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PROF. MASSEY’S Editorial Page. Prof Mtnrr s ill personally answer Inquiries on Agricultural subject* sent by our readers The Tenant System of the South. I have been requested to write an article on ‘ How to Manage the Tenant.” That depend* on what you mean by a tenant. If you mean the usual cotton-cropper of the South, I would say that the only way to “manage” him Is to abolish him forever. There Is nothing that so Interfere* with rational farm Improvement, nothing that *o disorganize* labor, nothing that Is worse for the land and the land-owner, and nothing that I* worse for the negro. It has built up and enriched a crowd of money shark* who furnish the tenant* at eiorbltant figure*. It ha* not only robbed the land-owner of the fertility of hi* soil, but the crop Hens have robbed him of what was properly due him from his tenants In many Instance*. Jl If any man was asked how to contrive a scheme for bringing poverty to the cotton grower*, he could not devise a better one than the cropping system and the crop lien. It would be far better for the land-owner to let all the land he can not manage himself grow up In pines than to let It out year after year to croppers until even a negro will not take It. There are great fortune* awaiting men of means in the South by the establishment of a tenant sys tem something after the system thst has worked so successfully In Eastern Maryland That Is lo put buildings, on farms of moderate site, of such a character that tenant* with means and outfits for the Improvement of the land can be Induced to settle on the farm*, with an Iron-clad agree ment as to the course of rotation and crop* to be grown. Jl Hut to get this class of tenants there must be something better on the farm than a shack to live In and a log hovel for mules, fn one county In Maryland there are forty-two farms belonging to one estate. The tenant* on these farms have been prosperous, and the late owner, who accumulated them since the wnr, died a millionaire, and the farms are to-day immensely better and more pro ductlve than when they were bought This Is In a wheat-growing section I bellevr thst the isms system applied to the cotton farm* of the South, would be far more profitable both tc tenant and owner* than In the whcnt-growlng *ec lion, for there 1* more profit in cotton a* a mone\ crop under good farming than there |* in wheal anywhere. With such a system, the cost of th« production of cotton rotild be greatly lessened b* reason of greater production per sere, and th« emp of ((Htsjr r«>tild he produced on «»nc-ft>uiit the flfss row token for the crop. How lo manage the tenant, then, la to have ten anta of Intelligence who will farm systematically who will not Ionic at every other crop than rotloi merely aa "supplies.** hut will aim for a profit If every crop grown, and will understand that theli Interest and the Interest of the owner of the lant are Identical, and that the more the productive Oeaa of the land Increase* the more profit wll come to both, for It must b# understood that thli I* a share system and not one In which the tenan pay* so much cash rent. It means, too, a perm» nent tenantry, a rental terminable only when th< tenant shows an Incapacity to farm well. * The present cropping system and crop llena hav demoralised farming over large sections. The land owner Imagines that what he gets from the tennn Is so much made. while. In fact, he la aiding li the reduction of th# price on every pound of col ton he grows himself, and tho*e who patch out al their land In this way and live In tn*n are slrnpl hindering the proper development of the countr> Good tenants, good farmers, could be had If th* r were decent buildings on the farms where a dec#n man could live, The average negro tenant wimpl tries to get all he can out of the land **»d th lamhowner, and feel* under no obligation to p<« his debts, and the sooner he la abolished and mad to work for wage* the better for him and th land. What Lime Does and How to Use It. I still got Inquiries from persons who want to he advised about the use of lime as a fertilizer Doubtless on land that Is In need of lime an ap plication may produce good results. But If n farmer then Jumps to the conclusion that the re sult was obtained because lime is a fertilizer, and goes on to use it In this belief, he will soon find that the lime does not continue to give him the results that It did at first, because lime Is not n fertilizer as are ordinary commercial fertilizers. ^ ou can get 4 40 bushels of lime In a car-load; and If It Is pure It will slake out 1,000 bushels. Dime Is useful to sweeten the soil, to hasten the nitrification of organic matter In it, to flocculate a heavy clay and make It easier to work, to com pact a sandy soil and make It more retentive of moisture, and to release potash that may be In the soil In nn Insoluble condition. Plaster, the *ul I---. Deep Plowing and Soil Preser vation. It I* evident that tho practical farmers of tho South have waked up to the need for deeper plowing, and Abat Professor Wel born U getting left badly. Last summer I mi In one place a farm from which the great flood had taken all the plowed soli bodily from a hillside, and loft the hard clay showing the ridges of the last plowing. Now. I am sure that If that hard clay had been broken Into deeply with a subsoller. even that flood would not have carried off the soil The greatest need for deep loosen ing of tho red hills of tho South Is for this very prevention of washing, which terraces are unable to check with tho shallow plow ing that leaves tho hard clay unbroken, merely furnishing a slldo for tho loose soil to slip down over. Hut as one of our read ers has snld the fall and early winter is the time to do this, for a subsoil plow In early spring would simply plaatcr the wot subsoil To Mr. Oliver 1 would say. that 1 hope to keep the "flatting gutl** loaded on this sub ject and Are at the fellows that