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The Tupelo journal. (Tupelo, Miss.) 1876-1924, May 10, 1907, Image 2

Image and text provided by Mississippi Department of Archives and History

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87065632/1907-05-10/ed-1/seq-2/

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Crochet Insertion Design
PRETTY WORK FOR THE LEISURE
MOMENTS.
Directions for Making All Kinds of
Ornamental Work Suitable for
the Furniture of Parlor or
Boudoir.
For the Large Star.—Work 6 chain,
join in a ring, 12 double crochets in
the ring, 7 chain, a double treble in
the nearest double crochet, *, 3 chain,
a double treble in the next double
crochet. Repeat from * into each of
the other double crochets, 3 chain,
join to the fourth stitch of the 7
chain.
Two double crochets under the near
est chain loop, 5 chain, 2 more double
crochets under the same loop, 9 chain,
turn back over the double crochets
just made and work a double treble
over the long stitch beyond, turn
again, and work 15 double crochets
under the chain loop just made, •,
2 double crochets under the next 3
chain, 5 chain, 2 more double crochets
under the same loop, 9 chain, back
over the stitches just made and catch
to the sixth double cvrochet of the pre
vious loop, counting from center of
star, 15 double crochets under the 9
chain, and repeat from * under each
of the other loops round the star. On
reaching the long stitch at the com
mencement of the row work up the
side of it with double crochets, then
5 chain to the sixth stitch of the pre
vious loop, and 9 double crochets un
der the last made loop, thus complet
ing the star.
For the Middle Star.—Five chain,
join in a ring. 8 double crochets with
a chain between each into the ring,
6 chain, 1 treble on the nearest double
crochet, *, 3 chain, 1 treble on the
next doble crochet, repeat from * all
round, the first 3 chain counting as
one treble.
Two double crochets under the near
est chain loop, 5 chain, 2 more double
crochets under the same loop, repeat
under each loop all round.
For the Smallest Stars.—Five chain,
join in ring, S double crochets with a
chain between each in ring, a double
crochet on each double crochet in pre
vious row with 2 chains between each,
4 double crochets under each of the
chain loops. The illustration will
show how and where the stars are
connected.
When a sufficient number of stars
have been joined work a row of
chain from point to point on either
side of the stars, and finish with a row
of 1 treble, 1 chain.
—----—
COIFFURES OF MANY KINDS
_ lit_—
Styles That Will Suit Round, Oval or
Long Faces.
There is no question but that a suc
cessful appearance depends more on
the coiffure than any other detail of
the toilet, for the handsomest gown
and the smartest hat will fail to im
press a beholder if the hair shows neg
lect, lack of style or is unbecomingly
arranged, while often the plainest
frock or simplest chapeau will puss
unobserved if the hair is prettily
dressed in becoming fashion.
The very greatest care should be ex
ercised in choosing one’s coiffure, or
in changing from one mode to another.
Indeed, the safest plan is to try not
one but many styles of hairdressing
until some model entirely satisfactory
is found and then this one should be
worn regardless of changing fashions.
Certain styles suit certain faces, one
arrangement being the more becoming
to an oval face and another to the
round face; but then all are not of the
true types. There is the short oval,
the narrow oval, oval inclining to j
plumpness and the long oval, all of
which are modifications of the perfect
oval face. Equally numerous are the
different varieties of the round face.
There is the so-called perfect type of
round face—that is, neither too thin
nor too fat—the plump round face,
the broad fat face and the very round
short face. Then there is the sharp
pointed face to be considered, the one
with a receding chin, and the type
possessing a very large or aquiline
nose, so that it can be plainly seen
that, while certain directions may be
followed with satisfactory results, it
is simply impossible to set down any
hard and fast rules, because so few
women have features that come up
to the standard of perfection.
For instance, a perfect type of round
face may have the hair dressed high
or low, but if the face is short and
round the high coiffure must be adopt
ed. The fat round face, too, should
look well with high arrangement, but
the sides must be puffed a little, or
the result will be that the fat cheeks
appear really fatter.
LATE FANCY SENT FROM PARIS
- . --—
Large Cloaks and Wraps Are in Order
in the Gay Capital.
