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The Conservative. (M'connelsville, Ohio) 1866-1871, December 07, 1866, Image 2

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TRW AY. MOttNJNG. - -.- - PKC. 7.
MOORE A. KELLT, , rnlrilshera.
The President's Message.
rrtlotc cituens of the Senate
tind Jovse o Jiepresentaiives :
After a brief intorval the Congress of
the United States resumes its aununl
legislative labors. An all-wise and
merciful Providence has abated the pes
tilencewithh visited our ebores.leaving
its calamitous truces upon sotye por
tions of country. . Fence, order, tran
quility, and civil authority haro been
lormnlly declared to exist throughout
the whole of the United States. In all
of the States civil authority has super
seded the coercion of anus, and J.he
people, by their voluntary action, ore
maintaining their governments in full
activity and complete operation. The
enforcement of the laws is no longer
"obstructed in any State by combina
tions too poworfjU to be suppressed by
the ordinary course of judicial pro
ceedings;" and the animosities engen
dered by the war are rapidly yielding
- to tho benificent influences. of our freo
institutions, and to the kindly effects
of unrestricted social and commercial
intercourse. -Ah entire restoration of
fraternal feeling raunt be the earnest
wish of every patriotic heart; and we
will have accomplished our grandest
rational achievement when, forgetting
the end events of the post, and remem
bering only their instructive lessons,
we rosume our onward career us a froe,
prosperous, and united people.
In iny.mesHn9of the 4th of Decem
ber, 105, Congress : was . informed of
the measures which had been instituted
by tho Executive with a view to the
gradual restoration of tho States in
which the insurrection occurred to
their relations with the General Gov
ernment. Provisional Governors had
been appointed, Conventions . called,
Governors 'elected, Legislatures assem
bled, and Senators and Representatives
chosen to the Congress of the United
Htates, Courts hud been opened for
the enforcement of laws long in abey
ance The blockade had been removed,
-custom houses re established, and the
internal revenue laws put in force, in
order that the people might contribute
to the national income. Postal opera
tion had been renewed, and efforts
were being made to restore them , to
their former condition of efficiency.
The States themselves had been asked
to take part in tho high function of
mending the Constitation, and of thus
sanctioning the extinction of African
slavery as one of the legitimate results
f our internecine-struggle.
' Having progressed thus far, the Ex
ecutive Department found that it had
accomplished nearly all that was with
in the scope of its constitutional au
thority. Ono thing, however, yet re
mained to be done before the work oi
restoration could bo completed, and
that was tho admission to Congress of
loyal Senators nnd Representatives
from the Stntes whose people had re-1
belled against the lawful authority of
the General Government.: This ques
tion devolved upon the . respective
Houses, wbieh.by the Constitution, are
made the judges of election, returns
and qualifications of their own mem
bers; and -its consideration at - once
engaged the attention of Congress.
In tho moantimo, the Executive. De
partment no other plan having been
proposed by Congresscontinued its
efforts to perfect, as fat as was practi
cable, the restoration of the proper re
lations between the citizens of the re
spoctive States, the States, and the
federal Government, extending, from
time to tinfe, as the public interest
seemed to require, the judicial, revenue
and postal systems of the countr;.
With the advice and consent of the
Senate, the necessary officers were ap
pointed, and. 'appropriation madj by
Congress for the payment' of their
salaries. The proposition to amend the
the Federal Constitution, so as to pre
vent the existence of slavery within the
United States or-a&y place subject to
their jurisdiction, was ratified by tbc
requisite number of States; and on the
18th -day of December, 1865, it was of
' flulally declared to have become valid
as a part of the Constitution of the
United States. All of the States in
which the insurrection had existed
promptly amc-rtdcd"their Constitutions,
so Ms to make them conform - to tho
great change thus effeoted in the or
ganic law of the land; declared null
and void all ordinances and laws of
eecssionj repudiated - all pretended
i debts and obligations treated for the
' revolutionary purposes of tho insur
rection; and proceeded, in good faith,
to the enactment of- meusures for the
'dltfon of the' colored race. Congress,
' however, Vet hesitated to admit any of
these States to representation; and it
was not untit towards the close of the,
'close of the eighth month Of the- session
:hat an exception was made in favor of
Tennessee, by the' 'admission 'of ''her
. Senators and Representatives.
