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McCOWAN & NICHOLS, Editors and Publishers._“«"» to the line, let the chips tall where they may.- TERMS, $1.50 per year, In advance. v'OL. XXXVII._BRIDGETON, N. J, THURSDAY, APRIL 17,1884. NO. 1883 AT THE Enterprise AT THE Enterprise The Spring season lias opened and the Enterprise folks were never better prepared to re ceive their patrons with a grander array of CLOTHING For Men, Boys and Children. HATS and CAPS. HATS and CAPS. HATS and CAPS. BOOTS and SHOES. BOOTS and SHOES. BOOTS and SHOES. FURNISHING GOODS. FURNISHING GOODS. FURNISHING GOODS. Umbrellas, Trunks, Val ises, Oiled and Rub ber Clothing, &c. The stock this season has been purchased direct from the man ufacturers, and we can assure the public of finding in our dif ferent departments the most stylish varieties of Clothing, Hats and Shoes that can be procured. ONE PRICE Always Positively Maintained. To all the readers of the Pio neer we extend an invitation to thoroughly examine our as sortment and be convinced that the Enterprise ranks first in Style, Variety and Low Prices. Our Shoe Department is full and running over with the new est and best in the shoe market. ENTERPRISE Clothing, Boot & Shoe Co. 31. 33, 35 S- Laurel St., Bridgeton, N. J. P. H. Goldsmith & Co., Props. pioneer. &1.50 PerYear. Published every Thursday morning, at No. 6f) East Commerce Street, (up stairs.) McCOWAN & NICHOLS, Publishers. j j _ — STATE NEWS. Two electric light companies have received permission to erect poles in the streets of Trenton. Mayor Dawson, of Woodbury, has notified the barbers that they must keep their shops closed on Sunday. A. Woolson, of Fishing creek, Cape May county, has an incubator in which he has hatched 211 chickens from 250 eggs. Judge Reeves, lately appointed to the Common Pleas bench in Cape May county, is said to be an avowed tem perance man. Last week the Delaware River fish ermen sent 15,000 shad to Philadelphia, and realized an average of $33 per hundred for them. The Sixth Regiment, National Guard of New Jersey, are negotiating for the purchase of the Opera House, West street and Bridge avenue, Camden. Wm. A. Hall, ex-Chief Clerk in the Newark Comptroller’s office, was last week sentenced to 12 years in State Prison for forgery and embezzlement. A Sussex county grower says that at least three-fourths of the peach tree buds in that county are dead, and the prospect of a good crop this year is dubious. The value of an average porpoise, says the Cape May Star, is $25.50 oil, $18; hide for superior fine leather, $3, and the residue for food or phos phate, $2.50. B. A. Taylor, a Salem county farmer, raised 6,500 pounds of tobacco last year on four acres. He has recently sold it for $600, and will grow still more this year. All efforts to get the schooner Robt. Morgan off the beach at Atlantic City have thus far been unavailing. The last effort was to load the bow with sand in order to lift the stern. The Atlantic City Review estimates that the want of a board walk along the beach, which will cost about $10, 000, will entail a loss of receipts during the season, of from $50,000 to $65,000. The Reading Railroad Company has 200 men at work laying the new stand ard guage track to Atlantic City. The rails are placed outside the old nar row guage road, which will not be dis turbed until the other is finished. At the meeting of the Camden City Council last week, it was unanimously decided that hereafter the fee for li censes should be $200. There were nine applications for licenses, and seven of the number were refused. Suit has been brought at Freehold by Miss Emma Whitbeck, a young lady residing at Asbury Park, against David Harvey, Jr., a lawyer, for “al leged slander and defamation of char acter.” The damages asked are $10, 000. The iron vat in which the nitro-gly cerine exploded at the Repaupo Pow der Works, Thompson’s point, (ilou cester Co., has been found it is stated, on Maurice Island, in the Delaware, more than half a mile from the scene of the disaster. The Legislature having repealed the act of last year fixing ferry rates, the Gloucester ferry has restored its old rate of 10 cents each way. During the past year they have charged 5 cents at Gloucester, and 15 cents at Philadelphia. The 1,163 Jennens heirs who think there is a fortune of £100,000,000 await ing them in England, being the entire city of Birmingham, held their annual meeting at Camden, N. J., recently. They have spent over $10,000 in five years in pushing their claims, which are apparently as far off from realiza tion as ever. Jacob Bentel, a jeweler,56 years old, living on Prince street, Newark, hung himself in the garret of his house, a. few days since. For several years he has been affected with heart disease, and at times suffered excruciating pain. His pain was so great that he threatened to end his life. He leaves a widow and