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What Farmers Want to Know.
A CELLAR THAT has heretofore kept sweet potatoes well, now rots them. I do not think it the fault of the cellar, then, but that you are storing the potatoes with black rot on them. The digging and handling of the roots has a great deal to do with their keeping. Potatoes grown from cuttings of the vines set in July will keep far easier than those from spring plants. As soon as frost has nipped the vines, get the vines off at once, for they will communicate disease to the roots if left on. Dig on a dry sunny day, and do not throw _ the potatoes in heaps and Pbofbssob Massey. t,rujse them, but let them lie along the rows and sun during the day. Haul to the cellar carefully in basket or crates. Do not store any cut potatoes nor any with brown blotch es on the skin, for that shows the black-rot dis sease. Then when all are in, if possible heat the cellar up to 90 degrees till the potatoes have dried oft from the sweat they always go through. After that a temperature of 45 degrees in winter is warm enough, and the cellar should be well ventilated in good weather. It is far better to have a potato house made for the purpose as I have heretofore described. J* WHEAT AFTER COTTON.—As a rule, I do not Advise sowing wheat after cotton, as it is usually too late. But if the cotton is off early, you can go over with a disk harrow both ways and chop the stalks up. Keep going till all are chopped and the surface made fine. The more you har row and tramp the soil the better the crop will be. SEED CORN.—Taking the lower ear of corn for seed will tend to prevent the ears getting higher on the stalks, and in my experience, also tends to make ears above it. If I had corn already of an ideal stature, I would select the best ear on the stalks for seed without regard to where it grew. Where the corn makes its ears too high from the ground, a constant taking of the ear next the ground will bring it to a better shape. LATE SOWN OATS.^Winter oatB should have been sown in September for the best results. But I have known fine crops made from later sowing. The point of importance is to get the surface three inches, made as fine as possible by harrowing, and then to drill the seed at rate of two bushels an acre. The regular wheat drill is the best thing for sowing oats if the ground has been properly harrowed and tramped firm. Winter-killing re sults from a loose preparation of the soil. ft^ DISTANCE TO SET FRUIT TREES.—Wants to plant a home orchard and wants to know when to plant. I assume that the orchard is to be of different fruits. Apples should be set 30 to 35 feet apart each way; peaches, 20 feet; pears of standard size, 25 feet; dwarf pears, 10 to 15 feet; plums, 16 feet each way. Plant in the South all trees in the fall. The best place to get the trees will be the nearest reliable nursery. * ROTATION OF PASTURE CROPS.—Twenty five acres of bottom land of good quality, one third now in corn and two-thirds in peas after oats. Wants to feed some beef cattle. If it is proposed to rotate the 2 5 acres in crops, I would not use any grass, but would make a three-year rotation of corn, with peas among it. Corn cut and peas harvested and land prepared with disk harrow and seeded to oats. Peas sown after the oats and made into hay and red clover sown on the stubble in September. Clover pastured the next summer and the following spring turned for corn again. If your idea is to put the whole 2 5 acres in pasture permanently. I would seed it to grass this fall, sowing 10 pounds of tall meadow fescue, 10 pounds of tall meadow oats grass, and 5 pounds of alsike clover. Never turn cattle on clover pasture when hungry, or you will have some bloated, but turn on after they have been well fed and at first for a short time and they will not gorge themselves. J* STRAWBERRIES.