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y.lhcaud thirty dollars; and that the public ex
penditures for the same period, exclusive of ie Sound imYmonts ou -account of the public debt, o formerly amounted to fifty six million three hundred ill their ex- anrl xtxtv-tive ' thousand throe hundred and foundation ; uinetv three dollars. Duringthc same period, nothing but j the payments made iu redemption of the pub- exjortea oy; he debt, including interest and premium, ignominious tax, so long submitted more powerful DaUoo of burn It tne manner of payment uues ainer irotasat ot the t conceded to theTJarbarv Sta action by Denmark has no be m right. ach was, in its on a tax 0.1 a common natural Tig! tnoee who were at a time able blobstruct the j amounted to nine million eight hundred and iiw ana secure enjoyment oi u,ut no longer : forty-four thousand five hundred ana twenty. i eight dollars. assertion of "The balanc in the Treasury at the begiu and Belts, j of the fiscal year, July 1, l!5ft, was eight some new millions nine hundred and seventy-six dollars; has iuvited the receipts for the first quarter, and the esti lifiiidius the mated recciot! for the remaining three nuar- I uited States, to he representee in a conven-' ters amount, together, to sixty-seven million tion to assemble for the purpose of receiving ' nine hnndred and eighteen thousand seven and considering a proposition, which sdic in- hundred and thirty-four dollars ; thus afford teuds to submit, for the capitalisation of the ing in all, as the available resources of the Sound dues, and the distribution of tho sum j current fiscal year, the sum of eighty-six mil to b paid as commutation auiong the Govern- j lion eight hundred and fifty six thousand sev nient. according to the resuectivo proportions : en hundred and ten dollars. ot-tla'ir maritime commerce to and tVom the j If, to the actual expenditures of the first Baltic I have declined, ih behalf of the Uni- j quarter of the current fiscal year be added ted States, to accept iitis invitation, for the ! the probable expenditures for the reiuaiuing most cogent reasons, (hie is, tiiat Denmark j three quarters, as estimated by the Sc;retary possess that power. Denmark, whUe resisting ou the freedom of the Baltic Sout has indicated a readiness to ma arrangements on the subject. the Governments interested, the acknowledged wisdoul of the policy of a gradual systematic increase of the Navy, ho appropriation is recommended for the construc tion ot ax Kteam sloops-of war. J the of the u$vy, it is unnecessary for nie to say more thin to express entire concurrence in the obsorv.it ons im that subject presented by the Secretes;' in his report. post-office. It will bo perceived, by the report of the PoKt-iiiii'tcr-Gencral, that the gross expendi ture of iiie Department for the last fiscal year was Ota) million uine hundred and sixty-eight tuousam three hundred and forty -two dollars, States found it present time, vitally concerns individual and i shape of persevering endeavors, by some of mditioas el their public security. the representatives, in both Houses of Con- b eeorral govern- It has been matter of nainful reirret to see ! cress, to deprive the Southern States of the fnjpHuc respects, to the f States, conspicuous for their services in found- j opposed benefit of the provisions of the act people of the States, iptant ot confining it ing this Republic, and equally sharing its ad- auworizing the organisation oi tne oiaie oi portant as this addition to our naval fotee is. i When the confede if, tl conditions of their public security. . " .h-M-w " cutiiig:ub . Ta i U l L. -!.! - -La a i AJt v. fit., nf Am ! exiecncies ot the protection of the extensive ! association. bV giving -- geut-rm goveiu- xi.ua. wen matter oi paimui regrei w bob . - " r ! I 1L . Vi.. ... - . . aI P. vtKiM, nun vast commercial interests ot the I ment direct access, ITnOn.l .Sllltil In rn r iwinL ka KtatA ... ... i jun imn iftWi mm ui uwuiq ui mv . '.iira, o ; - -j v . c i r 1 -; c . . . .,;., . th Rimini such, thevnroceed- vantages, disresrard their constitutional obUi fllu" ed to frame the existilr constitution, adhe- gations to it. Although conscious of their j But the good sense of the people, and the thouirht, which inability to heal admitted and naloablo social I vital force of the Constitution, triumphed ws t... iMnotfi onlv iich power as was nee-1 evils of their own, and which are completely i over sectional prejudice, and tho political In regard to the steps taken in execution of essary and p roper to ie execution of Specif- ! within their jurisdiction, they engage in the errors of the day, and the State of Texas re S acts of Congress to promote the efficiency i ie purposes, or, In or words, to retain as ' offensive and hopeless undertaking of reform- turned to tho Union as she was, with social muen as doJLPIC, c01Bisieuny witu tuosc "S "uu uuuirauu lusuiuiions oi inner ow .ur.mwuia nuiou uer pcojuo u ocu vi .U ' - T , . a. .. i 1. .11.. 1 J .1 I I ., "i ; U ,l 1 m 1 L.. purposes, of the indofS':,'cni powers or tne wu""j wyouu meir control ana autnorny. , wciuouivu aim witu express agreemcui y ininmtl .Seaim ror obiects of eom- i 1Q ' 'he vain pursuit of ends, bv them entirely ; the re-annexiuK act, that she should be sus- mon defence and 0ntyf they intrusted j unattainable, and which they may not legally 1 coptible of sub-division into a plurality of the verv exisi- cinies to the Gcicral GoveAment certain carefully ; attempt to compass, they peri defined functions, KSfing all others as the I ence the Constitution, and --X-. Iv C.i.. t. I t all the countless ; What advantages the interests of the i' ndeletrated nYdits the separate indencn-1 ucnem!s wn,cn 11 lias conferred. While tne ooutnern states, as such, gained by this, dent, snvereiW 1 I people of the .Southern States confine their at- were far inferior in results, as they unfolded Sueb is the eoustiwional theory of our ! tentm to their own affairs, not presuming in the progress of time, to those which sprang gOVerurCUfcthe pructiSl ODServance Of Which W""",J' w "wjuicuuic witu tuc social iiu j "m i;wuun concessions inaue oy uie ooutii. docs not off,T to submit to the couvcution the questicn of her right to levy the Sound duos A. second iSv th-U. it' the convention were allow- of that particulir que of the Treasury, the sum total will be icventy- one nuiiion two uunarcasnu iiweinj, bx iuou sand eight lmndrcd and forty-six doliarc, there by leaving an etimat i .i'ir.i.1 rlrt Itf rw - " thieh aflects the r . . . , r 1 U a. I..., tlon and eomim.