The ample enveloping cloaks of the
regency which were much worn in
Paris last summer are again in order,
and second-empire cloaks and wraps
of shawl-like draping are considered
extremely chic. One sees Louis XV.
and directoire models and there is a
ft*
host of fantastic little wraps and short
coats which will be worn over sheer
summer frocks and not only over the
lingerie materials but over chiffons,
sheer voiles and similar stuffs. Whitf
chiffon broadcloth was used in the
construction of this model and brown
velvet ribbon is drawn through large
buttonholes in the two upper capes,
falling in a loop and end at the bot
tom of lowest cape. The .closing is
made with brown silk braid and small
velvet-covered buttons.
The New Lingerie Hat.
The new lingerie hat is shaped af
ter the popular bowl or mushroom
model. A most delectable small af
fair. but unhappily not as universally
becoming as the wide one of last
year, that was nice on both young
and almost-young women—although
w'e did see it occasionally mis-worn
by some who were in neither of these
classes. The round bowl of these
new models has a ribbon tied about
it, perhaps drawn through the holes
of embroidery, and fastened at the
back with some ends to lie against
the hair. Just in front will be placed
a huge rose of a pale yellow, and
there you have a lingerie hat that is
the newest of the new.
The Season’s Sashes.
Several novel kinds of sashes have
appeared this spring upon gowns de
signed for younger women. One of
these ribbon garnitures, made from
opalescent moire, with a narrow black
edge, had two fine black silk tassels
dangling from the forked points of the
“swallowtail” effect into which the
ends were, divided. Another sash,
made for a charming biscuit colored
costume, was likewise of moire rib
bon, in this case plain black, tied in
a high bowr at the back, the hems
being finished with fringe. Still an
other was made of delicate chine rib
bon having an exquisitely variegated
fringe harmonizing with the floral
colors of the sash.
CHINESE COATS ALL THE STYLE
Oriental Garments Are Costly, But Ex
tremely Pretty.
There is an extraordinary demand
at present for oriental garments, espe
cially the national costume of China
and Japan.
“The Chinese coats which were the
popular opera wraps of last season
have been replaced this winter by real
mandarin coats, imported direct from
China, which vary in price from $25
to $500,” said a city dealer.
“A few years ago Chinese coats and
Japanese kimonos were used as dress
ing jackets and gowns. Now they
take the place of the theater or ball
wrap and the tea gown. The most
elaborate wraps are heavily orna
mented in gold and silver. We re
cently imported one lovely model in
sunflower yellow, with touches of
bronze and- glittering with gold and
ferns.
“One of the prettiest designs which
a lady brought back from Japan her
self is of Nankin blue, embroidered in
silver thistle-down and trails of mauve
wistaria. The kimono is lined with
scarlet and opens over a scarlet pet
ticoat, while shoes and stockings re
peat the same vivid coloring.”
Pongee Variously Treated.
Hand embroidery in self-color Is
considered very modish on pongee.
Many very chic little French frocks
among the imported models are in
pongee of natural tone, dull blue or
brown, embroidered in self-tone and
lightened by some contrasting touch
of color and by lace or embroidered
batiste on the bodice. A pretty bolero
and skirt model in natural hued pon
gee carried out this idea successfully,
the only trimming of the skirt being
embroidery in self-tone. The loose
little bolero, iwith its loose, pic
turesque sleeve cut in one with the
coat, also had a touch of self-tone em
broidery, but it had, too, a gleam of
vivid red in the embroidery of the
small collar and of the armhole trim
mings, and scarf ends of black silk
fell from'the collar.
REMEDIES FOR THE NURSERY.
Best Method of Treating the Almost
Dally Small Mishaps.
Tumbles that result in broken
knees are a very common occurrence
in the nursery. Wash the place very
thoroughly with warm water and bor
aclc lotion in order to remove any
garvel, dust or bits of stocking that
may have been forced into the wound.
Bathe always from the edges to the
center of any wound; this gives in
finitely less pain. Then dress the
place with a piece of soft old rag,
smearing with cold bream; keep in
place with a few twists of a band
age.
If a child is slightly burned of scald
ed, the first thing to do is to relieve
the pain, and then apply a healing
ointment. - To effect this, bathe the
injured part with a strong solution
of ordinary kitchen soda, apply zinc
ointment by means of well-greased
rags, then cover the whole with a
piece of cotton-wool.
A grain of dust is a very little
thing, but, like a great many other
little things, is capable of causing a
very great deal of trouble.
