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Editorial Page. Second Application of Fertilizers to Cotton. A DAILY PAPER has an article on cotton in which the statement is made that, “The more up-to-date farmers of the country have learned that it is profitable to make a second ap plication of fertilizer to cotton as soon as it is thinned.” If an insufficient amount was used in the first place, perhaps it may pay to apply more. But, as a rule, the full amount of phosphoric acid and potash should be ap plied at the start. These are not going to get out of the soil till some plant takes them up. If cotton grows off slowly, it may pay to apply 5 to 100 pounds an acre of nitrate of soda alnng the rows, where Pbofkssob Massey. jjje farruer does not farm well and has no clover or peas to furnish him nitro gen. But there is not the slightest advantage in using too little phosphoric acid and potash at the start and then having the labor of going over again with these and waiting for them to be come available to the crop as they would be if all was applied at first. Nitrogen will leach from the soil rapidly when in the form of a nitrate, and nitrate of soda should not be used largely at planting, but can be used when the crop is grow ing to advantage, where the soil is deficient in nitrogen. The Stock Laws. NO SECTION will ever get rid of cattle ticks so long as cattle are allowed to run at large. The public roads belong to the farms on which they pass, the title of each farm running to the middle of the road, and the use of this part of each farm has been given up solely for travel, and not for pasture. Under the com mon law doctrine cattle pasturing on the highway are trespassing on the property of the adjoining land-owners. Many years ago in one of the Mary land counties farmers were annoyed by cows turn ed on the public roads by people who had no land and no pasture. They applied to a lawyer who told them that there was no statute in that coun ty requiring any one to fence his land, and that the common law prevailed, that no one was re quired to fence other people’s cattle out, but only fence in their own. He advised them to leave their gates open and take up trespassing cattle. This stopped it, and now fences have practically disappeared there except around the pastures. The man quoted July 25th would be a failure with stock under any condition, and simply does not want to provide pasture for his stock. But im provement never goes backward, and this man, and others like him, will have to come to the point of providing for thier own stock. It is odd that some people imagine that they have a right to pasture everywhere but on the land they own. Pastures and Hay for the South. THERE ARE FEW sections in the South where good pasture grasses of some sort do not _ thrive, and on most of the lands of the Pied W mont and mountain country the finest sort of a permanent sod can be maintained. The fact is, that the Southern cotton farmer has been all his life fighting grass, and he dreads nothing more than a Bermuda sod, the finest summer pasture grass in the United States in its proper climate. It is not a good thing to have in a cotton field, of course; but I knew one of the most successful cotton farmers in South Carolina, who, when he was living, always had a permanent pasture of Bermuda grass, and had fine cattle, fine sheep and fine hogs, and grew cotton with more success than most farmers, seldom making less than a bale an acre, and often more, and he had no trou ble with the grass getting into his fields. Then in the upper Piedmont and mountainn country, where Bermuda is out of its element, we grow orchard grass, Virginia or Canada blue grass, the latter as permanent a Bod as Bermuda, and green all the year. Then In the eastern coastal and southern sections the Texas bluegrass thrives wonderfully as a winter grass, and is ex cellent to mix with the Bermuda, for it just be gins to grow green when the Bermuda turns brown. But to get good pastures we must treat them well. We must prepare the land and seed thick ly, and then by annual top-dressing we can main tain and thicken the sod indefinitely. Therefore, I hope that all of our readers will study closely what Mr. French says about pastures. Then as to hay. There is no part of the country which can compete with the South in the production of great crops of the best of hay from cowpeas, soy beans and velvet beans in the vari ous localities. The Southern dairyman or stock feeder can grow all the protein he needs, while the Northern man buys it in grain. But with cottonseed meal secured in exchange for seed, legume hay that can be grown after a small grain crop, and corn silage, the Southern stock feeder has a great advantage over the stock feeder in the North. The Oleomargarine Fraud. ONE OF THE arguments used by the Southern papers who have been led to think that it would be good for the oil interests in the South to let the oleo people color their product r— — ... ■■■" - ..— - -i MUST MAKE PROFITS TWELVE MONTHS INSTEAD OF SIX. JjNDER the present system general farm activities cover a period of about six months—four months in pre paration and cultivation, and two months in harvesting; the other six months of the year, so far as creating wealth is concerned, business is prac tically suspended and the farmer and his family become consumers, living off the profits of the six months’ pe riod of activity. Is it any wonder, then, that we don’t go ahead? Can any business survive that practically shuts down for six months in the year? That some change is necessary, and what those changes are, one only needs to study the front page of last week’s Progressive Farmer and Gazette. The figures and illustrations on that page are a revelation, and prove to us that along with other changes and improve ments that are being made in this country, that we must add live stock; and we will never measure up to our full possibilities as an agricultural re gion until we do it.