-rcial rrecuom. as wen as uuk of aeces.s to the Baltic. Above all, by the expre. terms of tiie proposition, it is contem plated that the consideration of the Sound dues shall be commingled with, and made subordi nate to, a matter wholly extraneous, the bal ance of power among foe Governments of Eu rope. While, however, rejecting the proposition, and insisting oa the right of free trausit into and fV -ii) the Bakic, I nave expressed to Den mark a willingness on the part of the United States to share tibcwUy with other powers in cosapeBsating her for any advantage which commerce shall hereafter derive from expendi tures made by her for the improvement and Safety of the navigation" of the sound or Belt's. i lay before you, herewith, sundry docu ments ou the subject, in which my views are more fully disclosed. ShoulJ no satisfactory arrangement be soon concluded, I shall again call your attention to the subject with recom mendation of such measures as may appear to be reouired in order 10 assert and secure the ne competent 40 deaury on July 1, l.SOl),,. rtvolved.I aundrttd and ance in the Treas- u mujit and thecross receipt;! seven million three bun- has carried as, and uialonc, among modern ! tut0IW f the Northern States, too nny of To every thoughtful friend of the Union died an forty-two thousand one hunered and Republics, through alrly three ireneratious i e "diitanss of the lattefitfi' peimanently . to the true lovers of their country to all i.uiny-isf. ioii;s, maumg an excess or expeu of time, without th diturc oer receipts of two million six bun-: blood shed in civil died a nl mx dollars; and that the cost of mail j concert of action, it transjKNHiofi that year, was six hundred and tend saccesstully cents. In the above estimated expenditures of the present fiscal year are included ilrec millions of dollars to meet the last installment of ten millions, provided in the last treaty with Mex ico, and seven millions seven hundred and fif ty thousand dollars appropriated on account of the debt due to Texas, which two sums make an aggregate amount of ten millions seven hundred and fifteen thousaud dollars, and reduce the expenditures, actual or esti mated, for ordinary objects of the year, to the huin of sixty millions four hundred and seventy-six thousand dollars. The amount of the public debt, at the com mencement of the present fiscal year, was forty millions five hundred and eighty-three thou sand six hundred and thirty-one dollars, and, deduction being made of subsequent payments the whole public debt of the Federal Govern ment remaining at this time, is less than for ty million dollars. " The remnant of certain other government stocks, amounting to two hundred and forty- three thousand dollars, referred to in. my last rights of the United States so far as they are ! message as out-standing, nasrsince been paid. affected by tL pretensions of Denmark. FRANCE. T announce with much gratification that since the adjournment of the kt Congress, the question, then existing between the Govern ment and that of France, respect! lgthe Frerch ( on-ul at San rrnciseo, has been satistaeto- I am fabv persuaded that at would be d'tii- cult to devise a system superior to that by which the fiscal business of the government is now conduct' d. Notwithstanding the great number of public agents of collection and dis bursement, it is believed that the checks and guards provided, including t&e requirement of -- f . , . i -li i-. rily determined, and that the relations of the j monthly returns, renoer itscarceiy politic ior tJA ilim.mM.t. nnt;n t ho nf th. mnst. i any cousidewblo fraud on tue part o. ihose friendly nature. ' j agents, or neglect involving hazard of serious i i . . -4 A question, also, which has been pending for several years betweeu tha United States ever, the recommendation, here$Oibre made by me, of the enactment ot a law declaring it tel and the Kinedom of Greece, .rowing out of! kmy on the prt of public officers to insert false entries 1.1 their docks or recoru or ac eeunt, or to make false returns ; and also re quiring them on the termination of their ser vice to deliver to their suecc?sors all books, records and other objects of n public nature in their custody. Derived as our public revenue is, in ! part, from duties on imports, "smjjijj- a still j fords gratifying cvideneoLJg but of other nreat the sequestration, by public authorities ot that countrv, of property belonging to tho present American Consul at Athens, and which had been the subject of very earnest diseussion heretofore; has recently been settled to the satisfaction of the party interested and of both Governments. Sl'AIN. n':,h w.,.,;,. m maintained, and some progress has Deeu maae , "v "! J in gjecurins .he redress of wrongs complained interests aJagiiich that depends of by this goi'ernmeut. Spain has ot only jmrn pfiuciple that all moneys not required disavowed ami disaporoved the couduesot -teanier Black arnor si'vontfcusr thousaud nine hundred and fiftv- two dofars greater than the previous year MuebAil the bevy expenditures, to which the 'Pi ,.. ,'0 ill II I In1 llMMMllI Ml 11 - -M 1 to the lar-iv1 mtity of veW ba;d 'ta(w rales wo 'eoiiiri.ired to that rhanred on letters r Q the great cost ot mail service on rail roads and by ocean steamers. The sugges tions of the Postmaster-General on the sub ject deserve the consideration of Congress. INTERIOR. The report of the Secretary of the Interi or will engage your attention, as well for the useful suggestions it contains, as for tho inter est and importance of the subjects to which they refer. The aggregate amount of public laud sold during the last fiscal year, located'with milita ry scrip or land warrants, taken up under grants for roads, and selected as swamp lands by States, is 24,557,409 acres, of which the portion sold was 15,729,024 acres, yielding in receipts the sum of $11,485,380. In the same period of time, 8,723,854 acres have been surveyed, but, in consideration of the quantity already subject to entry, no addition al tracts have been brought into market. The peculiar relation of the Goner1! Gov ernment to the District of Columbia renders it proper to commend to your care not ei.ly its material, but also its moral interests, in cluding education, more especially in those parts of the district outside of the cities of Washington ad Georgetown. The commissioners appointed to revise and codify the laws of the District, have