—A Louisiana correspondent is bothered about fertilizers for strawberries and wants to know about the formula. I have given others. The stations down in that part of the Mississippi Valley have decided that potash is not needed there. Hence, the low per cent potash in the formula I gave may not be needed. But HOW ABOUT THE HOME ORCHARD? \T7HAT are you doing about a home orchard ? No farm should be with out an abundant supply of both small and orchard fruits, and where these are lacking the reflection upon the farmer’s industry and business sense is obvious. He must show why he is without them, or stand convicted of neglect. Right now is the time to be thinking of the home orchard and fruit garden—and not only thinking of them, but prepar ing for them, getting the land ready, or dering the trees and plants, etc. This Southland of ours should be a land of overflowing fruitfulness. The traveler through our farming sections should never get entirely away from the beauty of blossoming orchards in the springtime, of laden trees in the au tumn. The children on our farms should revel in fruit from the year's beginning to its end. To try to get along without orchards and vineyards and berry patches is the poorest sort of policy. It means a poor er living at a higher cost. Let no reader of ours try it any long er. Plant a few fruit trees this very fall, and some grapes and small fruits. Few things will pay yiu better. jjieuijr ui puuapuunc aciu is, aouuiiess, neeaea, and the nitrogen should be mainly used after the fruit is off so that strong crowns tend to make the fruit soft for shipping. Hence I would fer tilize heavier in, summer after the fruit is gath ered than at any other time, and would, in your section, use only acid phosphate in spring. J* WINTER PASTURE.—On laud in peas now, our friend will sow oats late in October and wants to sow vetch or rape with the oats. How soon, he asks, can hogs and Bheep be turned on it? 1^'ite October will be too late to sow rape, and vetch sown at that time will not be ready for the stock till late March or April. Crimson clover can be sown in Craven County, N. C.. late in Oc tober with fair prospect of success, and it will be a little earlier in Bpring than the vetch. But as you want to put the land in corn after cutting the oats and legume or pasturing them, you will have little pasture, except the oats, perhaps, be fore March. Better bow a mixture of crimson clover and vetch and leave out the oats and turn all under for the corn, as you admit that the land is not rich. WHICH FAR FOR «KKI>?—“With three ears of coru on a stalk, which is best for seod, the (op or bottom one?” If the corn is incliued to grow too tall and to make the ears away up on th© stalks with a short top above them, the use of the ear next the ground for seed will tend to reduce the tall stature, and will be more inclined to make an ear or ears above it. If the coru has already a fairly good stature, and the ears come handy and about half-way between the tasBel and the ground, then take the best ear ou the stalk with out regard to its position. LIME AXI) PHOSPHATE.—‘Would like to have your advice as to using lime and pulverized phosphate rock at same time on cotton etc.? Hew can I tell when lime Is needed"? In the first place understand that lime is not used as a fer tilizer. but as a means for sweetening an acid soil, promoting the formation of nitrates from organic decay in the soil, and having a mechanical effect In making sandy lsnd closer and stlfTer land mor* porous. The common test as to acidity Is to take s piece of blue litmus paper that can be bad at any drug-store, and moisten some of the soli and place the litmus paper in It. If it soou turns pink, It shows acidity. Liming may not altogeth er prevent this, but it will render the soil more nearly alkaline. Hut liming alone will never make poor land rich. It Is useful to lime occasionally where a farmer practices s good rotation and gets humus Into his land. Hut lime and phosphate rock used together will be of no advantage. The rock is the phosphate of lime, and Is In « very lnsoluable state, and applied to poor land, or land that Is deficient in vegetable matter. It will be a good while before plants can use the phosphorus It contains. But where a growth of peas or pea stubble Is plowed under, the humic acids develop ed from the decaying vegetable matter will tend to dissolve the phosphate. It