' ' I deem it a subject 6f profound re
gret that Congress has thus fur failed
to admit toeats""loyal Senators and
Representatives from the otner Stales,
whose inhabitants, with those of Ten
nessee, had engagod In the rebellion,
'fen Stat-mora fhsn nr.. fourth of
the whole number rfhiafif without
representation; the seats or u fly mem-
Ders in me jiouhc oi jrjji bnoiumu" i-u
and of twenty members in the Senate
art yet vacant not by (heir own'con
sent, not by a failure of election, but
by the refusal of Congress to accept
their credcptjale. Their admission, it
is believed, would have accomplished
much towa.rd.the renewal nnd strength -
cning of, .our relations as one" people",
and removed pcriouB'caBe'for,' discon
tent on the part of the lnhn"biyiuts of
those States, It would have accorded
with the great principle enunciated in
tho Declaration of American Inde
pendence. that no people ought to bent1
the burden of taxation, and yet be de
niod the right of representation. It
would have been in consonance with
the express provisions of the Constitu
tion, that "each Ststeshall have at least
one Representative," nnd "that no
State, without ita consent, shall be de
prived of its equal ButTrngb in the Sen
ate,'', Theso provisions were Intended
to secure to every State and to the
people of every State, the right of rep
resentation in each House Of Congress;
and so important was It deemed by the
fiamers of the. .Constitution, that the
equality of the States in the , Sentte
should bo preserved, that not even by
an amendment of the Constitution enh
any Stae, without its Consent, be do
nied a voice in that branch of the Na
tions! Legislature.. ' '' "J
- It is true, it hit been assumed that
the existence of the States was termi
nated by the rebellious acts of their in
habitants, and that the insurrection
havincr been suppressed, they were
thence forward to be considered merely
as conquered territories. The Legis
lative, Executive, and Judicial De-
tiartmcnts of the , Government have,
owever, with great distinctness and
unifurm cbusibteney .refused to sanction
an , assumption so incompatible' with
the nature of icpublicnn system, and
with the professed objects of the war.
Throughout the recent.' legislation of
Congress, tho undehiublo fact makes
itscll apparent, that these ton political
communities are nothing less , than
States of this Union. At the verv
commencement of the rebellion, cucli
House declared, with . a unanimity as
remarkable as it was 'significant, that J
the war was not "waged upon our part,
in any spirit of oppression, nor for any
purpose of conquest or subjugation, nor
purpose of overthrowing or interfering
with the rights or. established .institu
tions of those States, but to defend and
maintain the supremacy of the Con
stitution ana all laws made in. pursu
ance .thereof, and to preserve the Union
with all- the dignity, equality, and
rights of the several States unimpaired;
and that ns soon as. those objects were
accomplished the war ought to cease,"
In some instances, Senators were per
mitted to continue their, legislative
functions, while in her instances Rep
resentatives were elected and admitted
to scHts after their States, had formally
declnred their rjglt .to.. withdraw from
tho Union, and; wcro endeavoring to
maintain that right ,by force of arms.
All of the Slates whose people were in
insurrection, as States, w-ere Included
in the apportionment of the direct tax
of twenty millions of dollars annually
laid upon the United States by the act
approved August 5th,l&Gl. Congress,
by the act of ilarch.l, lBG2,and. by . the
apportionment of representation there
under, also recogniied their presence
ns States in the Union; and they havo,
for judicial pnrposes, been divided'into
districts, as rMatesalono can be divided.
The same recognition appears in the
recent legislation in referenco to Ten
nessee, winch evidently rests upon the
fuctjlhat the functionaof the State were
not destroyed by .the rebellion, but
merely. suspended; and, that principle
is of course applicable to t.hoso Stutos
which, like Tennessee, attempted to re
nounce their places in. the Union.