made such progress in the performance of their task as to insure its completion in the time prescribed by the act of Congress. Information has recently been received that thepeaceof the settlements in the Territories of Oregon aud Washington is disturbed by hostilities on the part of the Indians, with in dications of extensive combinations of a hos tile character among the tribes in that quar ter, the more serious in their possible effect by reason of the undetermined foreign iich foreign foes, has ele into powerful Stately dust rial product 101 transpor liest and t of cue dron of!0gaD1Ze associations to inflict injury on 1 who longed and labored for the full success i . " ! lUa I', U.. ... t'.l 1J t tt.t. i. ! . T LI! With freedom and ' uy wrougiui acts, wnicn wumu oe i vi mn gicM, experiment oi rvepumican m- cnabled us to eon ' cauBC O war as btdween foreign powers, aud ' stitutions, it was a cause of gratulation that e battle-fictdf against i 1)0 Hmh ,n our system. because such an opportunity had occurred to illustrate d the feeble csnicolo ' PerPejl;rat(-,d under cover of the Union. : our advancing power on this continent, and to has raised our in- i 18 iniP(,S!jlble to present this subject as ! turnish to the world additional assurance of and our commerce ' Bna WI? occasion require, witnout no-. me strengtn ana staoility ot the Uonstitution. to thn Invo! ,if ! HCiU6 loc reiterated, hut groundless, ailega- vvuowouia wish to see .Florida still a JrJuro- t f inn nations of Fuone ' uuuiu vft puiBiawsutij aartuu uiuuj . uu wuum Kjuiyp -nw iflee ft seat cover established the pvac' ment like ours 4o federate States. The Con cress of effect, thai congress zood men in the but could sever America oa e leagues ferhoi the mutual after the balance d1 from time ti time the rope. Ou:- ou-epenjj conditions cf pormW scrbed by tue cons of power is m the m of tiie atateii and rgregatei ; local strencth. has JiHty of a govern- eontincnt with con- in United States is. sovereignties, which rid have sought for, u wnicn imparts to cm the mutaole worn the wars. iraticns which coitrle ssrnmeuts action rests wmfederation pre- n. Uur balanee e reserved rights qnal representation ined ,MviuiKw in the lmi-"rexa! as a km6 star, insteftd of on in th thft general mvernment, to the I galaxy of States ? Who does not inJii. ice of the iNorth. and in which thf. : lablv annreeinte tho latter has acquiesced. That is, the States, j tion of Louisiana? And yet narrow views which either promote or tolerate attacks on and sectional purposes would inevitably have - -j"-" p'ouu.i auu oi piurenj xu oiiiex aciuucu iiicin irem tne union. States, to disguise their wn injustice, pre-! But another struggle on the same point en tend or lnianiiic. and constantly avr that, i sued when our vir.bwi. d j - -.--a i ki. i tu 1 1 ... 1 tJtUi IlLli 1 li they, whose constitutional rights are thus I Mexico, and it devolved upon Congress to pro systematically assailed, are themselves the ' vide far the territories acquired hy the treaty aggressors. At the present time, this im- j of Gaudalupe Hidalgo. The great reiations puted aggression, resting, as it does, only in of the subject bad become distinct and clear flirt i-r M J 1...... a. t m . . I , v .ague, wwpunwry cnarges ot political w mc perception of the pub!:c mind, which tirtiore, rcsoives itseir mto misapprencn-, appreciated 'he evils of sectioi the contrary, disappear before the intelligence and patriotism of the people, exerting through the ballot-box their peaceful and silent but irresistible power. If the friends of the consitution are to hare another struggle, its enemies could not present a more acceptable issue, than that of a State whose constitution clearly embraces "a repub lican form of government, 'being excluded from the Union because its domestic institutions may not iu all respects comport with the ideas of what is wise and expedient, entertained in some other Sfate. Fresh from groundless imputations of breach of faith against others, men will commence the agitation of thisijUM tion with indubitable violation of an express compact between the sovereign powers of the United States, and of the Republic of Texas, as well a of the older and equally solemn compacts which assure the equality of all the States. But, deplorable as would be such a viola tion of compact in itself, and in all its direct consequences, that is the very least of the evils involved. When sectional agitators shall have succeeded in forcing on this issue, can their pretensions fail to be met by counter preten sions ? Will not different States be compell ed respectively to meet extremes with ex tremes : And, if either extreme carry its point, what is that so , of the abso- ional eontrnvprcTF iSUJU. Or misdlltarnrnhitwin r.f :!. . ! imnn .tl. - e . .1. . - J , L Ml ! an- 1 'cts .of the Pollt'cjl organization of the i State?. In that crisis intense solicitude- per ion n ;7 I newTetoneS of the I fnited States. vaded the nation. But the patriotic impulses in the Seoatf, That independent sovereign. ,ty in every Uno of theSiate8, which its re served rights oi xocai slr-govern ment assur ed to each bk flieir cjl equal power in the ..:.u ui msiory : n ncn the ! - i uic jopuiar nearr, guided by the admonito- ordinancc which previdcd for the govern-1 ry advice of the Father of his Country rose ment of the territory northwest of the River I superior to all the difficulties of the iu'corpo- Ohio niirl fnr ,Io ovniiliinl ,1:..:. -. . i itu. ,.e -i . . . 1 ' lv" "l auwuivio uii ibio i lanou oi a new emn re mm r ir nv.n in I . 1 - uiuii. xn now Mates, was adopted iu the Congres.s of i the counsels of Congress there was manifested the Confederation, is not to be supposed extreme antagonism of oniniou and intmn ho. mat me question oi mture relative Dower as tween some representatives. wlm.nrfct hvtua nower in tiie ut o.-i i -j. . - , 1 . . ' Senate, was (hsrundanjenuU condition of the ' T u i , 7 retainc? and thosc u", ?nd ""titutmnal employment of constitution.) VithouUit the Union would Z WW1U popu m- Kab w me Government to never have e'ff M I i ! l0 ,notiee' or fniIed to be i mteHcro 1,1 thu condition of the inchoate State, However ofijrous tL larr States n,i.dt ! 