still scratch their hills. phate of lime, also has the power to release pot ash. and In every one hundred pounds of acid phosphate, you will apply forty pound* of plaster, whlrh Is the natural re*ull of dissolving the lime phosphate rock with sulphuric acid. Lime la an excellent thing used In moderation by farmers who farm and keep up the humus In thdr soil The purest lime you can gel, too. Is the > best, nor does It need any "preparation" except ’ to slake It with water to n powder. Lime, as I have said. I* not a manure, and If you use It year after year with that Impression the good effertHhat you find from a first applies • lion will soon disappear, and you will t»e robbing the soil of mineral matters and rapidly using up i the humus Farmers using lime for the first time i and getting good results from Its use. are apt to ' Jump to the conclusion that all they have to do to I make their land rich Is to keep using lime But . they will soon find their error. In a good rota 1 Hon of crops In which the legumes come In fro • fjuently on the land, an application of a ton of t lime per acre once In six year* will probably have . a good effect. * There has been a great deal of talk lately In re gard to the use of pulverlsod limestone In stead of burnt lime, and many scientific men favor It. Doubtless the pulverised article cun be used far more heavily than the more caus 1 tlr lime, but wo doubt Its acting so quickly 1 to sweeten an acid soil. But the shells will I be very lasting If mixed liberally In the soil. The pulverised limestone or the pulverised s shells will doubtless bring about conditions In th« l soil linllar to those In a regular limestone soli v but for rapidly restoring the alkalinity of a soil „ that has become acid. I think that freshly water y slaked Mine will be better. It la well-known that e applications of lime often have the most decided • effect on what Is known as limestone land. But the experience of many In the use of shell marl has shown that it is easy on a thin soil deficient In humus to apply too much marl and make the sol! unproductive except for certain plants that can endure the strongly alkaline conditions. On such land there Is one legume that will thrive and help to restore humus. This Is the melilotus or sweet clover, which has been found to grow on the lime lands of Mississippi that are naturally In this condition. While it Is not one of the best legumes, It Is nevertheless useful under these conditions, and another fact makes It especially valuable In that It has a similar bacterium to the one living on alfalfa and will inoculate the soil for that plant. Rut in a soli abounding In black organic decay or humus one can use the pulverized shells very liberally with good results. On the coast, where the shells are plentiful and the fossil shells, too, the growth of grass will be greatly !rm proved by such applications. A dense bluegrass sod growing bore on pure sand Is evidence of the value of pulverized oyster shells, and they might be pulverized profitably all along the coast. How to Get Seed Corn of Quality. If every farmer would do as Mr. Ross Is doing, planting a seed patch and watching It. we would soon have a great Improvement In the corn crop. The entire abolishment of barren stalks would mean 10 per cent added to the crop. If not more. The man who put* off snvlng seed till the fall, and out of tho general crop, may take the ears from the most promising stalks, but the corn will be more apt to breed after the Inferior ones . round It than after the style of plant that grew It, because the pollen that set the grains came more from around It than from Its own tnssel. Plant a seed plot by all means and study It all summer, and eliminate all tassels from Inferior plants, and do not stunt It In cultivation. The scarcity of manure la one great drawback In the way of better farming In the South to-day. f.nd every opportunity should be taken to In crease its amount or to use It where It will do the most good. Tho land cannot go on feeding the owner If he will not feed It. What Next Week Will Bring. Ne*t w.i-k Professor M.isne) is going to tell a *tor> He has taught and preached a long time; but “tijur of bis readers are going along In the old ruis yet, and he Is going to tell about a fellow of ‘ust this sort and how a little trip Into a land of good farming opened his eyes. Kdltor Henry Wallace of Wallace's Farmer who bn* been trnvellug with tho Country Life Commis sion through the South, and who Is one of the foremost rgrlcultural authorities In America, has prepared n message especially for H«»uthern Farm (•H/ette readers on "What I Think Southern Fann ing Veedn ** Mr. J. M. Arnold, of StarkvlHc. will tell whnt In gained by the use of an Improved cotton plants t r on one of our Mississippi plantations; and Mr. <! C. Falconer has prepared some Interesting fig ure* on the cost of feeding a horse. The1will be very plain talk to the man who thinks he can afford to grow only scrub stock; and a little piece from a shepherd who made his Took pay him 100 per cent in one year. The Home Circle pages will be bright with the glow of Thanksgiving cheer. Ami. Indeed, we hope that the whole paper will be such as to make you thankful that you are a farmer—and a subscriber. ^ -1 . " " * A Thought for the Week. The South Is a land that has known sorrows; it Ik a land that hns broken the ashen crust and moistened It with tears; a land scarred and riven by the plowshare of war and billowed with the graves *f her dead; but a land of legend, a land of song, a land of hallowed and heroic memories. To that land ever drop of my blood, every fiber of my being, every pulsation of my heart, Is conse crated forever. I was born of her womb; I was nurtured at her breast, and when my last hour shall come, I pray God that I may bo pillowed up on tier bosom and rocked to sleep within her ten tier and encircling arms.--Ex-Senator Edward Ward Carmack, of Tennessee, killed at Nashville November 9th.