Never try to remove it with a
screw of handkerchief, but instead
tear off a corner of perfectly clean
white blotting paper, twist this into
a cone, and having discovered the
whereabouts of the dust by gently
but firmly raising the eyelid, extract
it with the blotting paper, to which
the dust will be found to adhere
readily.
TREATMENT OF THE PIANO.
Things to Be Remembered if You
Would Preserve Instrument,
When the cold wind blows outside,
or chilling rain beats down, do not ia
your solicitude for your own comfort
forget the welfare of your poor piano.
That instrument is well known to
be as sensitive to cold, damp oi^ heat
as the most confirmed invalid, and in
thousands of houses to-day the
domestic piano is treated with a
lack of regard that harrows the
spirit of the unfortunate tuner who
has periodically to come and act as
physician to it.
Never put your piano too near the
Are, as the heat draws the wood. Do
not leave the window open close to
it on a rainy day, as the damp will
rust the wires and mold the instru
ments interior.
On no account should a multipli
city of ornaments be placed on the
top of the piano as its tone is spoiled
in this way, and, finally it should be
noted that with too much furniture
and drapery in the room piano play
ing cannot be heard to the best ad»
vantage.
Delicious Custard.
Heat four eggs light, add three cup
fuls of good milk, five tablespoonfuls
of sugar, one teasponful salt and a lit
tle grated nutmeg; stir well; pour the
mixture in custard cups; set these in
side of a flat bake pan with some wa
ter in same; bake slowly one hour, or
until a silver knife comes out clean;
remove from oven, then whip the
whites of five eggs until stiff and dry
and drop on custards walnut size, one
in center and one row around edge of
cups, leaving the center one largest;
put back in oven two or three minutes
to add a golden tint; take as many
good-sized strawberries, dip in pulver
ized sugar, and put a row around cups
between the walnut shapes; this
makes a very pretty table custard for
little ones.
Oyster Plant or Salsify Salad.
Scrub the salsify, and cook, with
out removing the skin, in boiling salt
ed water until tender. Peel and cut in
thin slices. Season with salt and pep
per, cover and set aside to become
cold. For a pint of sliced salsify take
six tablespoonfuls of oil, and gradually
beat into it four tablespoonfuls of lem
on juice or three of vinegar, and about
half a teaspoonful of onion juice.
When thoroughly mixed, pour over
the chilled salsify. Turn the slices
over and over until they have taken
up the dressing, and set aside until
ready to serve. Serve on heart leaves
of lettuce, also dressed with oil, vine
gar, salt and pepper. Garnish with
figures cut from thin slices of pickled
beet.
Preserved Pears.
Pare them very thin and simmer
them in a thin sirup, allowing one
fourth of a pound of sugar to a pound
of pears. Let them lie for two days,
then add another quarter of a pound
bf sugar to a pound of pears
and simmer again. Let them all lie
all night or longer if you wish, then
simmer them once more, adding one
half pound of sugar to a pound of
pears, making a pound for a pound.
The juice of a lemon to four pounds
of fruit and a small part of the peel
is a good addition. The fruit may now
be drained and put in the sun to dry,
or they may be poured into the jars
with sirup over them.
To-Cara for Turkish Rugs.
If Turkish rugs are left on the floor
through the summer—and they are
quite as well there as anywhere, a
weekly exposure to the fresh air and
sunshine, with a good brushing with a
stiff broom, will be all that is neces
sary. If they are soiled, a thorough
washing every year or two will keep
them in splendid condition. If large
they are better sent to a rug cleaner;
but small rugs may be washed at
home, using cold or lukewarm water,
a scrubbing brush and any good soap.
Rinse well and hang in the open air
to dry. If one has a hose the rinsing
is more easily accomplished by turn
ing that on them.
Renovating Flannels.
Flannels that have become badly
yellowed through neglect may be
whitened in this way: Boil four table
spoonfuls flour in four quarts of wa
ter, stirring free from lumps. Pour
one-half this mixture over the flannels,
cover and let them stand a half hour.
Rub with the hands, but use no soap.
Rinse the flannels in clear water of
the same temperature, then heat the
remainder of the liquid and pour over
the flannel again. Proceed as before,
rinse thoroughly, then hang out to
drain and dry. Never hang flannels in
cold or frosty air, as that always
shrinks them.
KITE FIGHTING IN INDIA.