7f .J ?C COncsion. of that j a"d,to in,P0!W their ,jwn theories upon be To re-orJ ce iWSMBt va,t territory to the interests and opinions of the latter; and other representatives whore- tetoZf iulJK, us TropoSouate 1 ?0rth(:ri1 T " Pf interposition klhe General Got- wekdit in thai nolLUsPTv 1? meiahT of tl,e mnent in this respect, and maintained the -uai ...IB i , m i ", """i " fiicuu HiciiBure, rnc act ot i .'ii-coufniunnir l imits ot states puHinc, u ss (jy conceded to ; tlft State of V ..T. V . P U"UUI- i " i niwiii -tiL-5iiutcu wasiin rono When jAomsiana was acquired by the alone, action of the GeneaJKGovernment inicu owiut.. it was it was impossrae, us9 Hey conceded to the smaller o4' yQtLJrit? to exercise at least a negati tfiuence oall the measures of the governineht whet! legislative or executive, through their eqil in tne benae. coaid not hafc .ai&aion less ' while in reality iBajfthA endeavor, by abuse while it fefflhaajlDwer, to force the ideas of in- 'indeod arger State to the South; for while it WTfla was important to the country at the mouth of i ternal policy, entertained iu particular States the River Mississippi, to become the ernco- "pon allied independent States. Once more pO-cc.ve tiiat the i riuni of the country above it. so also it was he constitution and Union triumphed signal Equally necjpsary to them, , oven more important to the whole Union to -V- The now rcriitories were organized with 7 ot their owuidomestic inter- have that emporium; :nd although the new I out restrictions on the disputed point, and were e aggregilte fofce of the geu- ' province, by reason of its imperfect settle- thus left to judge in that particular for them- overnment. In a wort, the original mmd. was mainly regarded on the Gulf of selves ; and the souse of constitutional faith ates went into this permanmt league on j Mexico, yet, in fact, it extended to the oppo-' proved vigorous enough in Congress not only same power tor tue secun d Si -ninr -at- agreed premises tf exertng their com- j site boundaries of the United States, with ! to accomplish this primary object, but also the J ' ...... l,i,-..l i 4,-v. 4... . a. I I 1 i 1,1 1 , li 1 ! . J A .1 1 I I 1 L A neciallv invited oncntu muycicucooi uic wnoic, ; greater hreadth aoovc than Deiow, and m ter- mciucnuu aim uaruiy icss lmpoitaut one, o existing iu those Territori tention has already be EtHcient WKiHuraJf' ..L,, K;' u ' ind of all its parts; Mtof utt-rly excluding ritorv. as in every thing elc, eiiuallv at least ; so amending the provisions of the statute for it is bcliiurrTr.;. '.! ' U capability of reciprocal aggression. ! and accession to the Northern States. It is i the cxtraordition of fugitives from service, as t ,'P iti,M, ' Each solemul v bound Itself U ail the other, ! mere delusion and prejudice, therefore, to to place that public duty under the safeguard ""ul , . . L .L E . . - - .... ...ir it tl l f i j .i F. 1 An tlie territory of Kansas there have been uwewwi wr pfiuit, any en- j speak ot jjouisiana as an acquisition in the i wiitoiwwiiwwiwww aft nroindi. inlto AaoA order bur is vei none i i uPul' w iiacrmeufiiing WHS an- : pccial interest or the .outh. ' iroui wiwm raiMcu up oy tuc icgisiauuu oi It was m have occurred under circumstances to justify . V .1 ,. : . i . i. .1. . i .1. . at llavan i, jugipM I p0ie, mi'i uc: cuupicuouM iaeiniui uic p.iid the sum claimed ;s an indeiiinity' the i annuul revenue from all sourcss, exceeds, by loss thereby inflicted on citizens of the United i Oiauy millions of dollars, the ainouu needed States. j fu- a prudent aud uegmniutcal adminiscration In consequence of a destructive hurricane, I of public effairs, cannot fail to suggest the pro which visited Cap. in 1814, the supreme an-; pricty of an carlv revision and reduction of thorit ; ot that island issued a decree, permit- j the tariff of duties on imports. It is now so tingthe importation, for a period ofsLi months generally conceded that the purpose of rcve of certain building materials and provisions,; nue alone can justify the imposition of duties free of duty, but revoked it when about half! on imports, that, in re -adjusting the import the period only had elapsed, to the injury of i tables and schedules, which unquestionably citizens of the United States, who had procee-: require essential modification,' a departure tied to act ou the faith of that decree. The ! from the principles of the present tariff is not Spanish government refused indemnification ! anticipated. fnr thn raur iif nvniinsMiif t.liA'mrnrivnmi'nt. rr- e . , ...ii ftlWoAl la w .u.-Aii ml t tuJ.nhuijNt.jf livair- iot aeiiv DiHMoytaoM g fee aaBftwrn , t t ---- " . I ! . I I !.. I. .A ...... 1 , . . . .. I.I L rrecwou, wnu u, n n pmouiu. uccur, ,i noui'i ik my duty to overcome and suppress. I cher ish the hox:, however, tiiat the occurrence of "J iiti .!: I . . ! . I ....... n the interposition of the Federal Executive. j , ,v.uf'c " ucc-cu peuieut, particu- j pated in that act, were innu That could onlv he in case of obstruction to federal law, or of organized resistance to ter- . I . i . patriotic anil just men, who partici- some or tne states. cuced by motives am declarations, regarding the provisions lar rights of the States weie cxp.-wlv L'uar-1 far above bll sectional iealousies. It was iu ' of law tor the extradition of fugitives from antied by thcikyafstitutdan; lnit, iuall things 1 truth the great event which, bv completing i sendee, with occasional episodes of frantic ef- beside. i!- .iviufc, -..,..-.t;, ,t Y jMii', ! fur .us tin- bosscsaitMi.ioli iLc .vaticw of the tfort ti-rH ,liti rsci-utU! by. xiof and limitation o?T C itremgnDtecT aud by ex- : Mississippi, Villi commercial access to the murder, continued for a brief time to agitate press rescrvainfef all powers not gftuted, Gulf of Mexico, imparted unity with strength certain localities. But the true principle of in the compact, ot the I uiou. J but the to the whole confederation, and attached to- leaving each fttate and lerntory to regulate ' aether bv indissoluble ties the last and the ! their own laws ot laoor, ana accoraing to its ' . i .... i .