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I ! V ' ?*_NO. 17-_ STARKVILLE, MISSISSIPPI, JUNE 1, 1902. ?0 CENTS A YEAR. J HE COWPEA.) s-"mpRo,iHs * \ IKOK TBE ti ■ ZETTE The three Vreat soil improving id forage phwitsof this country the nitrogenVathersand much ore—are red Skiver, alfalfa and le (Jowpea. T1t*l former does • business for tn<\North, Al , fa'does it for tbe\Vest, and cowpea for the South. 1 The cowpea got its start in the uth in the early partof the 18th ntury—got it by way of a South rolina planter, it appears. | =>t from whom the fir,st lot of .vpea seed was obtained has i t been determined. i The cowpea is a native of Asia f lia, China, Siam—and of cen il africa.. It now appears turalized at different points in th North and South America, cultivation has spread from •Southern States, so that at »ent it is grown as a forage it or for human food through tll the warmer quarters of lobe. cowpea is really a bean, ; it is the Vigna catjang mist. It readily runs irms or varieties; and stablished in one local if taken to and kept where the conditions nt. For this reason od many more or less arieties of the cowpea, i uncertaintyabouttheir Thus it is that one va f cowpea may be culti a dozen different locali r the same name, or a erent peas may bear ame. ' to be quite probable han one speciesofcow ’ ltivation. pea is referred to as man’s bank.” It is o gather fertility in e its roots are and hold there for use by other h man cultivates. ■* 1 uaa HD pUYVCI ill LUUllilUU H | a n tlber of plants belong “,o th lrdcr to which it be ‘■v 4s, tl.!|Leguminosae order, V Ivded lere being such well » "-*'ths as alfalfa and the in which these plants soil is exceedingly iVstinc| and it is one of the 5 'cticallyImportant discoveries he latest quarter of the cen* ’ T >cientisis have ascertained, ^^ilik^horoughness and care |o leave no room for doubt on Subject, “that minute micro •isms, or bacteria,” as they named, “which live within issues of the roots of legum - plants, take up free nitro rom the gas in the soil, just higher plants take up tree en from the air.”’ vbogo below the surface studiesof cultivated plants >r will want to know some a l'qyx parti>J<lars about business TBf nitrogen ere take** pa-t^enters into \ ' ; \ combination to form nitric acid, whiph unites with the mineral elements of the soil to form ni trates, a kind of plant food ex ceeding^’ valuable to the grow ing crop. Indeed, “nitrogen, when in combination with other dement is an indispensable part ot plani and animal food; but the free elements connot be utilized in the uncombined state, by any of the higher organisms." There is where the lower forms of plant life, the bacteria come into fine play. They can do what the higher forms cannot do- for themselves-Mhey can gather nitrogen from the atmos phere. The higher plants can obtain their nitrogen only from the soil, they consume the nitro gen existing there, and their growth and removal exhausts the soil of this element." l ntil the manner and charac ter of the service of these legumes was learned the outlook for a fertilizing material containing nitrogen was not of the brightest. Now we know that every farmer rich and poor, has oyer 3,0< 10tons of atmospheric nitrogen resting on eyery acre of his farm, a cer tain quantity of which can be transformed into available plant food every time he grows a crop cowpeas, red clover or alfalfa. Though leguminous plants do much of themselves, they arc yet not alone able to bring soil up from comparat: * iiit\ . • high state of pro mcss and keep it in that stat under a reg ular system of cropping. This means that green manures even when the plants furnishing them are nitrogen gatherers, should not be solely depended von to increase the crop prod g ca pacity of the soil. Nor can the legu minous plants themselve be grown with ad n age unless they are supplied \ th anabundanceoft.be mineral e ments, phosphor.c acid, po h and lime. On the other hand with, these added in sufficient amounts, and with the specific bacteria—for there are different kinds of bac teria and each one has particular species of plant—present in the soil, there is not onlythe addition of nitrogen to thesoil, which may be useful for plants in general, but there is accumulation of veg etable matter, which much im proves the physical character of the medium in which the roots operate. A point regarding the need for lime in connection with the growing of legumes is contained in the observation that by its use any possible ascidity of the soil may be corrected, since the bac terial life in the soil, which in or der that the plant may acquire its nitrogen from the air, is discour aged rather than encouraged by the presence