; The notion of tho Executive Depart
ment of 'the Government upon this sub
ject has been equally , definite and uni
form, and the pu.rposo of tho ,wav. was
specifically stated in the proclamation
issued by my predecessor on tho 22d
day of September, 1HC2. - It was then
solemnly proclaimed nnd declarod that
"hereafter; as heretofore, the war , will
be prosecuted for the object of practi
cally restoring the constitutional rela
tion between the-United Stales, and
each of the Stales. and tho people
thereof, in which' Stntes that relation
is or may be suspended or disturbed,"
X lie recognition ot the htate oy tho
Judical Department of the Government
has also bcen-wear-and conclusive in
ult proceedings ntlHtiriVlhern a States,
had in the' Supreme, Circuit and Dis
trict Courts.' ' ' v; . ,
' In, th o admission of Senators 'and
Representatives from' "any 'and :alV of
the States,' there can he no jnst ground
of apprehension that person -who !are
disloyal will be clothed with the powers
of'iegislation; for this eonldriot hnppeiv
when the Constitution and tho-laws-nru
enforced by' a vicfilant and faithful
Congress.1 Kach ilonso is mnde
"iudtro' of the elections, returiis and
qualifications of 1 its onVu" own tnem
bers," and may,'trith the concurrence
of twO-thirds-, expell a Ynember.?' lAVhen
a Senator or IteprcseTitntivei' present
his certificate of election, ha -may at
once be admitted torrojet ted; or should
there'be anv nucstion as to bis elicibih
ity, hi crederitials inay be referred for
investigation to the appropriate oom
mittee. , If admitted ' to' a seat, il
must be upon evidence satisfactory to
the House of which' he thus becomes a
member, that he possessed the reqnisito
constitutional and legal qualifications.
If refused admission as a inembee for
want of due nlletrianee to the Govern
ment, and returned to his constituents,
(Uj aro sdinonialwsd that non bnt.
thajcrnuient stroug. we uako;t weak.Its
If error fyyal the t UnHo
'.States will
the politi
co of Con"
trted in? the
o allowed a voice in ti
Councils of the Natioria
cnl powcrnrd moral- -iiflu'
grcss are thus effectively'
interests of loyal tu to. the Uovcrnmcnt
and fidelity to the Union, t. Upon this
question, so vitally affecting, the. resto
ration 6i tho Union and' (ho permifncy
1 of our present form of government,
hTTPOTif letton,""he7Tttrbr -cxriressed,
have undergone nochslige) but, on tho
contrary, their correctness has been
confirmed, by reflection and , time. If
the admifcoions of loynl members .to
seats in the respective .Houses of Con
gress wns wise nnd Expedient a Tear
ago, it is no less wise and expedient
now. If . this anomalous 'condition is
right now if, in the exact' condition'
of theso States at the present time, it Is
lawful to exclude them from represen
tation, I do not sec that the question
will be changed by. the efllux of time.
Ten years hence, if (hese States remain
ns they are, tho right of representation
will bo no stronger the right of ex
clusion will bo no weaker. , ; "
'. The Constitution of the United Slates
makes it the duty of the President to
recommend to the consideration ' of
Congress "such measures as he shalf
juilgc necessary or expedient." I know
of no measure moro imperatively de
manded by .every consideration of na
tional iutersst. sound policy nnc) equal
justice,, than the admission of loyal
members from the now unrepresented
Stntes. This would consummate t!.e
work of restoration, and exert a most
salutary influence in the re-establish-mcnt
of peace, hai muny,and fraternal
feeling. It would tend greatly to re
new the confidence of. the American
people in the vigor and . stability of
their institutions. It would bind us
more closely ns a nation, nnd enable us
to show to the woild the inherent and
recuperativo power of a Government
founded upon tho will of the people,
and'cbtablishcd, upon the principles of
liberty, justice and .intelligence. Uur
increased strength and enhanced, pros
perity would irrcfragablv demonstrate
the I'm lacy of the . arguments ngainst
free institutions drawn from our recent
national disorders by the enemies of
republican government. . The admis
sion of loj'al members from the. States
now excluded from .Congress, by allay -
ining doubt and apprehension, would
turn capital, now awaiting an opportu
nity for investment, into the channels
of trade and industry. ,lt would alle
viatotho present troubled condition of
tho6o States, and, by. inducing. emigra
tion, hiu in me seuiement ot icrtiie re
gions now uncultivated, and leud to an
increased production pf those, staple
which have, added so greatly to the
wealth of thp nation, nnd, Uieoinmcrce
of, the world. jNoiy, fieds of enterprise
would be opened to , our progressive
people, and soon the devastations of
war would be repaired, and all traces
of our domestic differences' effaced from
tho minds of our countrymen.' ' " '
" In our efforts to preserve "the tihity
of (jovcrnrni nt ' which constitutes us
one people," by restoring tho Stntes io
the condition which they held prior fo
the rebellion wc' should be cautious,
lest, liuving rescued our nation ! from
perils of threatened disintegration,'1 wc
resort to consolidation, 'and in the end
absolute despotism, ns 'a remedy1 for
tho recurrence of similar troubles'.