( L- .. i , K . i . ...1 . i I. . . :mv such nntow.ird .vcnt wd ho nrvrntoi! hv 1"'"' "iv'l"uu ww; p-iucr oj iuui.mu, n im iuc - -""q i . - -i . t. - m inwsnf oinnoii defence and irA wl. W4 m vv.d as the .North and the South ; own sense ot right and cxnechencv. had acqui iiii wiiini.i s.n;i. ni nil1 ru'iinio iit iiii i prnrn. i - r " " -i , u x . ",x- x.v - ... i..j:.. :..: A. i. . a .. AIIMV. to the narties aggrieved until recently. when it was assented to, payment being pro- The army during the year has been actively niised to be made so soon as the amount due I engaged in defending the Iudiaa frontier, the can be ascertained. I state of the service permitting but few and Satisfaction claimed for the arrest and small garrisons iu our pormaiicut fortifications. snnn-fi of the steamer KI Dorado has not vet -the additional regiments authorized at the been accorded, out there is reason to believe that it will be, and hat case with others, continues to be urged to the thorough attention of the Spauish government. I do not abandon the hope of concluding with S m 13 general arrangement, which, if it do not wholly prevent the recurrence of difficul ties in Cubi, will render them less frequent ; and whenever they shall occur, facilitate their more speedy settlement. MKKICO. The interposition of ibis Government has been invoked by many of its citizens, on ac count of injuries done to choir persons and property, for which the Mexican republic is responsible. The unhappy situation of that country, for some time pastf, h;is not .-1 lowed it3 government to give due consideration to claims of private reparation, and has appeared to call for and justify some forbearance in such matters cu the part of this government. But, if the revolutionary movements, which have lately occurred iu that republic, end in the organivsation of a stable government, ur gent appeals to its justice will then be made, and. it may be hoped, with success, for the re dress ot all complaints of our citizens. CENTRAL AMERICA. In regard to the American republics, which, from their proximity and other considerations, have peculiar relations to this government, while it has been my constant aim strictly to I last session of Congress have been recruited and organized, and a large portion of the troops have already been sent to the field. All the duties which devolve on the military establish ment, have been satisfactorily, performed, and the dangers and privations incident to the char acter of the service required of our troops have furnished additional evidence of their courage, zeal and capacity, to meet any requisition which their country may make of them. For the details of the military operations, the distribution of the troops, and additional pro visions required for the military service, I refer to the report of the Seoretary of War, and the accompanying documents. Experience, gathered from events which have transpired since my last annual message, lias but served to confirm the opinion then ex pressed of the propriety of making provision, by a retired list, for disabled oflkera, aud for increased compensation to the officers retained on the list for active duty. All the reasons which existed, when these measure were re commended on former occasions, continue without modification, except so fay as circum stances have given to some of them additional force. The recomendations heretofore made for a partial reorganization of the array are also renewed. The thorough elementary education given to those officers, who commence their service with the grade of cadet, qualifies them, rfgrcrve all tne ooiisattous or political inend-1 " " p-- tfrp and good leighlxirhood, obstacles to this I dutw3 01 CVCIT artu of service ; but to have arisen in some of them, from their own insufficient power to check lawless irruptions, give the highest efficiency to artillery, requires he practice and special study ot many years; 1 t . .t i which in effect throws most of the task on the , ana 18K. Jt' lUcmor?' Delievet-10 MVisa- United Spates. Thus it is that the distracted j bie to mtam. m time of peace, a larger internal condition of the State of Nicaragua! of,thaf arm than can be usually employed has made it incumbent on me to appeal to the : m s appertaining to the service of . I L' N ,. .1 m.- 1 Intt.T 'Pi, ,1..-.. ... . . XI. . .l Afniir ,. tina In ahf n from nnv i "Ciu auu eic- .iahiiui v. a.iiu uui.es Ul lue staff, in all its various branches, belong to the movements of troops and the efficiency of an unlawful intervention in its affairs, and to ...ils.vit nwirnnliilird iniioi,ioe ti lia flamn And 1 L ... . ..... Ai-nv in Inn li.ilii urnlllrf maliina I xt -l.i.w,, . I which on siuHlar occasion, had the hests re- : Jv ." , . J j..a suits in re-assuring the peace of the Mexican I tho wrtu which those duties are .tes of Sonora aud Irower California. , " ';y ' T treaties. ' artillery, a speciauy, out requires aiso an . ' . : 1 ..l...l ne . . c .. flr.V. Since the last .session of Congress a twaty i ai "i i . f. t ' . -.'( rJP Urt linn nrf if ie lint, il.iit tti that fii Mtn. amity, commerce, and navigation, and for ! v . r . surrender of fugitive criuunals, with the : Flt5lu " Ui rr? rMTT' igdom of the Two Sicilies; a treaty of : Hu0o.r t,,e 8cne " TV u i'tnatue C .... - I nU.,11 I.,.,--, . ,i..f,, I.-, Ki-attt fit flue rAW it ,in 1(iminir.ip.inrt nivimlinn wiU, L t "'" urtu oot cta u wm. ragua ; auu a convention oi commercial re- roi With thwview, it was recommended on a former occasion that rocity' wUh the Hawaiian kingdom have i c W "f th ff 1)0 u negotiad. The latter kingdom and the I formed by details from the hue ; and with a. ites of Nicaragua have ahso acceded to a jlaratiou recognizing as international rights criuoipiotf contained in the convention be tween the United States and Russia, of the 22 i of Jnly, 154. These treaties and con vcations will be laid before the Senate tor ra-tihcidiou. TREASfJR V. eonvictiou of tlie advantages which should result from such a change, it is again pre sented for the consideration of Congress. SAW. The report of the Secretary of the Navy, herewith submitted, exhibits in full the Naval operations of the p t year, together wkh the present condition of the service, and it makes i sugsestions of further legblation, to which t,,, respecting the anUcipUcd receipts j attention is invited. litares of the Treasury, have been r Tb instruction of the six steam frigate tnuexp - ' y . . wi1M,h ...nnroDnafaon were made bv ti last Congress, has ptpceeded in the muss -aliAatiaUv voriiied. It pjr8 from the report of the tW the rcvipis during the last f tJit ' isfatory manner, anp with sueh expedition ; ... nf Iks hA iJthi fhivr will Ko rv, who, by its organic law, possessing the right to determine their own domestic institu tions, are entitled, while deporting themselves peacefully, to the free exercise of that right, and must be protected in the enjoyment of it, without interference on the part of the citi zens of any of the States. The Southern boundary line of this Terri tory has never been surveyed and established. The rapidly extending settlements in that re gion, and the fact that the mam route between