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Legumes, Grasses, and Cover Crops.
ALSIKE CLOVER. Chiefly Valuable on Damp Soils Where Red Clover Will Not Thrive. I see in the seed catalogs that Alsike clover is highly re commended for hay, and that it does well on low lands. I want to try some on some creek bot tom. When is the best time to sow? The land is subject to overflow, but the w’ater is soon off. J. M. L. Hillsboro, Miss. Editorial Answer.—Alsike, or hy brid clover, in color and appearance of flowers and leaves, resembles white clover; but in habits of growth is much like red clover. The flowers are larger and rather more pink than in white clover. It is probably not as deeply rooted as red clover, and some Judge from this that it is not so good a soil improver. Alsike clover is chiefly valuable for growing where red clover will not do well, because of unsuitable soil or climatic conditions. It is not equal to white clover for perma nent pasture, but probably superior to it In a temporary pasture, although it has a somewhat bitter taste and is not eaten so readily by stock. It is especially adapted to hay growing on damp soils; but will not do well where the water stands for any considerable length of time. For hay it should probably be sow ed with redtop or some other hay plant. In the Northern States a mixture of timothy, red clover and alsike is regarded as most desirable. About 8 to 10 pounds to the acre when sowed alone, or from 4 to 8 pounds when sowed with other hay plants, is the right quantity of seed. Alsike clover, like red clover, is largely a summer-growing plant and may be sown at any time during that growing season, but is probably best sown in the fall or early spring. It does not stand drouth well and does better in a cool, moist soil and climate. Making a Permanent Pasture. I have a lot that I sowed in orchard grass about three years ago for pasturage, but did not get a good stand, but have been grazing my cow on it. I want to get it down in a grass for perm anent pasturage. Will you please tell me what grass is best to put on it? The laud needs improving. What would be the best fertilizer to use? I have no stable manure, and please tell me the best way to fix it. a. a. (Answer by Prof. W. F. Massey.) It would have been better to have plowed the land earlier and sowed peas on it in preparation for the grass. But I would now plow it well and put in good order and apply a dressing of 400 pounds of acid phos phate per acre. Put the soil in good order and at any time in the fall after the middle of September sow a good mixture of grasses and use plenty of seed, for heavy seeding is the only way to get a good sod. Sow 10 pounds of orchard grass, 5 pounds of tall meadow oats grass, 5 pounds of red top, well mixed, per acre. Or chard grass naturally grows in bunches and should always have other grasses mixed with it. But on further thought, I would say leave out the red top and put in 5 lbs. of Canada blue grass, for you will prob ably have some red top anyway, and the Canada blue grass will finally make the sod. Renewing a Red Top Pasture. I have 6 acres of red top grass bottom land subject to overflow. Broom sedge, weeds and rush are taking the red top. It has been sown four years. I want to keep it in permanent grass. Do not want to work it in corn as it inclines to wash. If I plow it now and sow in oats this fall would the red top come again and choke out the oats in spring, or could I break it this fall and sow red top again in the spring, or would I get a stand by plowing it this fall? I thought there may be enough seed on the ground from this year's cutting on account of so much rain. I did not cut until late. W. S. It. (Answer by Prof. W. F. Massey.) The red top being a native grass, will probably come again after oats, but it would be far better to sow some grass seed on the oats this fall. A Red top is very good, but it Is not a heavy hay maker, and I would sow a mixture of tall meadow fescue 10 pounds and tali meadow oats grass, 10 pounds per acre, and the red top will come in naturally and those grasses will make you heavier crops of hay. INOCULATION FOR THE LKGt'MFS When It Will l’ay to l$uy Inoculating Material and lion to Use It. Please tell me if the inoculat ing bacteria for legumes sold by the various seed houses, "nitro culture,” "Farmo-germ,” etc., are worth buying. J. C. C. Alabama. Editorial Answer:—The inoculat ing material sold by the various seed houses is no doubt of value In aiding to obtain the different bacteria which must be in the soil to grow legumes successfully. When the legumes do well and show nodules on their roots, we do not think it will generally pay to purchase inoculating material with a view to Increasing the profits from the crops. When legumes, especially those having small, smooth seeds, which are well cleaned, are sowed for the first time on land it is usually ne cessary to in some way put the re quired bacteria Into the soil, or in oculate it, as it is usually stated. Of course there are certain legumes that require the same inoculation, such as alfalfa, melilotus and bur clover, and if one of these has grown successfully on the land it probably will not be necessary to Inoculate for the others. For inoculation we prefer soil from a field wherej.be crop has grown successfully, as giving best results according to our observation. Where It is not practicable to obtain soil, we would then buy the commercia product and inoculate a small area We would mix this inoculating ma terial with rich, moist soil and scat ter over the plot and harrow In, rather than inoculate the seed before sowing. I* or the land that does not grow cowpeas well and the roots do not show' nodules something elBe may bo necessary. Most Southern soils suit able for the germs to live in, is al ready inoculated for cowpeas, owing to the long time they have been gen erally grown. Moreover, large seeds like the cowpea generally carry more or less of the germs and consequent ly artificial inoculation is less fre quently necessary. As a general proposition soils that are well drained, not sour and are