Ihe war havingterminated.'and 'with
its occasion for the exercise 6f pow-
of doubtful 'constitutionality,' we
should hn1en to bring legislation' with-
in the boundaries prescribed J bv : the
onsiumion, una xo return to the jtn
cicnt landmarks established by 1 our
fathers -for 'the guidance of succeeding
generations. "The Constitution which
at auy time .exists, until changedby
an explicit and authentic act of tiio
whole people, is .wi ldly obligatory
uou all.?' ."ItVin opinion of the, peo
ple, the distribution or niodilication of
the constitutional powers jbe, ;nt any
pnrticular, wrong, let it be eorietod
by un tmendmeiit in the yay n which
the Constitution: designates,, liut .Jet
there be uo change by usurpation; fur".,
'it is the customary ,weapon,by which
freo. Governuionts. are destroy ed.V
Washington spoke. these words to.; his
countrymen, wiicu, followed .by .(hoir
love and gratitude he voluntarily :.re:
tired from tho care of public life. ..fTo
keep in all iluiigs within ,tho , pale of
onr. constitutional powers, and .cherisl,.
the Federul Union, as the only. rock, of
suleiy,": were prescribed , by Jetlerson
as rules of action lo:, endnar , to his
counirymon, tbeiiUue .principlus, of,
ineir i onsutution, and prounlft a uijjou
of sent iiaent and action, ..equa.!)-, uu,
epicious to their Jinnniuess and safftv."
Jackson, b .dt hat the action . of the
Ueutinl.Uovermucut I)ul4- always be
btrictly eonfmod to the sphere ofjiu
appiopiato duties, and justly and forci-t
bly urged that our Government is not
to be maintained nor pui, .Union, pre?
Served-'.' by- iuvasjuns ofthc. rights nd
powors ot tW several States. , , In thim
uMi.riMil.irt if fr ntalrA rtni. I - . , . . . I 1
true stiepgth consists ip leaving , indf.,
viduujs.aud Statea as much, as posBiblt'
to tlieiuscd.vs; jit making itsolf licii.,'.not
in .its power, but hr Hs bonificsnce; jiot
in, its control bu.t.jnits prvitectiou'.not
in binding the States moro closelyi to
the center, but leaving each , to., uiove
uncubatructed. m its proper consutullou
al orbit.Vi -ThesOiar the , teaclunffs of
tuon whoso. dd and , services . have
made them illustrious, and who,, "lon
sincoi withdrawn from th scejips (jf liu
tujve left to Uieir country the j,-it;hlvg
cy of their example, their jsdoiij and
their patriotiam. Drawing fresl in,,
piration from their .lesson,' let -w em
alatu tlrcm in love of country and rea
pM t foa Ilia Constitution aud tho lsws,
Tlt report of the S-rtarT of' (n
Treasury affords mnc,h information
respecting the rcr.nue. nd commerce
of the country. J f is (views fnpon tho
cUrrenoy,. and tv ill; reference to a prop
er adjustment pf our IcVenjje system,
internal us well as impost, are com
mended to the careful consideration of
Congress. In my last annual message
) Icxprneed riyj gxperalf views' upon
tlcse subjects. 1 need how only tall
altsiaioiuto-tlio Duccssity.oiLcArryjng .
into every department of tho Govern
ment a system of r:gid accountability,
thorough retrenchment, and wise econ
omy. With no exceptional nor uuusual
expenditures, the oppressive , burdens
of taxation can be Jessenod by such n
modincaiion ot our : revenue laws ns
will bo consistent with the public faith
and the legitimate and nccccssnry
wants of the Government.