independence, iu the State of Missouri, and New Mexico, is contiguous to this line, sug gest the probability that embarrassing ques tions of jurisdiction may consequently arise. For these and other considerations, I commend the subject to your early attention. CONSTITUTIONAL THEORY OP THE GOVERN MENT. I have thus passed in review the general state of the Union, iucluding such particular concerns of the Federal Government, whether of domestic or foreign relation, as it appeared to be desirable and useful to bring to the spec ial notice of Congress. Unlike the great. States of Europe and Asia, and many of those of America, these United States are wasting their strength neither in foreign war nor domestic strife. Whatever of discontent or public dissatisfaction exists, is attributable to the imperfections of human nature, or is incident to all governments, however perfect, which human wisdom can devise. Such sub jects of political agitation as occupy the pub lic mind, consists to a great extent, of exag geration of inevitable evils, or over zeal in so cial improvement, or mere imagination of grievance, having but remote connexion with any of the constitutional functions or duties of the Federal Government. To whatever extent these questions exhibit a tendency men acing to the stability of the Constitution or in tegrity of the Uniou and no farther, they, de mand the consideration of the Executive, and require to be presented by him to Congress Before the thirteen Colonies became a con federation of independent States, they were associated only by community of transatlan tic origin, by geographical position, and by the mutual tie of common dependence on Great Britain. When the tie was sundered, they severally assumed the powers and rights of absolute sett government. 1 he municipal and sO'dal institutions of each, its laws of property aud of personal relation, even its political organization, were such only as each one chose to establish, wholly without interfe rence from any other. In tho language of tie Declaration of Independence, eaeh State had "full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and do all other acts and things which independent States may of right do." The several col onics differed in climate, in soil, in natural productions, in religion, in systems of educa tion, in legislation, and in the forms of politi cal administration; and they continued to differl ia these respects when they voluntarily allied themselves as States to carry on the war of the revolution. The object of that war was to disenthral the United Colonies from foreign rule, which fare, excluding objects appertaining m the As to Florida, that was but the tranfer by i red that hold of the public judgment to such w . . . - 1 ,1.1 . 1 local legislation of the several Pteicst and i Spam to the I nited states of territory on ! degree, tnat, by common consent, it was oo- those purposes of general welfare andleora- ! the east side of the River Mississippi, in ex-1 served in the organization of the Territory of mon defouee w.-re afterwards defined br soc- change for large territory, which the United i Washington. cific enumeration, as being matters oily of i States transferred to Spaiu on the west side 1 When, more recently, it became requisite to corclation between the States themsohix, or of that river, as the entire diplomatic history ' organize the Territories of JNebraska aud Kan between them and foreign govcrutLuts, dof the transaction serves to demonstrate. as, it was the natural and legitiment, if not which, because of their conimonaiid general Moreover, it was au acquisition demanded by ; the inevitable consequecne of previous events nature, couid nit bo left to the separatecou- i the commercial interests and the security of i and legislation, that the same great and sound trol of each State. the whole Union. principle, which bad already been applied to Of the circumstauces of local condrion, In the meantime, the people of the United ; Utah and New Mexico, should be applied to interest and rignts, in which a portion o the ; States bad grown up to a proper conscious- them that they should stand exempt from the States, constituting oue great section o the I ncssof their strength, and in a brief contest ' restrictions proposed in the act relative to the Union, differed from the rest, ud from an- with France, aud in a secoud serious war State of Missouri. other section, tbe most impotaut was the ; with Great Britain, they had shaken off all I These restrictions were, in the estimation of peculiarity of a larger relative colored ppu-1 which remained of undue reverence for Eu- many thoughtful men, null from the beginning, lation iu the Soithcrn thau ia the Nortjern rope, and emerged from tlic atmosphere of ; unauthorized by the constitution, contrary to States. j those transatlantic influences, which surround-1 the treaty stipulations for the cession of Lou- A population of this class, held iu fub- ed the infant Republic, and had begun to j isiana, and inconsistent with the equality of the jection, existed ii nearly all the Stateslbut turn their attention to the full and systematic j States. . was more numerms and of more serious ion- i development of the internal resources of the ; They have been stripped of all moral au- cernment iu lh South than in the Nith, I Union. thority, hy peesistent enurts to procure their on account of natural differences of cliikate , Aaiong the evanescent controversies of that j indirect repeal through contradictory enact- mey mm oeen pracucauy aorogaiea organization of on. If any would have been " . m ' . 1 " ' AX A I A I. A I others. The peeiliar character and main- Tte ordinance for the government ot the j taxen away, iu enect, oy me new wnwwi tnde of this nuesion ofi local rights, nos in , territory north-west ot the Kiver Uhio had acts, in tne iorra ongmauy proposeu to tee material relation! only, but still more inb- ! coufcjned a provision which prohibited the Senate at the first session of the last Congress aud oroduction: and it wai foreseen thaUfur I period, the most conspicuous was the question j ment. ).. ,. .kiU tkU .i.,..l..!i nf numlatinn hv (otk.ti!ss of the social eon- 1 bv the legislation attending the cut; oauiD icaoui, n uuv via.? uvl'uiu isia . v. y..- i - - . . . wrniM diminish. ir,rl ortnnur nr Uter Pnaoktr. I ditini of the future States to be founded in I Utah, New Mexico and Washing! aviat in win in Si. tea it. moy'iit tnnreuaiTin 1 the territory of Louisiana. . vitality remained in them, it w -w i. u a.