well filled with humus are more easi ly inoculated than those not possess ing these qualities. Vetch and Lespedeam. I would like to know if I could raise a crop of hay from lespedeza and hairy vetch on same land and would they re seed the land each year. I would expect to disk in a few oats each year after cutting les pedeza, to support vetch. C. P. B. Vidalla, La. Kditorial Answer—A crop of hairy vetch and lespedeza may be grown on the same land each year. If the vetch is allowed to ripen seed suf *■ 1 i ficlent to re-seed itself, the oats can he put in after the lespedeia is off in the fall, and if the lespedeia has been allowed to ripen sufficient seed before it was removed; it will come on after the oats and vetch are removed In the spring, and make a crop in time for the oats to be sowed In the fall. Just this sort of a rotation Is being followed on a piece of land at the Mississippi A A: M College, and the results seem promising. It Is simply a question of allowing sufficient vetch and lespedeia to ripen to re seed the land. SUWINt. (IiOVKIt WITH COTTON. A Wise Farmer Who I^iy* ||y i\y the Condition of Crop and Not the Time of the Year—Fertiliser* and < lover*. Messrs. Editors: Our cotton ts late and I expect we will plow It up to the middle of August, and by that time it will have the entire earth shaded. Under these conditions would you think it would do to sow crimson clover seed over the cotton and plow very shallow? I have no fear of the sun killing the clover but whether It will come up under this shade 1 do not know, and whether1 the seed would remain sound In the earth until the cotton shed Its leaves and then come up. I do not know. I fear to wait until the froHt kills thy cotton would bo too late to bow the seed as 1 think we will have a late fall. While the cotton is green and glowing In September I know It would not do to run a harrow in the cotton at that time. We want to be sure of getting a good stand of crim son clover If possible. Deere, in Phil adelphia, charged $10 a bushel for crimson clover seed. I have been of fered them right here sh soon as they arrive from Germany, at $.1.50 a bushel. Should we get a stand of crimson clover we will not have any stable manure to spread over it. How would It do to broadcast say 1st of March 100 or 200 pounds of nitrate of soda to the acre in order to Insure a heavy crop to plow In? My idea Is that to let tills clover go until It matures and the seed gets up, in order to this and to plunt corn uud cotton about March 15th. For corn lay off the rows 6 feet apart and make as small ridge as possible, leaving at least 60 inches between the rows of clover to grow to maturity. When it dies down bed up the land and grad ually work the dire to the corn. For cotton lay off the rows 4 fw» apart, make as small ridge as pos sible. Put about 4 00 pounds 16 per cent acid phosphate. 50 pounds muri ate of potash and 50 pounds nitrate of soda to the acre under the cotton That will leave 36 Inches of clover to grow to maturity. Can work the corn and cotton with a narrow cultivator until the clover Is out of the way What do you think of this plan? Do you think I would make more corn by waiting until the clover dies down and then plant the corn? Thanking you in advance for the information M. N. MALES. Comment by Prof. Massey: | <j0 not think that you need fear that the clover seed will not germinate in the shade of the cotton 1 would sow It right after the last cultivation and trust to the rain putting it in deep enough It would be put in rather too deep If cultivated after wards. I have seen it make a fine stand sown on wheat stubble with no preparation at all. 1 have sown It among thin grass and had a good stand. Your plan Is a very good one and the turning under in the middies after planting will help the crops very much. The only objection is that tt prevents the proper prepara tion of the land for corn Cotton will do better undef such treatment than corn The t>e#t rrops of corn I have seen here were planted after crimson clover was dead, and all turned under. You have a season plenty long to make corn after the clover has died on t-he land, and there is then no danger of souring the soil. RhropU.tr* Kami for iala. C. A. McClure. Oaa Um. Mtit. Pure-bmd ItamboullUt Kama. Graham A Me Cortiuadai*. Graham. Tun Alfalfa Ka m for late. also other farm* Ad drmi J. H. Wellborn. Stark villa. Ml... Wall trained Setter IW 2 year, old fur aali cheap Torn Thornton. Vuaabur*. Ml... luwj.tarnl llerkahire l*Ua of the Aneel bread In*. Dr. (>eo A Ixjv*. tlrookbav.n. Mia*. R**lit*red Poland China Pt»a. of Ihe fineel breedin*. Windham A Mlera. Klltoii. Mi.i Trk. Whit* Wyandotte* Cock and 4 h-n. Huff Plymouth Korki J M Haley. Okul x>a. Mi.i For Sale 2 trained. S untrained bird do#a. one trained fo* hiund J. T. Sim na. Kam.ey. Ala. Fin* Colli. Hitch and 2 train pupa. Ilar *»ln. fifteen dollar! J. M Hairy. Ok oh na. Mil*. WanUrl HhortWn. Ke>i Poll or Devon Bull. or »«*ra old U. N Slmrall. Hall Ground. Miii. Wanted Kuyer. for nice. new. pi pound Feath er Huda at 110.00. The Stokes F urnituret>> . Bur lln*ton. N. C. Wui’wl i. Huy-Pair each of ynun* r**liter e.1 Ited p. lied Cattle and Shropshire Sheep. C W. Ku** & Co , Ihranher, Mi.i Ke*litervd Poland China Pl*a. and Pure Hred Arurora Hucki. Prime to meet Itoll Weevil cun dltium. Jno L l*oni. lierinanvllla, Mlaa. Wanterl Keaiitered Jrrieyi Youti* Hull and Cows. Mult lw pood .to. k and from producin* htrain. Kohhlni & Ireynoldi. Curyvtlle. lei J.raey B 11 "Der K tier” No. 783H6. Three yean old. well br*d and handsome. Price and particulars on rxjunt. W It Kyiar.Go hen. Als. 203 acres for sale. 1-2 mile from two depot!. Dairy and poultry farm. F-Ieven inllei Meridian. Good luipruvamenta. Geo. C. 11 opabourn, Haslc, Mill. JT is easy to arrange one’s farm rotation so that there will always be a winter crop on the land. No farmer in the South should ever have a bare stalk field of either cotton or corn. More fertility is lost in our climate by washing and leaching than is removed by the crops we grow. Get ready now to plant a cover crop of some sort on every acre this fall.