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Hbc Southern farm Gazette.
publisbcb Scmi-flDcmtbl\> bv> tbc Ca3cttc publishing Co. w. c. WKLBORX'Editor. Advertising Rates. 1II \1). K. MONTGOMERY . Associate EdifOi s?ecard elsewhere in th s issue. 'These rates are and Business Manager. net and will be uniformly adhered to. BOcPER YEAR IN ADVANCE nless specifically instructed, allads will le _ru.i aud chained for until ordered out. Filtered at the Post » dice at Starkville. Miss., j air All transient and short-time advertisements as second-class mai< matter. payable in advance Jp®“Address all communications and make all remittanpes payable to SOUTHERN FARM GAZETTE, STARKVILLE, MISS. The walls of the John M, Stone Cotton Mill are going up very rapidly ***♦ The truck farmers on I. C. railroad have been wonderfully suc cessful this season so far. The A. & M. College Commencement will be celebrated much earlier than usual this year, from June 2nd. to 5th inclusive. **** A dozen or more new oil mills are being erected in the State. As many banks and several cotton mills and other new industries are being arranged for. Seasonable rains in most sections with generally prevailing dry weather through the month of May for the entire State, gives an unusually promising outlook for crops this year. **** The sweet potato crop should receive due attention. Slips and vines may be put out as late as August with good success. But the June and early July plantings are much to be preferred. *##* Don’t he backward about writing the Gazkttk your views on the various matters appertaining to farming, stock raising, etc. An exchange of ideas is always beneficial. Let us hear from you. Have you a gooi patsure for the hogs? If not, go and inclose one forthwith. Grown hogs maintain themselves nicely on pasture alone, while pigs and sows suchliog need only a little food in addit ion to pasture. AAA* A favorable May is said to mean much in the direction of making a good crop. May weather has been ideal, and eyerybody ought to be well up with all crops. By keeping well up cultivation ought to be done cheaply and effectually. *#♦* We would deem it a personal favor if our friends would call the attention of some bright young man or lady who are desirous of a business education, to our scholarshipoffer on lirstpage. We mean what we say therein and would like see a number of contestants. ***♦ Plant pess and sorghum every chance y:>u get to pasture, feed green or cut and make hay of. Sorghum may be planted as late as August 1, with every assurance of making a good crop, if there is moisture enough to give it a start. Peas also do fairly well plant ed'lhis late but do not stand drouth as well as sorghum. With a good crop of corn in Mississippi there will be a big de mand for hogs. With two short corn crops, the people in many cases let their stock of hogs run out, and will need to buy seed to start again. It is all wrong to depend so exclusively on corn as hog food here where we have so many other good crops that* we can raise so cheaply. **** There will be more meadow land in East Mississippi this year than ever before. The Johnson grass spread considerably the last two years, and the absence of sufficient labor caused much of it to go into meadow. There is no finer hay to be found than Johnson grass, and the market for it grows better as its merits become better known. A great tide of immigration and investment seems to be setting in toward the Mississippi Delta. Besides the purchase of 10,000 acres of land by a company headed by the officials of the I C. rail road, charters are being gotton for the investment of several hun dred thousand dollars in cotton mills, oil mills, saw mills, furniture manufacturing plants etc. The same people are at the head of these enterprises. ♦*** Let every friend of the Gazette speak a good word for the paper and if possible get us a new subscriber. We believe every farmer in the State should be on our list. Bear in mind that the larger and better paying list of subscribers we have, the better paper we can issue, so by helping us you help yourselves. Send us a list of your friends that we may send them sample copies. In a lelter received from Mr. R. M.Smith,ofCannonsburg, Miss., he informs us that he has recently brought to his stock farm some fine brood sows from the following noted breeders: Winn & Mastin, Mastin, Kan., J. Tennant& Sons, New Hampton Mo., Woodbury Hill Farm, Dan ville, 111., H. C. Taylor & Sons, Roanoke, Mo., and M. S. Haynes & Sons, Ames, III. Mr. Smith, is one of our most progressive and enterprising stockmen and will ere long doubtless have for sale some tine specimens of these dif ferent breeds. Cultivation to Save Moisture. Thereis nothing equal to good, thorough cultivation to iiiake a crop stand drouth a long time. Let a crop of corn be caught weedy and grassy and with a-hard crust on the ground from former heavy rains, and a short drouth