-- i lutely excluded from admission therein. fact of itself constitutes the disruption be tween it and the other States. But the pro cess of dissolution could not step there. Would not a sectional decision, producing such results by a majority of votes, either northern or southern, of necessity drive out the ooDresed and aeriered minority, and place in pHaseltee of each other two irreconcilable hostile con federations ? It is necessary to speak thus plainly of pro jects, the offspring of that scction-il' agitati- n now prevailing m some of the States, which are as impracticable as they are QnoQSMtilU tional, and vhich, if persevered in, must and will end calamitously. It is either disunion or civil war, or it is mere angry, idle aimless disturbance of puolic peace and tranquility. Disunion foe what ? If (fee p-issionate rege of fanaticism and partisan spirit did not force the fact upon our attention, it would be diffi cult to believe that any considerable portion of the people of this enlightened country could have surrendered themselves to Jl fanatical devotion to the supposed intffflttsyf the relatively few Africans in (he Unild States, as totally to abandon and desred the interest of the twenty-five' milhonaof anwmog 10 iiainiiic uuocr nwit rnc mMiic- tionsof moral anl constitutional obli&itil and to engage m plans of vindictive ho.iiitv against tnose w - un u the enjoyment of the common heritage of national institutions. Nor is it hostility against their felLwv i- . . . i i - pi-ii sens oi one section oi tne luiou annc. i if interests, the honor, the duty, the peace an prosperity of the people of all sections are equally involved and imperiled in this pics tion. And are patriotic men in any part of tho Uniou prepared, on such issue, thus mad ly to invite all the consequences of the forfeit ure of their constitutional engagements ? It is impossible. The storm of phrenzy and fac tion must inevitably dash itself in vain against the unshaken rock of the Constitution. I shall never doubt it. The Union is stronger than the wild and chimerical schemes of social change, which are geucrated one after anoth er in the instable minds of visionary sophists and interested agitators. I rely confidently on the patriotism of the neople, on the dignity and self-respect of the States, on the wisdom of C idl onthe r - i . t .-s mignty ijroa, to'maint whether at home or abroad, the Constitution, and the inteenitv , . . . Lnion. r KAiNKLiN F1KHCB. Wasiuv.t ! v-. : 1 , 1 ".."). SATURDAY. JANUARY 12J I8fi6. cialones, caused it to ctfter into the speanl stipulations of te consitution. Hence, while Sfeo Gaeral government it well by the cnuqferatedj powers granted to s as by those not diumeitited, and thcrefoe refused to it, waj forbfdden to touch ths matter in the sels oj attack or offenceit was placed under the general safeguard if the Union, in the.3c1.-se of defence agaijtt either in vasioa or domes tic violence, like nil other lc3al interfets ef the several Stafes use jf servile labor therein, subject to the condition of the extradition of fugitives from servile due in any other part of the United Statp. Subsequently to the adoption of the Constitutkm, this provision ceased to remain as a kiw, for its operation as such was abso- Uitelf superceded by the Constitution. But It was manly and ingenious, as well as patri otic and just, to do this directly and plainly, and thus relieve the statute-book of an act, which might be of possible future benefit ; and the measure of its repeal was the final con summation and jjompiete recognition of the Finciple, that no portion of the United States ..A , , , . , , lli.i va.-fill.iftiii!i nf thfl find fitted the. Md nf' shall undertake, through assumpticn of the social propagandism in some sections of the ' powers of the General Government, to dictate confefleration ; and, when a second State, that j the social institutions of any other portion, of Missouri, came to be formed in the Terri- j The scope and effect of the language of re peal were not left in doubt. J.t was declared, Each State expressly stipulated, as well for tory pf Louisiana, a proposition was made to a .7 . . - - .1 . i . i i p .. Ti 4-1... .i ; i ; itself as for each aid all of its citisens, and every citizen of earn state became sole mi iy pound oy nis auegance to tne constitutpn, that any person, mid to service cr labof in o . . . . . n . . : iv. t . . u ..l i OUC OliiLO, 0tti:iAi:ijlU'O UUUbUKI, MIOUIU labor, but should b delivered up on claim of the party to whfn such service or labar might be due by tie laws of his State extend to the latter Territory the restriction OrigieaHy applied to the country situated be tween the Rivers Ohio and Mississippi. Most unquestionable as was the proposi tion in all its constitutional relations, never theless it received the sanction of Congress. 1. 1 i .1 1! . in i'iiiis.niii'ni'i A nnv In w nr poirnram .... ...A. . o - ... i:Li i:c i.: ,.f j.i i: thereof, be dischancdrfrom aucti 8fltMiAji-w'1.'''-J V"' ' Ul ?mJLL. i .. .k..u w a.k..i ;i,.4. .save the existing nguw oi tne mtenuea new State. It was reluctantly ccquiesced in by Southern States, as a sacrifice to the cause of in terms, to be "the true intent and meaning of this act not to legislate slavery into any Territory or State, nor to exclude it therefrom, but to leave the people thereef perfectly free to form and regulate their domestic institutions in their own way, subject only to the constitu tion of the United States." TflTB nrem-nre nuH m i h.mlAm EVTbe President's message exchtdes al most every thing else to-day. Wo have clear ed our decks, and will be able to find room lor a greater variety of matter. It is understood that the dominant par ty, through the agency of King Caucus, have selscted the Mistmippian office to do the State printing; Mr. Hardin, of Marshall, as Snper- ntendent of the Penitentiary, Mr. Smyth clerk ; and Mr. Kerr librarian. The Legislature will confirm the edict of His Majesty to-da)'. 3PTTke oldest inhabitant does not remem ber so severe a spell of cold weather. For nearly three weiks the thermometer baa rare- y been above tbe freezing point. Night before ' last sleet set in, and has since alternated with rain, freezing on the earth. Yesterday the streets were smooth as glass, aud pedestrians on the pave ran great risk of broken bone. The weather is still intensely cold. Our mammoth Weekly of WodueMlay next will contain 20 long columns of reading matter embracing the President's messag'-', Governors message and inaugural, legislative ?roceedi:ig3, telegraphic news, editorials, iv. Members and others desiring extra copra will please leave orders at our connting-rootjL Owing to the crowded state of our I , . . . , , r lumns, ior tno past two issues, our legislate reports are not so fell as we design to fntn'.