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WHEN COTTON FIRES OR RUSTS
IN AUGUST. Muko Provision in Your Rotation for the Feeding of Live Stock, and Then Use Manure on the Corn Crop. My land is a sandy loam, clay subsoil from 6 to 18 inches. Have been following the three year rotation system for fifteen years. Cotton, corn and small grain. I always mow the peas following the small grain, but plow under the peas on the corn land. I use the following formula on my cotton: Acid phosphate, (16 per cent), 400 pounds; cot tonseed meal, 300 pounds; mu riate of potash, 50 pounds. This much per acre. I have made as high as 2,400 pounds seed cot ton per acre, but that was fifteen years ago, and yet I have used more fertilizer since then and have kept up the three-year ro tation plan since then. I have noticed for several years past I have had what we call "fire” or "rust" coming on during Au gust, at the time when the cot ton seemed to be doing its best. This destroys everything on the plants except the grown bolls. Some parts of the field are af fected worse than others. The grain crops increase every year. Sixty bushels of oats this year, with GOO pounds fertilizers, and only 1,700 pounds seed cotton from 800 pounds fertilizers. Forty bushels corn from 300 pounds fertilizers. Can you give me any reason why this should be, and suggest a remedy? W. F. McL. (Answer by Prof. W. F. Massey.) 1 think that a large part of your trouble is that you have been using fertilizer annually on every crop, and have gotten your land Into an acid condition. As each field comes In corn, I would apply about 25 bushels of slaked lime and harrow it in after plowing the land, and in keeping on with your rotation 1 would lime the land once in six years. After the first liming only use 20 bushels. What would be the result in applying the lime before planting cotton I can not say, but it would have a very good result on the corn, and would keep the soil sweet for years. You do not say what fertilizer mixture you use, but if l were run ning a similar rotation. I would al ways sow crimson clover after mow ing the peas, and would have a good crop of clover to turn for corn and cotton, as I would sow crimson clover among the cotton, too, about the sec ond picking. Then l would try to have enough peavlno hay, fodder and corn to feed cattle and would use manure Instead of fertilizer on the corn, and would use no fertilizer on the oats, but acid phosphate and potash, and following the oats with peas and crimson clover, would use the same on the cotton with simply a little nitrate of soda to give it an enrly start. I believe that any cot ton farmer, who farms right and makes manure for his corn need never buy an ounce of ammonia. I know men who have followed this practice for more than twenty years and have seen their crops greatly in crease. These are wheat farmers in this State who make now 40 to 50 bushels of wheat, and 75 to 9 5 bush els of corn per acre. Some think that potash In the form of kalnlt has a tendency to prevent rust; probably it is the salt in It that has this effect. When the bearings of your farm tools need oiling, you are wasting power and wearing out your imple ments. COST OP BUILDING A SILO. A 45-Ton Silo Can Be Built for $75 —Not Too Late Yet. Messrs Editors: The advantages of a silo are so many and so great that every farm having 10 or more cows should have one of these LIg “fruit cans.” It not only affords a succulent feed all winter but it prevents a great loss in taking care of the corn crop. The Colorado Station a few years ago, found that in curing corn fodder under the very best conditions in large shocks, there was a loss of 31 per cent of dry mat ter; in small shocks, there was often a loss of 4 3 per cent. With the silo the loss is from 5 to 10 per cent and in many cases is even less than 5 per cent. A good many are deterred from building a silo because they think it will cost too much. Stave silos are the cheapest to build. The average cost of the 10x20-foot stave silos, holding about 3 8 tons, built last year, was $50.50 which includes everything but the roof. In several cases where lumber was sawed on the farm and all farm labor used in building, the actual cash outlay has been only $25 to $30. Twelve by 24 foot silos, holding about 45 tons, complete, cost from $65 to $78, and 14x2S-foot stave silos, capacity 70 tons, cost about $100. These costs include all hauling done by farm team. The Wisconsin type of silo, 16x30 feet, holding 125 tons, has cost about $215. The average cost of the modified Wisconsin, 14x28 and 15x 30 feet, has been $105.82 exclusive of roof, which would have added about $20 more. Only one solid wall concrete silo lias been completed. This was built for W. T. Ingle at Burlington, N. C., 12x2 4 feet, with 6-inch reinforced wall and cost $131. In building all these silos only farm labor was used. Assistance was given by the State and National De partments of Agriculture for two or three days when the silos were start ed, just to show how the work was to be done. The groat difference in the cost of silos is largely due to the way in which the owner manages his labor. Another cost which comes with the silo is the machinery to All it, which in many cases, is more than the silo. This cost can often be lessened by several farmers going together and buying the cutter and engine. Often these can be rented, and In any case, these machines can be used for other purposes than that of Ailing the silo and would be a great help to any farm. The writer has printed bills of materinl for any of these silos from 10x20 to 16x32, and will be glad to Bend to any interested reader on ap plication. J. A. CONOVER. Raleigh, N. C. DRAINING WET LANDS. The Pole Drain Will Do Good Service Rut Tile the Permanent Solution. The Anal drainage of wet lands is