one child. Mrs. Jones, wife of the station agent at Barnegat, Ocean County, locked three small children in the house one lay last week while she attended a rendue. During her absence the louse caught lire from the stove, and she children were nearly suffocated aefore they were rescued and the fire sxtinguished by the neighbors. Scarlet fever is prevailing in differ ent sections of Camden county, and at Gloucester City William Berryman lias lost three children within two weeks by the disease. Recently a young man named Ward Meeks, residing near Moorestown, ac cidentally fell from a loaded hay wagon in the barn of Josiah Lippin cott, and broke his neck. Deceased was about twenty-one years of age. Dr. John Hall, for forty years pas tor of the First Presbyterian Church at Trenton, and one of the most em inent clergyman in this State, has re signed his pastorate on account of age and the condition of his health. It is proposed that he should retain his connection with the congregation, though relieved from the care and bur den of his official work. The thirteenth annual session of the New Jersey Conference of the A. M. E. Church was opened in Bethel A. M. E. Church, Arlington street, Newark, last week with Bishop J. B. Brown presiding. Rev. I. Derricks and Rev. J. II. Morgan were elected secretaries. The Conference embraces the State ol New Jersey. There were about thirty preachers in attendance. The daughter of Christopher Meyer, of East New Brunswick, five years old, fell into a cistern recently, the water being ten feet deep. As she rose to the surface her brother, fom years old, jumped in after her, ancl both would have been drowned bill that two men who were loading s wagon near by heard the screams ol the mother, who witnessed the acci dent, and rescued them. At New Brunswick, Thursday, Lev D. Jarrard, the ex-Colleetor of Middle sex county, was taken before Judgt Scudder on eight indictments. Foui were for forgery and four for embezzle ment. To the latter he declined tc tYlpfl.fi nnrlflr +.V»p uf1\Tir»o f lvlc. r.~ 1 and a plea of not guilty was entered To the indictments of forgery h< pleaded not guilty. The counsel wil agree on a day for trial on Monday. The race track at Monmouth Park Monmouth Co., has been cut down newly graded and soiled and widene* to the extent of eighty feet. Thi grand stand has been enlarged ant several new stables have been built The park has been enlarged by tin purchase of ten acres of land on tin west side. The first race of the seasor will take place on July 4th, and racing will be continued from that date unti August 23d. The result of an election for Schoo Trustee near Keyport was celebrate* by the victors. A torchlight proces sion, headed by the Keyport Cornel Band in full uniform, marched througl the village and over three miles o sandy road to a point where unlimited beer and baked clams of gigantic di mansions furnished refreshments foi all. The winner’s friends illuminate* their residences. There were fully 20( people in line. The revel was contin ued until after midnight. A fatal fire occurred at Port Mon mouth, Monmouth Co., one night re cently. The Frank Eastmond prop erty was burned down, and a man named Daniel Cummings lost his life. The house was occupied by Charles Carter and Charles Mills, clammers, Cummings worked for Carter. Tin Kwolro _3 n_ mings was the first man to discover it, but he remained in the building toe long and was suffocated. Mrs. Cartel saved herself and infant by leaping: from a second story window'. She was badly injured and most of hei hair was burned off. The building: was 150 years old, and had an interest ing history. The fire originated from a stove. Neighbors made a search foi Cummings’ body the next morning but could not find it. The saloon keepers of Newark have organized to protect those in the busi ness from the attacks of the temper ance people, and under the name ol the Citizen’s Protective Association, held a meeting last week at which one of the speakers said: "We are advisee! that, the temperance fanatics are pre paring for another persecution of the saloon and hotel-men, and so we saw the necessity of getting ready to op pose them in defence of our rights. No attempt, so far as we have yet learned, will be made to interfere with the saloons in the city, but the attempt lias already begun in Montclair, Bloom field and other townships, and the fight of the saloon-men in the town ships is our fight. We drowned the temperance fanatics once and can do it again if they force a light. All we want is the rights guaranteed to us sc long as we are peaceable and keep re spectable saloons.” REARING OYSTERS. The desirability of testing the breed ing of oysters in ponds in the United States, as practiced for many years past in France, has long been a desid eratum. In order to test the feasibility of such a method on a scale large enough to give us