of acid. It follows from this that all beef, pork, wodlVcheest or bi * ter. ’ ' 1 >A Rye a Quick l eed. The farmer who sowed rye la August has been en joyin pasture from it early this spring. It has the advantage over grass seed that you can bring it into use so quickly trom time of seeding. Even seeding early this sprintr furnishes, in a short time, an ex cellent pasture of great value to the swine man this season, es specially with the priceofgrain so high. It is of. vigorous growth, furnishes an abundance of tilling and is relished by swine. If clo ver, timothy or other grasses were sown this sprjng it would be months before they would furn ish pasture or it would be safe to pasture them; but with rye it will stand almost any kind of hard pasture, and is therefore of great advantage in supplying a pasture when needed. Every farmer and breeder of swine should give lots of thought to the situation this year to enable him to make the most profit out of his operations. Too many go ahead without any consideration of what is best for them to do. A press dispatch fro Michigan t ity, Ind., says that turkey rais ere in every part of Michigan are receiving the most unique offers for their birds in the history of poultry production. Thay have offers of $150 tor the best team of gobblers broken to harness and able to travel at a smart gait. For the second best team $100 is offered. The teams must be large, heavy, healthy birds and so trained that they would not shy at a ca’liope were one to ap pear on the same track. There are also offered cash prizes rang ing froom S15 to $25 for the best series of photographs showing the turkeys being trained to har ness. A taking design for a turkey cart is asked for. The judging is to be done by sports men. teams Sept. 1 and the pic ture June 1. -- Be not not above your profes sion, and always consider it as the best any man can follow. Never shrink from doing any thing your business calls you to do. The man who is above his business will some day find his business above him. Gazette ads. bring quick results. soiis which are frequently used for the growth oi leguminous plants should receive a dressing of lime, preferably in the fall, and 25 bushels of stone lime per acre, once in four or live years, is a sufficient amount for medium soils. A steady purpose with the farmer should be to make the most of everything he grows. How cap this be done in the case of the cowpea—in the base of all such plants? It is further observed that whilst the fertilizing value of the roots and stubble of the cowpea are very considerable, yet they are not as ^s great as that os the hay which can be removed from the field. What should the grower of the cow pea do about this? The best and most economical use of the cowpea is to cut it for hay feed to stock and return all the barn or stable manure so produced to the soil. Plowing the whole crop under is less remunerative, be cause there is by this course much needless waste of the mus dle-making and fat-forming con stituentsof the plant which would bring more profit, if turned into The Southern Farm Gazette, or starkviiie, Miss., will give to the peison sending it the LARGEST LIST OF YEARLY CASH sub scribers by the 1st of August, 1902, a full scholarship in one of the best business colleges in the South, valued at $4>. To the person sending the SECOND LARGEST list, we will give a scholarship in Stenography in a good school valued at $10 lUU RAN liOSh NO T MR 10 all others sending in lists who are not successful in 7 , AW AilfUj* winning a premium, w*; will return20 per cent of the amount they have.sent us as a commission for their work, so no one can lose in this propo sffion and all stand a chance of winning a premium worth striving for. 1 his is a splendid opportunity for any young man or woman to acquire a business educa tion who might not otherwise receive it. The scholarships we offer carry with them all the rights and privies one would get should they pay cash at the schools. Go to Work-Attend Public Meetings * and solicit among your friends and acquaintances. Subscribers to Tub Gazkttb are easy to get as it is the BhS 1 and CHEAPEST agricultural and stock paper in the South and every farmer and stock raiser needs it in his business Sample Copies Free. Notify us that you intend to compete in this contest and we will send yrou any reasonable number of sample copies that you may request, ''end in names and money you secure every two weeks at least and we will keep a correct record of same. Everything will be conducted FAIRLY. SOUARE LY AND IMPARTIALLY. Remember the Contest Closes August 1st. (in to Work and he the Successful Contestant. TUT SOUTHERN FARM GAZETTE, STAR'V IE, MISS.