the problem. How can it be done? Not best be done, for all are ready to admit that the tile is the best drain age. But while the scheme that is now upon foot to add the manufact ure of drain tile to an already es tablished industry of brick making, is sure to materially cheapen the llrst cost of tile, yet this cost will be still beyond the immediate reach of many of the purchasers. Open ditches are, compared with their cost and very great Inconvenience, so inferior ; that it is hoped that not many will - bo compelled to resort to them for long. While not so permanent nor quite so efficient as tile, very good results can be obtained by what is known as pole drains. These are constructed by digging a ditch, such as would be needed for tile, and about the same depth, say from two to three feet. The deeper the ditch the further apart they can be for efficiency. A ditch an average depth of three feet, would easily drain 50 feet upon each side, so these could be placed 100 feet apart. After dig ging the ditch with as much fall as possible, then lay a continuous line of green pine poles in each side of the bottom of the ditch and another so as to partially cover, but not fill the space between. If available, place a few inches of dead grass or straw on top of these poles, then fill the earth back in the ditch on top of the poles. Such drains, costing noth ing for material, can be cheaply constructed, and will last for quite a while. I have seen some such that had been in operation for 20 years and were still giving satisfaction. They will at least last long enough not only to pay for their cost, but to more than pay for their ultimate substitution with burned tile. When the latter are finally placed the work will be done forever, or at least for as long as the outlets are mtaintained. The efficiency of any system depends very largely on | the keeping up of the outlets. Should water back up into this local drain-! age and remain for any length of | time, there is grave danger of these , drains becoming clogged permanent-j ly. It is also of importance that the tile drains should be so secured where they empty into the open ditch , or canal that they will not be mis-1 placed. While the drain tile will ul- j timately be resorted to, this matter of the pole drainage is well worth looking into by those who do not feel that they can afford this ex pense at the beginning of their oper atloua. | Instead of burned clay tile, the sand and cement tile might be used, and while, maybe, not being so very much cheaper than the clay, would be cheaper in that their construction would not involve such an expendi ture for machinery, ovens, etc., and they could be made in small quanti ties, as needed. D. N. BARROW. Before you mail a letter or postal to any advertiser, always make sure that you have said: “I am writing you as an advertiser in The Progres sive Farmer and Gazette which guarantees the reliability of all ad vertising it carries.” Remember, our guarantee to make good any loss you may sustain holds good only when you use this language. BOTH GROWERS AND BUYERS ENTHUSIASTIC OVER The Benthall Peanut Picker Peanut growers and buyers alike declare the Ben thall Peanut Picker the only absolutely satisfactory picker made. Growers do the work of forty men with one machine, and more than double their profits. It picks Spanish or Virginia varieties with equal satisfaction. It picks while the vines are in a condition for saving, thus giving a crop as good as alfalfa. Buyers declare Benthall picked nuts cleaner and much more desirable than hand picked nuts. Vines are fed to picker like grain to thresher. Nuts come out whole and clean. The stemming and cleaning capacity has been increased, and the weak parts in the 1909 models corrected. 13 ft. model run by horse or applied power ; 16 ft model applied power only. All horsepower machines will have 1908 shoe or shaker, and we will build machines if desired with 1910 general construction and 1908 shoe or shaker. Standard Peanut Co. buyers say : "It is a standing rule with our buyers to give preference to machine picked peanuts, as in our opinion they are far superior.” W. F. Jones, grower, writes: "Threshed 173 sacks of Virginia nuts in one day. Can thresh 100 to 125 sacks Spanish.” E. J. Railey : "I threshed 1609 bags with repair bill of only 75 cents.” ^ Big money picking for your neighbors. Write for free booklet giving pic tures and full information. It will mean much in profits for you. , BENTHALL MACHINE CO., Suffolk, Va. S50 TO $300 SAVED Wt am manufacturer*, not merchant*. Save dealer*. Jobber* and catalog house profit. I’ll nee you from $50 Id$100 on my High Grade Standard Gasoline Refines from 2 to 22-H P —Price direct to you lower than dealer* o> jobbers have to pay for Dlrael Prom My Fac tory on SO Daya' Fro* Trial. Satisfac tion or money back. Write forsper. I;1 proposition. All you pay me is foe raw material, lab os and one small profit. Send lot my btg BOOK FRKS^ Wm. Galloway, Prci Wm. Galloway t o. (Ill Galloway Staltas Wninolss. Ifg Wo SoO^sS^S WM^^S BRICK FOR SALE 400,000 Pressed Brick, 8 inches long. N. T. NORRIS, Mabeiiy Mist. Farming Is Profitable In The Southeast There Is no better occupation for the Average Man than Farm ing and no Section is Superior to the South for a Good Farmer. Farming is a Great Business and should be carried on by the Appli cation of the Best Business Princi ples. The Proper Location, the Study of Soils, Seed Selection, the Wise Choice and Rotation of Crops and Careful Cultivation will bring Assured Success. We are In position to Aid You In the Selection of the Proper Lo cation In Districts which Present Splendid Advantages and Oppor tunities. In writing tell us what You Want. M. V. RICHARDS, Land and Industrial Agent. Southern Rail way. and Mobile A Okie R. H. Washington, • ■ • • D. O.