practical results, an arrange ment to carry out such a scheme was finally effected with the Eastern Shore Oyster Company in June of the last year. The beds near where the work was undertaken, are owned by Messrs Pierce A Shepard, who afforded the writer every opportunity to carry on his investigations, and also aided him very materially in the work of experi ment. A pond was excavated in the salt marsh on the shore of Chinco teague Bay, on a farm situated at a distance of about 2 miles from the vil lage of Stockton, Worcester county, Maryland. This pond covered an area of about 50 square yards and was connected with the bay by a trench or canal about 10 feet in length, 2 feet in width, and 34 feet in depth, which last was the same as that of the pond itself. The water which supplies this pond was filtered through a permeable, porous gate, or diaphragm, which was placed in the trench connecting the j pond with the bay, and no water was 1 allowed to enter the pond which had not been first filtered through this di aphragm. The diaphragm itself was constructed of boards perforated with augur holes, I and lined on the inside with gunny cloth or sacking; and the space be tween the boards was about two inches; through this the tide ebbed and flowed, giving a rise and fall of from 4 to 0 inches during the interval between successive tides. This apparatus, if it may be called tuc icoc|nai;xc xiiiu j which the artificially fertilized eggs of a number of oysters were introduced 1 every two or three days. 1 It was supposed, when the experi rnent was commenced, that some diffi culty would be experienced with a rise of temf erature in the pond in ex [ cess of that found in the bay, because ! , the water was kept confined and still, I and constantly exposed to the direct rays of the mid-day sun. But to our , surprise and gratification it was learned , that the temperature in the pond and in the bay were precisely the same at , every observation which was made in order to test this question. Another question also arose in our minds as to whether it might not be that the water in the pond might be come less salt than that in the open ! bay; in other words, that its specific gravity would be less than that of the ' water in the bay, owing to leeching from the banks of the pond in addition to that precipitated during rains. To our great satisfaction we were j also agreeably disappointed to find ! that the specific gravity of the water i in the pond remained steadily about the same as that found to prevail in the bay. The specific gravity in the pond was 1.018, and 1.020 at times in the bay, to as low as 1.0175, and the fluctuation of the specific gravity of the water in the pond was found to be about the same as in the bay. At the head of the creek the specific 1 gravity of the water was about 1.010. In this situation a great many oysters U'orn liirirwv _ 1_i __ this density is not so low as that pre- ; valent in the waters of Saint Jerome's Creek, where it fluctuates between 1.007 and 1.010, and where excellent oysters are grown. From numerous observations and considerations based upon the facts of distribution, it is believed that the oyster in all cases thrives best in waters of a specific gravity about such as has been indicated above, or from 1.00G to 1.030. Another equally important point to settle was whether a sufficient amount of food would be generated in the pond to supply any young or old oys ters with nourishment. To our sat isfaction we found immediately after the diaphragm had been placed in the trench that the confined waters of the pond acquired a distinctly brownish green tint, which we at first supposed was due to particles of dead, brown or ganic matter. A microscopical in- | vestigation of the water showed that in this we were in error, and that the brown color of the water was largely due to the presence of innumerable microscopical plants, consisting largely of diatoms, having brownish contents. It was also found that immense mul titudes of very small monads, with long flagella, would collect upon float ing chips and light objects at the sur face of the water during the warm mid-day hours. It seems, therefore, evident that food was generated in abundance here, and greatly in excess of what may be found in the open bay, and that one of the most impor tant conditions for the success of our experiment had been established. The final results fully confirmed this conclusion, inasmuch as we found that spat grew just as rapidly in the pond as in the waters of the open bay. There is, moreover, no reason to sup pose that it would not grow to a mar ketable size just as certainly as spat collected in the natural way. The collectors used in our experi ment were of the simplest possible character, the object being to make the experiment as practical in charac ter as possible. To this end stakes were driven into the bottom of the