It Is a Real Crate and Gambling Is a
Feature of Sport.
India knows nothing of flying kites
for pleasure, as is done in America
and Europe, and ia carried on with
marvelous ingenuity in China. Kite*
are flown there that they may fight,
and the fighting is done by cutting
each other’s strings.
The string is sewing thread, the
finest and strongest, smeared with
ground glass mixed with mucilage.
Pulled tight and drawn against an
other thread, also pulled tight, it cuts
like a knife.
A good string must be long enough
to let the kite ascend a thousand
yards, light enough to let the kite bear
it at that height, and fine enough to
cut another string.
Making a kite requires as much care
as choosing the string, says the cor
respondent of the New York World.
The kite has to sweep through the air
with the swiftness of a swallow. There
fore it must be small, extremely light
and strong enough not to tear as it
rushes against the wind; for the edges
are not turned over and gummed down
all around, as th^ are in our kites.
In such a kite uie balancing is a far
more delicate operation than in large
and heavy kites. Two pieces of bam
boo are taken, thinner than a goose
quill, and are scraped even and
smooth.
These are shown in the diagram
as A, B, and C, E, F, D. They are laid
on a square which is from 12 to 16
inches square. No twine is used in
the making, but the bent stick is kept
in position with four small pieces of
paper gummed on at the points C, E,
F, D. The straight stick is similarly
fastened at the ends, but the piece of
paper at B is two or three inches long
and triangular, for it acts as a light
rudder.
The kite hag no tail. The exposed
edges of the i>aper along E, A, F and
C, B, D are not bound or protected in
any way and have to bear a consider
able strain when the kite makes a
dash against the wind.
A small piece of paper is also fas
tened at G, where one end of the loop
of thread is tied, to which the long
string is attached. The other end of
the loop is tied at the crossing of the
pieces of bamboo.
The diagram shows the back of the
kite; the loop is on the other side on
the face.
The best kite of this kind that can
be made does not cost more than one
anna, that is, two cents, although
wealthy kite fighters pay as much as a
dollar to a man who pretends he can
make a kite which will be unconquer
able.
Kite fighters are most careful abput
the balance of their kites, and when a
kite seems all right in the hand, their
intent eyes notice a fault as it flies,
and, pulling it down again, they add
a piece of paper the size of a postage
stamp or a small twist of cotton to
one side, or they pare one of the
sticks, and so get the balance per
fectly true.
CAN YOU MAKE THESE?
Little Houses That the Birds Will
Find Delight in During Summer.
A friend of mine, a dear little boy
of 11, received a lovely toolbox for a
birthday present the other day. He
is very handy with his tools and
eager to fashion pretty things.
“Can you tell me something usorful
and nice to make?” he asked me.
From Two fcheese Box Lids.
And then, with the approach of the
String season, I thought of the re
turn of the birds, and I said:
“Why not build a birdhouse?”
“Are they hard to make?” he ques
tioned.
“I will show you two pictures of
birdhouses, and you can copy them."
And I showed him these:
'Oh, I like them, and I will try
GOING TO COLLEGE.
A Story of a Boyhood Experience of
Gen Lew Wallace.
When William Wallace, the elder
brother of the late Lew Wallace, de
parted for college, 30 miles from his
home, Lew was inconsolable. In a few
days the desire for his brother's com
panionship got the mastery, and the
small boy resolved to find his big
brother. In his “Autobiography” Gen.
Lew Wallace tells of the undertak
ing:
It did not occur to me as the least
needful to have my father’s permis
sion to make the change of residence.
There was living in Covington an
uncle not greatly my senior in years
or wisdom. To my delight, I heard
he was going to Crawfordsville. The
chance was too good to be lost.
I went out early in advance of him,
and lay in ambugh for the traveler.
“What are you doing here?” he
asked.
“Waiting for you.”
"What for?”
“I want to go to Crawfordsville with
you.”
“Have you any business there?”
“Yes, I want to go to college.”
“To college!”
He fairly choked with laughter. His
good nature finally overcame his
scruples, and letting me mount •be
hind him, he jogged on.
The pony was fat and slow, and of
prodigious breadth of beam. My legs
cramped, and I suffered in every bone
and muscle, but I set my teeth and
gave no sign.
About the middle of the afternoon
we drew up in front of the basement
entrance to the college, and unloading
me, my relative pushed on to town.