—T. J. W. Broom, in Monroe Journal. 1I In imitation of butter, is that cottonseed oil is more wholesome than animal products. But they overlook the fact that more animal product en ters into the making of oleo than cottonseed oil. Why tallow from any Bort of an animal should be more wholesome than the milk of cows, is hard to understand. Then they call it class legislation to protect the dairyman from fraud. Every one has a right to defend his trade-mark, and the yellow color is the trade-mark of the dairyman, and no one should be allowed to Imitate it with a cheaper article. In this whole contest there is the one fact to be kept in mind. That is, that the only powdble rea son for coloring oleomargarine is to make it hx»k more like butter, and to make |x<iO|de think that it is real butter. The present law has not hurt the sale of cottonseed oil a particle, while its abloltion would ruin an industry now far more im portant to the Southern farmer than all the oil used in oleo. The Southern farmers should lot their representatives in Congress hear from them in regard to this, for some of them actually think they are serving the farmers when they are sim ply playing into the hands of the oleo people and the oil trust. Let all secret processes for making butter alone, and do not pay any one to tell you how to make churnlesB butter. I have told you how to make that. But you can not sell it for butter. No one who wishes to grow more corn per acre can afford to depend upon barn selection of seed. Notes and Comments. MAKING a PASTURE of woodland terminates its value as a renewing forest. Down in one of our coast counties I was driving along a road and noted that the woods on both sides had been burnt over. I remarked to the driver that they had had a bad forest tire. “That was done purposely,” said he. “The idea is to destroy the ticks so that cattle can range In the woods.” Cattle ranging the woods will not only keep up the supply of ticks, but the burning and the cattle together will destroy the value of the forest for timber production, lienee, Mr. French is right in what he says about woodland luistur ing. J* Dr. Butler’s advice as to crimson clover is well given, and $600 a year will not count the profit this clover will make on any man's farm. Ju«t now we want to advise the Southern farmers to wait till the imported seed is in In August, for the home-grown seed is now held at $10 a bushel, and it will be easy, I think, to get the imported seed at $6, and, perhaps, at $6 a bushel. Hut what ever the price, sow it, for it is far cheaper at pio it bushel than U—H—‘J ferilllzer nt a ton. Anywhere that any clover has been commonly grown It will succeed without any Inoculation. Where there are no clover bacteria in the soil, get some soil from where it has grown and scatter It over the field. j* We have too much, or rather u«e too much, hu mnu labor In the South. So long as every mule takes a man in the field no farmer should complain of lack of labor. It D rather a lack of machin ery and mules, for one man riding on a cultivator will do more and better work than two each with a mule and n single-horse plow or cultivator. The Iowa farmers have always had a lack of human labor and have been compelled to uso teams and machinery, and hence one man's labor there pro duces far more than one man's labor does In the South. Four-legged laborers are cheaper (ban two-legged ones. Keep your cows dry in the stable and sigh for the good old times when you had a free range over the country like the man quoted on tho first page of the July 2 5 issue, and some one else may free tho county from ticks. But let the cows out on the range, and you will never get rid of lha ticks. Clean your own pastures and have good pastures, and rend what Dr. Butler says about the ticks, and you will not want to abolish stock laws. The saving of fencing alone is reason enough for shutting stock off the range, for under such conditions every one must fence all the land ho cultivates, or have his crops pastured on by other people. Down with the fences and starve the ticks out. If you will use the basic slag or Thomas phos phate, you will not need to buy lime for your peanuts, for you will get in It to pounds of lime In every 100 pounds. Four hundred pounds of this and GO pounds of muriate of potash will be wlmt the peanuts need, for pops aro not caused by lack of lime but by lack of potash, and the lime Is used for releasing potash In the soli. Lime Is useful to sweeten and acid soil, but It Is not properly a fertilizer. You will got 200 pounds of lime free In the Thomas phosphate. 1 he first of this month I sowed my first spinach and curled kalo and will muke two more sowing* for winter and early spring. Then the second week in August I will sow some lettuce soed for the fall crop. I will set these plants In the frames so as to have them where they can be pro tected if necessary, but I hardly expect they will need the BaBhes. 1 never monkey with cloth cov ers on my frames, and am even doing better, for I am now using Bushes with two layers of glass five-eights of an Inch apart. With frames well banked, these sashes will keep out any frost we have, and I can head lettuce and bloom some flow ers under them all winter through. I will have over thirty sashes the coming winter, unit expect to Increase the number by degrees. Kven the double-glased sashes, which cost nearly twice as much ns the old style, are cheaper In the long run than cloth, and Immensely better. (Moth covers aic a very poor substitute for glass, and In u series of years, cost more than the glass. Do not fall to reap the full frultB of your la bors by depending upon barn selection of seed cora. but rather select your seed In the field this fall.