will also act well when mixed In stable manure at rate of 109 pounds to a ton of manure. At the Ohio Station it was found that 4 0 pounds added to a ton of manure made a great Increase In the crop over that from a ton of stable manure without it. You need to make more feed for stock and feed It and make manure. Then you can use lime about one* in six years, and can use pulverized phosphate rock to advantage with the manure. J* Till ftfl a * ft iwzttf /% s<«« «>■» tsjtj — ... •••.amLL — * ■ ii a v»»|'v % .... ly Interested in tall meadow oats grass. I Ilk* It better than any other grass, but can not worn to get a permanent Held of It-** This is one of the best grasses for the South. Professor Phares. in his book on grasses, anys It Is the best winter grass that can he had for the South, and that it will make twice as much hay as timothy, and for summer soiling, It may be cut four or five times. It Is an early grass, and associates well with orchard grass, thickening up the stand of this which Is apt to grow In bunches. It should be cut like orchard grass ns soon as the heads are out. On strong, moist bottom land It will last five or six years, but on dry upland, It Is not so lusting. I would always sow it In mixture with orchard grass and redtop. and the second cutting will have the redtop In plenty. Then when tho oats grass and redtop run out on dry soli the orchard grass will still be good. The tall meadow oats grass Is better suited to moist and strong land, bo far as lasting is concerned, but It will grow on thin land better than most grasses, though not permanent lu such a location. If every farmer In the Cotton Belt farmed In a good three-year rotation, tho biggest sort of a crop could be grown on one-third tho land now used, and the remainder would bo getting ready In profitable crops of other sorts to make more aDd more cotton per Here. The cotton farmers of the South have a cinch on cotton, and there Is no more profitable crop that can be grown In the South, provided the land la farmed instead of merely planted In cottou year after year. ■ Save the time and expense of hauling your^B 9 Corn to the mill Buy a Monarch Mill B ■ and grind the meal fop your own table. You B jfl are sure to have cleaner, Ireslier and more 1 Imeal. Send to-day lor a Monarch Mill I For grinding corn meal, all kinds of feed, or f l_j craning torn, t'.c.. Monarch 1 Mitts a e ti e be t, Write us 1 amount and k:nd of power you I have and we wdl send I you iliu iraud catalog. I SPROUT. WllCRQK ft CO. I Bax 411, Muxcr.P*. /^Write Quick *OP Prices on b ^ QUAKER CITY >' FEED MILLS Get our Biff Free Book and low price ill reef from fac tory—fora latest unproved (QuakerCity I-•*«•<! Mill that meets your needs. «-i udn fa « t, does kn j work wltb U ift po% or. Grind ear corn, sbe led corn a I firaliih. Migrate or m) xed,enai>< , n util urn ortbe ilm -«t table uuttl. OriudM soft and wet corn as well a.- Iiuuks. NO DEPOSIT-FREIGHT PA Our free trial and proposition protect you puv freight. Try any Quaker City Mill—11 i« f and if not hut)*fa< tory return t cxperiNo. Itluf Book Free Now. Addrcsn p A. J. VI It W li COM FAN Y • a^ili an ft I illit-rt Hu. Pkillmb*l|iliia, Fa. «r 104 The IIurhluvrj Hnr«‘liuu»f MrblnU ^ |*urk hiation 4 h'.euftut ilk ,M Mi DUPLEX G«KG ThoiiHAndn In um. Grind car corn. jihHled corn. oaU, *ho*L, barley, rye kaflir corn, cotton mod nlicaf out* bagger ha* THE duplex 1* the only m I II ni a d ii with n .ii,,||,|,, at of burr a, Kualeat running. lUwjuiriW 2T.* Ion. power anil iloca twice »• much Work aa any ot her mill of cgual niae. telly ad.pl,.4 f.r aa.ii III., aiialura. He make 7 ai/.ea. r roe catalog. DUPLEX MILL & MFC. CO., Buitt'O Sgnugliald. Ulna The Horse Collar • ml pre vent any otln-r* vi q while work the hoi« e in liot r Henri youf iiamr now for ffti U, Hg . freight prcpei*! offer on Indestructible ilursoColInri I *» proving that you ran ln»nra your«Hf l(<K!f hor«e ,M»wrr all year ro iml at a net of !•»■ than « rent* |»er (lay for a year. '1 he only tnixtrra horn* collar la<i(• a tlfetlme—no hainea -no ri|x>nae. W rit* | «»*lal Jolinitcn-Slocuni Co., Sl< Suu S«., C»ro, Mick.