X-V Ut.JlUTUlt.Ul. juuniug UJU UJUU JO
sued from the door, followed by half
a dozen young men. Small wonder
that they viewed me askance. My
straw hat, ragged and rain-stained,
hung to the back of my head, and al
lowed my shocky hair the greatest lib
erty. My feet were bare and un
washed. My trousers hung depend
ent upon a single suspender of cloth
"listing.” My shirt, guiltless of a
button, offered a display of neck and
breast red as a Mohawk Indian's.
The benevolent-looking gentleman
inquired: "Where are you from, my
son?”
“Covington,” I answered.
"What's your name?”
"Lew Wallace.”
“A son of Gov. Wallace?”
"Yes.”
“Any friends here?”
"Only William.”
“What do you expect to do?”
“Go to college, if I like it.”
The circle hemming me in broke
into a laugh that put a stop to the
inquisition. In the midst of the fun
my brother appeared, himself a model
of attire and deportment. To his
credit, be it said, he did not disown
me.
“Why, Lew, when did you come?”
he asked, taking my hand.'
"Just now.”
"What for?”
“To be with you and go to college.”
There were tears in the go4d fel
low's eyes as he led me off to his
boarding house.
A PUZZLING TRICK.
It Is Done with Dominoes and Will
Keep Your Friends Guessing.
A good trick with dominoes is per
formed as follows: Arrange 12 of them
in a circle, as shown in the accom
IUI
The Domino Layout.
panying picture, and tell one of the
spectators that you will point out any
domino that he may think of.
When he says he is ready, you tell
him that you will count round the cir
cle by touching the dominoes pro
miscuously, each touch counting one,
and that when you have counted 20,
including the number of spots on the
domino thought of, he must tell you to
stop, and your finger will then rest
on the piece chosen.
Let us suppose, for illustration, ex
plains Good Literature, that he thinks
of the double-deuce, you, of course, not
knowing that. Begin, touching the
pieces with your finger, counting 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and so forth, skipping
about the circle as you count. But
when you come to the eight count, you
must touch the double-six, and then
count regularly around to the right.
Thus six-five will be 9, double-five 10,
five-four 11, and so on, until you come
to double-deuce, when he tells you to
stop, because that is the domino he
thought of, the four spots on which,
added to your count of 16, makes 20.
A Pony’s Good Sense.
girl ten years old, named Mary
Sears, living in Arkansas, was riding
her pony along a highway when he
shied at a cow and she was thrown
to the ground and suffered a broken
arm. It was a mile to the nearest
house, and the girl was not able to
mount again and in too much pain to
walk.
The pony seemed to understand this
after a time, and he galloped away
and reached the house of a planter
and Kept up a whinnying until he was
taken notice of and a man sent to fol
low him back to where the girl was
found. It was plain that the intelli
gent animal knew that something out
of the usual had happened, and in this
case just as good a messenger as a
boy would have been..
An Adjustable Personality.
Little Ian was trying to dress him
self after his bath. He got his shirt
on front side behind. Looking ruefully
down at himself, he said:
“Guess I’d better turn myself around
so my shirt will button in front.”
DRAFT HORSES IN THE SOUTH.
Increase of Population In Cities Has
Op fined Up a Market,
The breeding of draft horses has
not made as much progress In the
south as «it should have done. This
is particularly true in sections where
limestone predominates and blue grass
•thrives naturally. The excellence of
the light horses produced in this sec
tion is positive proof that draft ani
mals of superior merit could also be
raised if the right type cf sire and
dam were available for the work. The
light horse has been such a favorite,
however, as to almost exclude the
consideration of any other type of ani
mal until within tire last few years.
This was really not surprising, for the
old-time farmer of the south depend
ed almost entirely on the mule as a
beast of burden, while the horse was
used chiefly for saddle purposes or for
driving; and the light horse was of
course better suited to this purpose
than any other type of animal. Even
today the light horse is in great de
mand, and animals of excellence and
merit bring profitable prices and find
ready sale; the one misfortune in this
particular being that the supply is
quite inadequate to the demand, and
there is not enough system and care
exercised in the breeding of light
horses to overstock the market with
animals of superior merit as long as
the demand for good horses of this
type is as great as at the present time.