The report presents 'a much more
satifactory condition of our finances
than ono year Ago the most sanguine
could have anticipated. 'During the
fiscal year ending the' !Oth of June,
1SC5, tho lust year,of the whi',' the pub
lic debt Wan increased 5941.002,53'
nnd on theSNt day of October, 18(15. it
amounted to 52,7:50.65 1,S50. On the
31st day of October, l&GG, it had been
reduced to $2,551,310,00(5. the dimunl
tion, durirtga period of fourteen months,
commencing September 1, ' 19(i5, and
endiiif October 31st, lHfiC. having been
?20(i,.'!79,5C5., , In the last' annual re
port on theslnte of tho finances It Was
estimated that during tho three quar
ters of the fiscnj year ending tho 30th
of June Inst, tho debt would he increas
ed 5112.191,917. .During thitl period,
however, it was reduced 531,19(5,387,
the receipts ofthc ycur having been
SS9, 905, 905 n.'-m, .and the expendi
tures 5200,529,235 less thnn the esti
mates. Nothing could mo e , clearly
indicate than theso statements tho ex
tent and availibility of the national re
sources, nnd the rapidity and safety
with .which, under our form of govern
ment, greut military nnd naval estab
lishments cau bo disbanded, and ex
penses reduced from a war to a pence
footing ; , . ,
Dui mg the fiscal yenr ending the
30th of J une. 186(5, the receipts were
5 5 5 3,032,(520, nnd the expenditures
5520,750,1)40, leaving an available , sur
plus of 537,281.(580. It is estimated
that the receipts for , tho fiscal year
ending the 30th of June, 18(57, will bo
5475,0(51,30. and that Iheexpcnditures
will reach life sum of 531(5,428,078,
leaving in the Treasury a suiplus of
158.C33,30H, For thc'flscnl yeur end
ing June 30, 18(5, it U'ehtimntcd that
the reclpts will amount to5436,000,doo,
and that ' the expenditures -will be
$350,2 17.(14 1 showing- -an' excess of
5S5;752,3.rn in Javorof the Government.
These estimated receipts' fnnv 1 bo' di-
minisnca i.y a reduction ot excise and
import duties; but after ' all ' netessarv
rrtductioiis shall have been :mad ' the
revenue ot the present and of the fol
lowing years will doubtless be sufiirient
to cover all 'legitimate thirL'cs nnon
the Treasury, und leave n htrgenni.unl
surplus to ue applied to the
of the jirincipHl of the debt
J ' 'There
seems noto bo" no gdod reason why
taxes may hot be reduced as the conn
try advances in population and wealth,
and yet the debt be extinguished with
in the next quarter of a century
The report of'lhe Secretary "of War
furnishes valuable nnd important'' in-
lormnuon rn TcMcrcnee
tO ' t llO flhlTB
tions of hi.-r Department during tho past
;year. ' Few-Volunteers now remain : in
the scrwee,' nhd XWy-arti1 iioiiig ' dis
chnrccd ns rapidlv ns thev can bi"' ro
oiaccu oy rcgninr troops. t lie army
has been promptly paid; carefully -provide!
with 'medical 'treatment, well
sheltcred'nnd subsisted, and m to bo
furnish.nl with : breach-loading . small
'- Tbc militrtr : strenirtlr of the)
nntioh bus been lininVrxiircit ' liv! tlw.
discharge bfyoluntCei's, the disposition
oi unserviceable or , penshftble stoves,
nnd tlie retrem-hthent 'of -exivehditure,1
Sufiiolent waf:mtiteria1 ' to weut ' any
emergency has been retained, nnd,
from thediabanded voluntccrsstanding
ready to .respond, to. the national, call,
largo afinie-. cniibo, ridly oigaiiizvd,
equipped, ant) concentrated.. , 'J-'ortlfit
cutions. Diy the.cjnist a;id frontier have
mi ivior are . ueing,. prepared ,,jor
ijh.i- jjovycrful, aniuiincntsJukV, sur;,
voyn an4 harbor, and, . r.) vc.fi. iinprove
lKu.rit ji are in course pf c.nefgetio, prose-tuti5'u-1,
rrepurations:have.(beh made
ftir.lUo, .pnymont of the,' additional
;bQuntics..initjiorj?ed diiriug the recent
seshi,on of Congress, under,. iuch '( ,regu
lations as. wjfl protect, tb9 Government
ii-oin iruuu, iii.j secuvc. iQ 111,0 nonora-.
