potash I alklng with a friend yesterday, 1 said that the present price of $10 per bushel for crimson clover seed would seem prohibitive to most farm ers. ‘■Yes.’* said he. "It Is awfully high, but still, at. $10 a bushel It Is the cheapest fertilizer I imn buy for my corn crop, and I shall sow It as usual. And he Is right. The men who stand l>a<k from using peas, soy beans and crimson elovor because of the high prices prevailing are going to lose In the end. Two and n half dollars in ci inisoii clover seed will put as much nitrogen In the soil as a whole ton of 2 8 2 costing, say $2 0, and the man who falls to sow clover seed ho.'.iuse of the high price, will break up a rotation and lose money in the end.