pond, extending above the surface some distance, to which oyster shells, with holes punched through, were at tached after being strung upon gal vanized iron wire. A number of these simple collectors were placed in the pond, each set being marked with the date on which they were placed in position, in order to afford data for a more detailed study of the results of the experiment. The first collectors of the kind de scribed were placed in position upon the day when the first spawn was poured into the pond. This occurred on the 7th of July last. Other collectors were then put down at odd dates during the remainder of the month of July. The care of this portion of the experiment, together with the spawning of the oysters them selves, was mostly in the hands of Mr. H. H. Pierce, whose share in the work was, to say the least, as important as my own. The oysters used for the purpose of spawning were taken from the vicinity of the oyster house, which stood only about twpntv sides others which were obtained from the deeper waters of the adjacent bay. It was found that the eggs of those from the shallow water near the pond were as readily fertilized as those from the deeper water, and no difficulty was experienced at any time until toward the latter part of July in obtaining an abundance of good spawn for our ex periments. The oysters from which spawn was obtained were carefully opened by re moving the right valve and allowing the soft parts of the animal to remain attached by the muscle to the left one. The spawn itself was then pressed out of the generative organs by means of a pipette gently stroked over the gland and out along the course of the effer ent ducts, so as to force the spawn out into the upper gill chamber, as de scribed in previous publications by the writer. The sexes were distinguished apart very easily by what the writer has de scribed as the “drop test,’- which con sists simply in dropping the spawn from a pipette in a dish of clean sea water and watching the kind of cloud which it forms after it strikes the water. Invariably, if the specimen was a female, the eggs would break up into a granular cloud which_could be very readily seen to be composed of very minute whitish bodies if the transparent vessel was held up so as to look down through it upon a dark ground below. In case the specimen was a male the drop of milt would not so readily break up, but would exhibit a somewhat gmiry consistency; unun me urop was stirred in the water it would break up into wisps and streaks, so as to appear, on a small scale, like a series of min ute mare's tail clouds such as are seen in the sky at times. This test was found so practicable that we were able to readily teach a novice how to dis tinguish the sexes apart in one lesson. The method of taking the spawn was just as easily learned by Mr. Pierce and Mr. Shepard, both of whom soon became as expert as the writer in the practice of the art of taking oyster spawn. The spawn so taken ' was mixed together in a small dish. The milt and eggs placed in contact at once were thoroughly stirred together and poured from time to time, as the water became milky in the small glass col lecting vessel, into a wooden pail. This was repeated until it was believed that a sufficient amount of spawn was mixed with the water in the pail, which was then taken and poured into the pond at different points, in order to distribute it over us great an area as possible. Before the spawn was poured into the pond however, it was allowed to stand in the pail from three to live hours, in order to give it a chance to develop to the swimming stage of the embryo. Fresh supplies of water were also added once or twice during this time to that in the pail in which the spawn was originally taken. This briefly describes the processes used in conducting our experiment; and while it bears a strong resemblance to the method used by Mr. Braudely, it is really very different in that he had a second pond at a higher level from which supplies of fresh water were drawn through a sponge filter. In our case nothing of the kind was used: we depended absolutely upon nothing else than the rise and fall of the tide for the renewal of the water in the pond. We did. however, use a diaphragm through which the water could pass and repass somewhat similar to that used bv the breneh experimenter. The method used at otockton was, however, essen tiallv the same as the apparatus de vised by the writer in 1880 and 1881, but which was designed and made on such a small scale and under such un favorable conditions that no practical results were achieved. Pn the 22<1 day of August, or 46 days alter the beginning of our experiment, i r'i, lerce sent me by mail a series of shells taken from the collectors, which had been placed in the pond at various dates during the month of July, arid which showed young oysters or spat attached, ranging from