bly discharged sadief the ' well'farncd
reward, of his ., faithfulness , and
gallantry,, Jlpfo , than six thousand
.,.1.1: 1 . . i.r. 1 .'
iu:iiiiii-u .uiuiura iii e , ri;ei-C' imM"
figiaJ limVt or other surgical apparatus,
and ; forty-one national ceiue.tapes,
containing, th vcmnips o) 104,52G,.Un,
ipi) soldiers, bve ialveadyeen , estab;
lished, ... Tho total, estimate, of military
api)ro)iitipps is 525,205,0(59. ,
ii i aiaieu, in ine rcpori-oi mo oeo
rtjtary t the Kavy that the havnj force
at tins tjme consists of , ..two , jiundred
nd soventy-eight, yessels, armed witl)
two thousand threo liuudretj ,nnd Cty
one guns. 7 Of these, one Jiundre,, and
fjltecn vessels, .currying ,pne thousand
and twonty-ninguns, ro in , cinifiNr
sipn, distributed chiefly, .among, 6)vep
squadrons, .The nuinbor of men, in
the ourvice is ; thirteen tboiisuud six.
hundreds. Great activity and. yig; lance
navg neon Qispiuycdpymithe, eipiad
,ionsv6ul their niovements )uwe ;,neeo
judiciously and effipiently .arranged in,
such, m.itnncr '. would,, best promote
Anierioun oommorce; und proU-ct . the
rights and interestsol our courjtryrnen
abroad, , :Tho yessols vnomijjo.vedi ,are
ninUrgoiug j't pairs, or .ttre Jaid up uu,
til their rTic mur t- rsqured.--
Host of the iron clad fleet is at Lesgiie
sland, in. the vicinity of I'hilsdclphia,
plat e tt'hicli, until decisive action
should bo taken by Contrress. wns
lected by the Secretary of the Navy as
the 'most eligible location for thntclnss
of vessels. It is ini ports nt that a suit
able public station should be provided
for the iron-clad fleet. It is intended
that theso vessels shall be fit 'proper
condition for any emergency, and it is
desirable " that" Hie'" oifl "accepting
Deagoe Island fat naval 'pni-pores,!
wnicn passed tno itouse ot Jtcpresen
tatives at its Inst session, should receive
final action at an enrly period, in order
thAt'there nisy ' be' a suilable' pnblio
station for this class 'of vessel,' ns well
ns 11 navy-yard of area sufficient for
the wants of the service, on the Dela
ware river. The aval Pension fund
amounts to 511,750,000, having been
incrensed 52.750,000 during the year.
The expenditures of the Department
for 1110" fiscal year ending 30th of June
Inst Were $43,324,520, nnd the estimates
fbrthe coming year amount to 523,
508,436. Attention is invited to the
condition of our seamnn. and the im
portance of legislative measures for
their relief and improvement. Tho
suggestions in behalf of this deserving
class of our fellow-countrymen are
earnestly recommended to the favora
ble attention of Congress. ' v '
The report of the Tostmnster Gene
ral presents a most satisfactory condi
tion of the postal service, and submits
recommendations which deserve the
consideration of Congress. The reve
nues of the Department for the year
ending June 30, 1806, were 514,380,980
and thoexpenditurcs 815,352,079, show
ing an excess of the later of 5905,093. -In
anticiputian of this deficiency, how
ever, a special appropriation wns made
by Congress in the act npprovod July
28,18(50. Including the standing ap
propriation of 5700,000 for free mail
matter, tin a legitimate portion of tho
revenues yet remaining unexpended,
thenctunl deficiency for tho past yenr
is only 52(55,09:1 a sum -within 551,
112 of the nmount estimntod in the
annual report of 180 1. 'The decrease
of revenue compared with the previous
year wns one and one-titth per cent.,
and the increae of expenditures, owing
prineipnlly to the enlargement of the
mail service in the South, was twelve
per bent.--"On the 30th of June 'last
there wcro in- operation six thousand
nine'hundred and thirty mail routes,
with an nggrcgnte length of one hun
dred and eighty thOnsnhd nino hun
dredand twenty-one miles, an aggro
gate annual trnnsportntion of seventy
one 'million eight hundred and thirty
seven thonsnnd nino hundred and four
teen tniles, and an aggregate annunl
cost, including all expenditures;, of 58,
410,184. The length of railroad routes
is thirty-two thousand and ninety -two
miles, and the annual, transportation
thirty million six hundred and nine
thousand four hundred and sixtyscven
miles, i Tho length ofstesmboat routes
is fourteen .'.thousand - three hundred
and forty -pix miles, nnd , thp annual
transportation, thres million four hun
dred and eleven ahousand nine hun
dred and sixty two miles, The mail
service is rapidly iucronsing throughout
the whole country, nnd its steady ex
tension in the Southern States indicates
their constantly improving , condition.