will often tire it to the ear and ruin it. Weeds and grass draw heavily on the moisture supply. It is es timated that each pound of dry weeds produced has required 300 lbs. of water to be taken in at the roots and evaporated off at the leaves. This is also true of corn and other crops, each pound of dry root, stem or leaf has required 300 lbs. of vvaterto be passed through the plant. Hence thick corn suffers severely from drouth. Another potent" cause of suffering is the hard crust formed on the surface of the field. The harder and more compact a field is the worse the water evaporates from the surface and the dryer the land becomes. Plowing up a layer of loose dirt on the surface stops most of the evaporation and keeps the soil underneath cool and moist. This fact has been thoroughly proven in an accurate way by experiment. It is found lhat a pot of soil with some loose dirt-sprinkled on top will hold its moisture much better than a sim ilar pot left hard and packed as a heavy rain had left it. By actual field trials it has been found*by stirring the soil after every rain an amount of water is saved equal to from one to two good rains a month as compared to a similar piece of land left hard and compact from beating rains. Hence it is that well-worked crops stand drouth so much better than poorly worked crops. The loose dirt stirred up on top by the cultivator or sweep is compared with a layer of leaves or trash spread on the land or sonic uiucswiiu a uianKei spread over tne ground. In cultivating the soil it stops the moisture from rising to thesurfaceand escaping just as cutting a lamp wick below the dame will stop the oil from climbing up to the flame, only not quite so completely. A crop then should be worked as nearly as possible after every rain. It is also found that freshly worked soil in the absence of rain gradually settles until moisture begins to escape rather rap idly, and another stirring is beneficial even in the absence of rain to to crust the soil. What implements should the land be stirred with? A flat sweep that drops dirt behind it is possibly as fine a tool as was ever put in afield for this purpose. The cultivator, side-bar lows, etc., are good, but will not equal the sweep in eradicating the grass and weeds that have gotten a start, Clcorgia heel sweeps are fine in loose sandy or loamy land when kept sharp. The larger wheel cultivators are to be recommended as enabling one togetover the crop rapidly, wherever stumps and trees have rotted away so as to permit their use. Even a turn plow yet used by man}' in laying by corn is much better than no cultivation at all. These observations are particularly applicable to corn because corn suffers from drouth much oftener than cotton does. The State has a fine prospect just now for a good corn crop. If follow ed up by good caretul culture we will ship in very few cars of high priced corn next fall. We have had two years of severe schooling in making a little corn go a long way. New Advertisements. Some time ago the Gazette received a number of inquiries regarding the planting and cul ture of rice, but was unable to give much information on the subject. Elsewhere in this issue appears an advertisement of The Engleberg Huller Co., of Syra cruse, N Y. offering to give a book on preparing rice for the market free for the asking. It would pay you to write them. Note the change of advertise ment of Alexander Seed Co. Augusta, Ga. They are now of fering German Millet Seed, seed corn for late planting, sorghum cane seed, etc. Mr. C. C. Bardwell, of Stark ville, offers two yearling Jersey Bulls cheap. Be sure and write him if in the market foranvthing in this line. The Southern Hereford Cattle Co. (formerly Columbus Cattle Co.) of West Point, are again ad vertising in this paper. Mr. Gladney, the manager is well known to our readers and needs no introduction from us. It in the market you will do well to correspond with him before pur chasing. Messrs Deavenport, of Stark ville, announce in this paper that their beautiful Bay Stallion, Mar tin,-will make the season here. Looh up the ad. read it and gov ern yourself accordingly. W. M. Kirby, of BowlingGreen, Ky., is offering in this paper some choice bargains in saddle, trotting and carriage horses. Mr. Kirby is thoroughly reliable and will do just what he says. Correspond with him. If desiring to purchase a good dog, or trade for one, write Mr. H. R. Ihrie, Ihrie, Miss. See ad. elsewhere. J. W. M. Field & Sons of Mem phis, Tenn., areadvertising their famous Drand of Kentucky whis key, “Champion” in this paper. A word to the wise is sufficient. J. H. Woolley, a leading distill er of Cherryville, N. C., is adver tising his products in this paper. He is reliable and will do what he says. Mr. J. 13. Perkins, of Stark ville isadyertisingtwo fineyoung cows for sale. They ar O. K. in every respect and you would make no mistake in purchasing them. Sheriff D. F. Love, of