The great demand for draft horses
during recent years has caused this
industry to look up materially, and
there is certainly an opportunity for
its development in the entire region
mentioned with success. The rapid
increase of population in our cities
and the growth of various industrial
concerns has opened up a market for
draft horses for dray purposes which
was comparatively restricted a few
o err* ontl ■f H1C flPTTIJlTIfl 191 llkftlV
to increase for a number of years to
come, for only high-class animals are
purchased for this work, and after all
there are comparatively few of these
bred at the present time, and the
market does not seem likely to be
overstocked in the immediate future.
The experience of those who at
tempted the breeding of draft animals
was so unfortunate in many instances
that it is little wonder that farmer*
lost interest in breeding this type of
horses. The early sires introduced
were, as a rule, defective in many re
spects, and when bred to mares of
varied conformation, many of which
were also unsound in one or more
particulars, it was not surprising that
the offspring was neither a draft or
intermediate type and quite unsuited
to the market demands of that day.
Past experience has therefore taught
the farrier to be rather shy of breed
ing draft animals, and has led in many
instances to false* conclusions con
cerning the possibilities of this fea
ture of the horse breeding industry.
Some have concluded that the draft
animal is quite unadapted for use in
the south. In the far south and In
the cotton fields this is probably true,
but throughout the Appalachian re
gion tt is certainly not the case; for
while the draft animal may not be
needed by the average farmer, still
he may be successfully.grown in this
section and sold at good profit because
the region is so contiguous to the
great markets of both the east and
west, and buyers occasionally passing
through this section Joking for ani
mals of the draft type even at the
present time; and, of course, it would
be easier to stimulate an interest in
this class were the industry more
widely and favorably considered.
There are a few draft animals in va
rious sect'cns of the region mentioned,
but they are so few and far between
that ft can hardly be classed as a
special industry up to the present
time. In certain places, like Harrison
burg, V i., the breeding of draft horses
has become quite wel established,
and monthly horse sales are held, to
which buyers from a distance come
because of the good qualities of many
of the animals offered for sale. This
shows how quickly merit in this class
of horses is appreciated anS how
easy it is to establish a market for
any animal of fnerit raised on the
farm.
Size of Eggs.
For several days the Indiana pa
pers have contained accounts of eggs
of enormous size laid by industrious’
and enterprising hens. Harry Albert
lias a Plymouth Rock hen which has
surpossed the record. A few days ago
this hen Is said to have laid at his
home, 1509 East Oak street, Xew Al
bany, an egg that measured 8% inches
in circumference from end to end and
6% inches at the center. It weighed
over a half pound and was equal in
bulk tc a half dozen ordinary eggs.
When broken it was found to contain
another egg perfect in every way and
of the usual size.
Fruit Seriously Damaged.
According to reports from different
parts of the state the Kentucky fruit
crop has been materially damaged
by the recent cold snap. The fruit is
said to have been destroyed ip some’
localities. It is thought the damage
to the crops will be more serious be
cause of the exceedingly warm weath
er which prevailed for two weeks be
fore the cold came, affording the trees
a fine chance to bud. It is not be
lieved that the middle west will ex
perience another cold season equal in
severity to the one just passed.
Tobacco Statistics.
The total sales of leaf tobacco on
the Louisville market, Jan. 1 to March
31, 1907, were 50,329 hogsheads,
against 60,752 hogsheads sold- during
coresponding period last year. The re
jections during these three months
were 6,324 hogsheads, against 6,938
hogsheads rejected during first three
months of last year.
Of the total sales this year, 35,620
hogsheads were Burley and 14,709
hogsheads dark tobacco. Up to March
81, we had sold of the 1906 crop 51,
425 hogsheads.
CORN AND COTTON.
Some Practical Suggestions For Im
mediate Application.
Comparatively few farmers have yet
“caught on” to the use of the harrow
or weeder during the very early stages
of the life of the corn and cotton
crops, especially the latter. Hut these
few, as a rule, have fotind that there
is no detail of surface culture that
costs less of labor and is at the same
time more effective than the stirring
of the surface soil, the mere breaking
of the thin crust that is formed on
plowed land after every rainfall.
Most farmers, or at least many, ap
preciate the Importance of using a
cutaway, or a smoothing harrow, im
mediately following the broadcast
breaking of land, in order to get the
surface into better condition for sub
sequent operations. The use of the
smoothing harrow, with the teeth
slanting backward, or some one of
the seveial weeders now available
continues the harrowing process after
the first rainfall on the newly planted
crop.