-li We shall publish all important general laws as soon as passed. The u Fakir ot Siva" will give a grand Gift Entertainment to-night at Spenglers hall. It will be seen that on the 99th ballot, the Honse of Representatives at Washington wan no nearer an organization than on the first day of the session. ,...,! and nf thn l nion. not onl v nf t.hp. Thus, and thus U; by the reciprocal C .y hv the treatv of Louisiana. guaranty of all the rights of every State f . :. , Drincinle of equality among the I justification. When, before, was it imagined its merits alone. It waa attacked with vio lence on the faLse and delusive pretext that it constituted a breach of faith. jNever was ob jection more utterly destitute of substantial ho unitea omn.es ,rom torei-n, ru.e, wnicn , , constiionai obligations J had proved to boi oppressive and to separate from cn.onCOU, conviction of biiiid prep tnom permanently rroni tne moraer coumry, , whethcr it be perorated by tno political result wa me iwuuhriu ui . u-; eifcher jt ig "77' rights. stipulated by the treaty of Louisiana, against interference on the part of another ,..,i hv the Constitution. It I bv sensible men, that a regulative or decJara- was the present torn of Government estab jgj the Northern States with th e statute, whether enacted ten or forty years liehedy our tafcherand transmitted to .-Mi anj reKjatful condemnation and com- ago, is irrepealable that an act of Congress ami oyno means is I possible tor u toei. it did not concede all which 1 is above the uonsutuuon : If one State ceases k respect the rights ff had 3, demanded. If, indeed, there were in the facts any cause another, aud obtrusMy intermeddles with tjaV;,, naiwd thmuffh the forms of lems-! to impute bad faith, it would attach to those its local interests I a portion of the Stalls jj.- ;t -lts piaetJ ;n the statute-book, only, who have never ceased, from the time of assume o iuipoe iwr lusmuuyinuu f Jstanding open to repeal, like any other act or j the enactment ot ws namuuve pruviiMuu w otuc-a, or roiuse 00 au meir ouaguwou- QQbtful conatitutionality, sumeet to be pro-1 tee present uay, 10 ueuuuwj auu conuemu it; them we are no nger united friendjy m, m void by the courts of law, ! who have constantly refused to complete it by States, but distraofel, hostile oues, whi nd poaeessing n0 possiblo efficiency to control I needful supplementary legislation ; who have little capacity left jf common advantale tfae 0f States, which might there- j spared no exertion to deprive it of moral Torce ; but abnudant meass of reciprocal injrJ after be organized out of any part of the ; who have themselves again and again attempted and mischief. 1 1 rtrimnal trritorv of Ijouisiana. its repeal by the enactment of incompatible pro- Pnwticidly, it'is imnaterial whether agg fQ $ auy arression there were, i visions, and who, by the inevitable reactionary any innovation upon pre-existing rights, to effect of their own violence on the subject, which poruoe ot tne union are meyjusiiy ' awaeuu wmj uuuuuji w perception Wa wb sive interference betwieu the States, or ds erate refusal on the ptrt of uy one of ts) eral republic ot the tree white menoi inecoi-; , dnrMlitv rf the mst:tutcd, as the v were in disune,nd i " illy independent State Governmeitti, I constitdtional prejm direction oral s full of dangiri onies, constituted, as they were in leciproca As for the subject races, whether Indian o African, tho wise and brave statesman of that f day , being engaged in no extravagant scheme of social change Jetc them as they were, and thus preserved themselves and their posterity from the anarch 7, and the ever-recurring civil wars, wl:ich bare prevailed in otSer revolutioMed REL, laced in the office five axnnt of n take care tha and 1 give inf th Union, it J duty on mv ; A' f . .mm. t BHxecu rl;;, tutfl noss or slave Chief Majrist! the whole eon the laws be hied by the to Congnea b pai, to pase rate is "J pabf ne This oontroverey passed away with the oc casion, nothing surviving it save the dormant letter of the statute. But long afterwards, wkeo, by the proposed accession of the Republic of Texas, , the United States were to take their next step in territorial greatness, a similar contingency occurred, and became the occasion for sys tematized attempt to intervene in -the do- the mestie affairs of one section of the Union, in uvuuw v true constitutional principle, of leaving the matter involved to the discreation of the peo ple of the respective existing or incipient States. It is not pretended that this principle, or any other, precludes the possibility of evils in . .i 1 t:i: 1 i- practice, dist to he by ment is exempt this case not of the s political action is liable as. o xorm 01 go vera -inconviencies ; out -in It of tbe abuse, and of the power d9'blfofi"was TTfTiTWt new uncHifgTm Wednesilay, at tbe slight advance of last week. Tho alarm of fire yesterday morning" Waa caused by a defective chimney at the rear store of H. & P. Hilzheim. The engines were prompt ly on the spot, and the fire was extinguished without much injnry. B3?The President in his Message speaks of a treaty of amity, commerce and navigation concluded with Nicaragua. Now as Mr. Mar- coleta is himself the last visible speck of the government he professes to iepresent, we are a little curious to know, whether Mr. Mareole ta, tbe government, will ratify this important treaty negotiated by Mr. Mareoleta the minis ter. The President refuses to recognise a go vernment de facto, and yet enters into an ar rangement with a quondam agent of a defunct government, and gravely asks Congress to rat ify it. llgflW fern thev aM-auiresu . . , -. am not ot tne leouhnm x los ar States and nf the reserved or convMBkui una oraanUMMB 01 , -"wa a. r ' -r . m txszwm " A Gay Winteji in ths Crimea. The London correspondent of the National Intelli gencer, m his letter of December 13th. savs : The officers in the Crimea appear to bei preparing ior a gay winter. The 80th ment is getting out a billiard table. M the regiments have established verv fair me mi l- 1 . , , . - xne ngni aivision nas ordered harriers. Job ful KTBBBBBBBV 1 SV ua mar 1 U irim (MPsrW wvi i, m ..-.1 i.'.i p '