The growing importance of the foreign
ttervicn nlso i merits , attonliou. The
Post Office Department of Great Brit
tain and our own have, agreed upon a
preliminary, basis for a new Postal
Convention,, which it is, bcliovv'd ..Tvill
proe eminently beneficial to the com
mercial interests of the "United Slntos,
inasmuch as itconteniplates a rod uction
of the international letter,, post ago. ..to
one-half the existing rates; a reduction
oi postago wita another countries j to
and itroin win civ correspondence ,is
transmitted tu the Bfiltih mailV or in
olosud mails tVongh the United JCing
dom; the" establishment of uniform, and
reasonable charges; fori: tho.; sen, ; and
territorial tranait-of 'corrcspondenro,in
closed mails; nnd an allowance to each
Post Office Department of the right to
use all mnilcommuiiicatiohse'stablishud
under tho authority of tin,' other for
the despatch of correspondence, either
.in pen. or close in'nils, oh ' tlVo aaniq.
terms fis those nppficabto to tho'inhab-t
Hants of thew' country providing' the
means of transmission. " .'.' ' " 1 : 1
TJio report ?f he Secretary1 of the
Inferior 'exhibit the condition Of those
branches , ;f the pi'iblic service ' whch.
are committed , td ' his ' suiiervision.
puring the last fiscal yenr. four million
si' hundred and tw'cntv-hrne thousand
three hundred . and twelve 1 acres of
riublic land were disposed of, ouej mil
ion elcht '. iiundS-L-d 'and nlnetv-two
thouBuud five hundred' and ' nixteea
acres of wtych vero' entered 'under' the
bome'stead rc.' Tlio' policy,' originally
indopted rrI)itlyo t,6, ''the ;pub!ic ' lancfs
nail jUn al gOi(0 pssentiai, mouuicinnuiv
Iinmc'dinte fevenuci'" and 'hit " tit err'
rapid . eettlement.' ' v asv' tho '' enffli'nal
feature of our lund syntehi.", liOpt ex
perience and earnest discussion have
resulted' in tho conviction, that'' the
early dcYcloptnoiit f our agricultural
resources,! aii() the difl'uston'of an' eper
getip population' over our1 vast territory,
are objects of far greater importance
to.tiie national growth anf' prosperity
than tlio proceediof ,th6 sale of tho
land to, tlie ..highest bidder ' ln'open
market. . The pre-emption laws confer
i upon the pioneer ' who .complies .with
1.1 . i' -.1 ... f Sl . L !J.!1,.... J
(tne terpis inoy impose tno privueg-j
purciasing a limited portion or "un
ffered Iands'Vat tho,(ininijnurrt'p-ico.
The , homestead, - .actrnents' relieve
tne seiner jrom uie paymuut, yi i
charo monevi and secure him a perma-
non home, upon the, condition of resi
dence for nternvof vears. x. This libornl
'policy inv i t VniTiJfrti'T n-ota tnrnM,
Jl 1..11L..SS!
'.$nd frorq tbe jmoro vrowded; portioaa
1 Of the new worlJ. Its propitious' re
, j suits are undoubted, and will be more
signally in. LiiiiWU-d when time -shall
have given to it wider, development.
Congress has made liberal grants of
public land to corporations, in aid of,
the construction of rnUrnnd and rthr
internal ' "improvements. Should this1
polity hereafter provail,more stringent
faithful application-of the-fund. The"
title to the lands shonJd not pass, by
pntent 6r otherwise, but remain in the
uoverninont, and sutiject to its control
until some portion of the road has been
actually built. Portions of them might
then, l'ioni timotto time, be, coilveyed
to -the corporation, but never in a
greater ratio tor the : Svh'ole ' quantity
embraced by tho grant than the com-(
plcted parts bear to the entire length '
of the projected improvement, 'his
restriction would not "operate to the
prejudice of any undertaking conceived
in good faith and executed with rens
onnblo energy; as it is tho settled prac
tice to withdraw from market tho lands
falling within - the- operation -of - such
grants, and tluiso exclude the incep..