Many years ago the writer con
ceived the idea and adopted the
practice of “chopping out’’ his cotton
ahead of the plow, the seeds having
been covered with a two-row drag,
which left the cotton beds perfectly
smooth and flat and very inviting to
the use of the hoe before disturbing
its evenness by plowing. This chop
ping before plowing (siding) involved
the delay of the latter operation a
week or ten days. It was soon ob
served lhat cotton did not “grow off"
so well when the plowing was thus
delayed until the chopping was done
This wa3 more than forty years ago
—before the day of weeders and of
the common use of smoothing liar
rows in southwest Georgia. If the
plan of surface harrowing the plant
ing fields after the first downfall of
rain had been put into my head and
then applied to the surface of the
fields it would have been of great
practical value. As it was, however,
the old slow plan of “siding” the
corn or the cotton with two furrows
and then hoeing was again resumed.
It was a case of “backsliding”—as
some church folks have it—Into the
old ways.
When a good heavy rainfall oc
curs after the corn, and especially
the cotton, has just been planted, the
immediate effect of such downpour
is the formation of a crust on the sur
face, while at the same time the grass
and weed seeds that lie on, or just
beneath, the surface germinate. This
crust largely excludes the air from
the soil, but—to the surprise of many
it is asserted—greatly facilitates the
escape of the soil moisture, so often
likely tojpe deficient during the month
of May. At the same time the grass
and other weeds spring up and com
mence to choke the young plants
whose growth and development is our
object.
What is wanted, then, is to break
up the surface left by the shower
and prevent the formation of the thin,
compact crust. At the same time the
effect of stirring the immediate sur
face is to either prevent the germina
tion of weed seeds, or their immedi
ate destruction—before the young
weeds and grass shall have had time
to get a firm hold on the soil. This
breaking of the surface may be most
quickly done by the use of a slant
toothed smoothing harrow, or a weed
er. It is necessary only to run a small
steel tooth every two or three inches
and to a depth of one-half to one
inch. A four or five-foot section of a
smoothing harrow' can be drawn, for
this purpose, by an ordinary mule,
and will go over nine or ten acres in
a day without much effort. An eight
foot weeder may also be drawn by a
good horse or mule, and will accom
plish sixteen to eighteen acres a day.
The operation should commence as
soon after a rainfall as the land be
comes in proper condition to stir
without injury (the test being when
the soil crumbles easily from the
teeth of the implement), and with
out waiting for the plants cf the crop
to come up or to reach a certain size
after coming up.
W hether to run the harrow or weed
er in the direction of the rows or
squarely across at right angles or di
agonally across should be determined
by the lay of the land, the character
of the surface and the stage of the
plants—if they are up. Generally it
will be best to run across the rows,
eitfier diagonally to the right, we will
say, and next time to the left, so as
to cross the direction first assumed.
If the land was well prepared and
nicely planted, there will often be no
necessity to plow the cotton in the
common way until after it has been
put to a stand. An eight-foot weeder,
as already stated, will go over, say,
eighteen acres a day. A scooter and
scrape, or a twister, giving two fur
rows to each row, will go over about
three or four acres a day. So we see
the weeder may go over eighteen
acres a day thrice—a week or ten
days apart-*-with much less labor than
the plow would require to go over the
same area once.—R. J. Redding.
Tennessee the Canteloupe State.
The increased acreage put into
canteloupes this season is surprising.
In Lawrence county the acreage has
persistently increased for the past
1 three years, and it looks as if the
agricultural classes are now more
aroused than at any former time.
Hundreds of new acres w'ere
planted on the first of April that never
smelled a delicious Rocky Ford be
fore. Many country people, too, have
caught the melon enthusiasm and are
turning their corn fields into .ante
loupe patches.
The man who claims that It costs
no more to keep a pure-bred cow than
it does a scrub makes a mistake. It
does cost more to keep a pure bred,
if she is a heavy producer. At the On
tario experiment station last year the
cow that gave the largest milk yield
cost $47.33 for her feed, while the low
est producer was only $22.12. But the
best cow gave a profit of $117.18 over
the cost of food.
Cleanliness in the poultry yard is
worth a whole medicine chest full of
remedies in preventing disease.

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