one-fourth to three-fourths of an inchin diameter; demonstrating conclusively that the young would grow just as rapidly in our pond as in the waters of the open bay. Of this last fact I am positively assured on the ground of previous ob servations made during the three pre ceding seasons. We are therefore prepared to assert that it is perfectly feasible to rear oys ters from artificially fertilized eggs, and so far as I can judge, quite as suc cessfully as by the method of sowing shells on the bottom, now largely prac ticed on the coast of Connecticut in the waters of Long Island Sound. While our experiment has not shown that we could get a greater set of spat than that ordinarily obtained under natural conditions on planted shells, the ex periment has settled several question*? which are of the greatest importance in the practical work of oyster culture. < )ne of the difficulties encountered was the same as that met with in shell planting in the open waters, namely, the accumulation of slime and ooze or* the surface of the collectors, which is so deadly to the infant oyster when it is from one five-hundredth to one nineteenth of an inch in diameter, a. very slight quantity of sediment serv ing at this time to smother the infant mollusk and arrest the flow of water through its tiny gills, thus producing’ death by asphyxia. This slime I have determined, during the nrevions composed of the very lowest vegetable organisms, namely, bacteria, or those plants constantly associated with pu trefactive processes, and even accused of being the proximate or remote causes of contagious and infectious dis eases in man and the lower animals. Any one, however, who has carefully studied the feeding habits of the young oyster is soon convinced that it is upon these very low and minute forms that j the animal largely depends for food, j In fact, it is possible to frequentlv find young oysters in the stomachs of which multitudes of these minute plants are rotating under the impulse of the vi bratile cilia with which the stomach is lined, the stomach itself being a cavity not over the one four-thousandth of an inch in diameter, which will give I some idea of the minuteness of the | food required to nourish so tiny a i creature. It appears that in practice it will be impossible for us ever to provide against the generation of minute organisms which form the slimy coating of fixed objects used as collectors in the water. But from the foregoing considerations it would appear that the removal of the slime, or the prevention of its de posit, is not altogether desirable, in view of the fact that the minute plants comprising a large part of it form an important element in the development j of the young, serving, as we have seen, to nourish it during its infant life. The practical utility of the experi ment, in the writer's estimation, coiv ! sists in this, that it proves that ponds i or inclosed areas of water may be j readily utilized on the eastern coast of j the United States for cultivating oya j ters in the same way as is practiced in. France and other foreign countries. ; In fact there are many thousand acres j of salt marsh all along the eastern coasts of the States of Virginia, M-ary ; land, Delaware, Mew Jersey, and per i ami v. iiesapetiKe,. Delaware and Chincoteague Bays, ; which could be readily converted into ! permanent and profitable planting grounds for the cultivation of oysters. The great advantage of this method would be that the persons construct ing the inclosures or digging out ponds j on their own territory, would be ab solutely protected by law from the in ; cursions of the lawless tongers whose rights and privileges are not vet as clearly defined in some of the States as j they should be. The method would also be of advantage from the fact that inclosed areas properly constructed are more accessible—in' fact, could be so arranged as to be worked without I the use of boats. It would also be i found that oysters would fatten and come into condition for market at a. relatively much earlier time in the sea son than those planted in open, uncon fined waters where cold currents inter fere with the abundant development of food. This view is borne out hv the fact that green-gilled oysters are invariably fat, and are usually found at the e'nil of summer in more or less confined, waters or under such conditions as. would obtain in inclosed areas in some degree similar to the one used in our experiment at Stockton. In truth, the writer is now confirmed in the belief that the green-gilled condition is clue to an abundance of green microscopic food, which is absorbed in large quan tities so as to tint the juices and finally the blood-cells of the animal, and that these green organisms are multiplied under just the conditions afforded by more or less completely inclosed ponds of areas of brackish water. J. A. Rider, Fish Commissioner.