Koscius ko, Miss., offers for sale else where in this paper some choice young Jersey bulls, which would, as Mr. Love, says “be a credit to any herd in the South.” It would pay you to investigate what he has before buying. Mr. R. M. Smith, of Cannons burg has for sale some tine An gora goats, at reasonable prices. Parties desiring this ciass of stock should write him. C. R. Baird & Co., the old relia ble seed house of Chattanoooga, Tenn., have an ad. in this issue offering for sale several varieties of peas, millet seed, cane seed, etc. Their prices are ••easona ble. Write them. The So. Farm Gazette, of Starkville has been enlarged and greatly improved typographical ly and otherwise. Editor Wel born is doing a igreat work for Mississippi generally, and forthe farmer particularly. Fifty cents paid fora year’s subscription to this valurble agricultural paper is the best investment we know of. Evsry farmer in Yazoo ought to subscribe for the Ga zette.—Yazoo Sentinel. Uncle Sam will contribute $20, 000 to the fund for the investiga tion and destruction of the cotton boll weevil in the southwest. This amount is included in the agricultural appropriation bill, Improving the Nutrient Val ue of Corn i It has been the aim of the ex periment stations all over the country to endeavor, if poss:l>le, to increase the nutrient value of corn. Corn, though such a uni versal feed for animals, is not, when fed exclusively, a properly balanced food. That is, its pro portion of carbohydrates and fat to protein is in excess to what is required to meet the necessity of the animal economy when called upon to perform work in its var ious forms. Being aware of this fact, the intelligent feeder sup plements a portion of corn in a food ration with some other ma terial haying a higher content of nutrient substance in which corn is deficient, which, in reality is protein. * In trying to improve the con- / dition of corn, or, in other words I to improve its balance as a food | ration, it has been the object of I our agricultural investigators to increase Ihe percentage of pro teins and fats at the expense of ( the carBohvdrats, and which, if it can be satisfactorily accom plished, means an increas in the value of the grain itself. The chemical department of the Kansas agricultural experi ment station has for the past four years been making investigations njiu me suujeci ui corn improve ment through a systematic analy sis of different varities, and al though we have not space to go into detail, we give the work as published in Kansas Station bul letin No. 107 which has just been published. Corn is deficient in in protein, and in 1808 experiments were begun, which are still in progress having for their object the origi nation of varieties that should be richer in protein. Thirty-three varieties were analyized, and these showed percentages of nitrogen ranging from 1.50 to 2.20, Analysis of single ears of each of two varieties showed great differences in the nitrogen content of different ears of the same variety, the percentages ranging from 1.53 to 2.24 in a variety that had been grown for 30 years on the same farm with out admixture, and from 1.35 to 2.22 in a cross originated the^ year previous. Analysis of sir gle kernals from the same *»* showed considerable differe in nitrogen content, though h as great as among different of the same variety. Analysis of a large numl '• of single kernals, the sp * gravity of which had been d mined, showed that while ti.J*» seems to be a tendency town-■„ higher nitrogen content wit ftnoi'ihr irroin'tr I., no uniform connection between these factors, and therefore corn richer in nitrogen, cannot be be seperated from that poorer in nitrotren by means of specific gravity. From the original thirty-three varities 21 were selected and used in makingcrosses by the botanical department of the station. Each ear saved was pollenized by hand, and all other fertilization prevent ed. The crosses onginatedin 1844, and in this way w’ere plant ed in 1844, and each closely fer tilized, and the next vear those showing 2 per cent, or more of nitrogen were planted, as a rule. These were again close-fertilized and the ears produced analyzed. These crosses show high per centages of nitrogen in many cases, and all contain 2 per cent or more of nitrogen as the aver age for three yaars. In twelve cases the average was above 2.40 per cent, of nitrogen or 15 per cent, of protein. The unsatisfactory outcome of a co-operative experiment is de tailed, and analyses are given of a number of varieties of corn of fered on the market, which show how inferior the seed corn now available is in the nitrogen con tent. The selection of seed corn rich er in nitrogen, bv choosing ears in which examination shows that the kernels possess relatively large germs, is strongly urged upon tarmersa practicable meth od of increasing the percentage of both protein and fat in this our great American cereal.