Hon of a snbsequent adverse righttt A'
breach of Hie conditions 'which' Con
gress may deem proper to impose should
work a forfeiture of claim to the lands
so withdrawn but nncoveyod, and of
title to tho Winds conveyed which fe-i
main unsold. '
Operntions n the severnl linesof the
Pacific Hailrond have been" prosecuted
with unetampled vigor and success.
Should no unforseen causes of delay
occur, it is confidently anticipated that
this great thoroughfaro will be com
pleted before the ' expiration of the
period designnted by Congress. '
During the last fiscal year the amount
paid to pensioners, including the et
penscsof diHburscment,wnsli3,4.V.l,9'.0;
and 60,177 names wcro added to the
pension rolls. The entire number of
pensioners. June J'.O, 1806, was 126,722.
The fact furnishes melancholy and
striking proof Of the sacrifices made to
vindicate tho constitutional authority
of the Federal ' Government, and to
maintain inviolate tho integrity of the
Union. They impose upon us corre
sponding obligations. It is estimated
that 5:R00iI,P()i will be required to
meet the exigencies of- this branchof
the serxico during the next fiscal year.
Treaties' have been concluded with
the Indians who, enticed ' into arfned
opposition to our Government at the
outbreak of the rebellion, havo uncon
ditionally submitted to out authority,
nnd manifested an carnest'desire fora
rcncwhl of friendly relations. ; :
During the year ending September
30; 1806, 8.T10 patents for. useful inven
tions and designs wore issued, and at
that date the balance in the Treasury
to the credit of tho Pntent ' fund wns
5228,207.' ' ; i : i
' Asa Bubjoct upon'wliich depends' an
immense nmount of the production and
commerce of the dountry, I recommend
to Congress such legislation as may be
necessary for the preservntion of the
levees ot tho Mississippi rircr.' ' It !a a
mattor of nntional importnnce that
eHrly steps should be taken not only to
add to the efficiency of these barriers
ngninst destructive inundations, but for
the removal of , all obstructions to the
free and ssfe nHvigntion of that groat
cha'ttnel of trade nrid coinnibrco. ' ;
Tire 'District nfCulumhl niuliT existing
luw, f? ,rit eiiiiiUil to llmV rcprrei)'l'a lion' in
ili. Nst joiml (Jmnicilii winch,, (roi'ii pnr ' ear
lini hisloty, lis been uni'i.rmly occoitkO ' lo
fui Tutriiory oib!i!icd iroia time to liuo
wiiliin oui ninits., , lr ninintainr peculiar ro
Intions to CnngrrM.lo whom the Cenititutkiii
ling grunted the power ct exflroisinpf ' exeltuire
1eilliin cvtrllio scat of govrrnmsnt. .'- Our
rdlow-cil !r.-i.8 rcsi.lin l-i the Dintript, wliMo
ii.tercHti iiro iliua coi filnl to Hie f pec In I gnsr
dia'r.Miin i ofi'Coiigrsw, i xci-ej in nuuihcr ' tlio
populaViQii. of several ol our Turritorirs, , nnd
no just reaia i perceived wl)V dulogolo of
lUuir choice-Jipu pot be admitted to a. lest
in tlio lltvmj it nearoKQiitstives.,-; No mods
seems to appioiiriat and tfl -olool of enabling
them lo niwke. kiii'W.U Uifcir jieetilinr. C dioii
And wunis, am) ef waurii tlin lo;ali lrgUi
lion fliliipU'd to tliant;' I Ihorefure cctimmrnd
t'lie'paMi'ije of u Usuthoriziiig tlic''.'leet'ors
'til 'the Difltrlol of '(lofuinhia'. to' eiiooce S i!elc
to ho allowed th CHurne righlsVnfl brlvi
leges U UIJK' .rvj" ttl ul "' H, icriliuri.
l!he iuprsasing enjifrprise anil .apiif ' p'fogrril
qf iinjjiovainent jii, ihe ..'tiist,! jet , ars ,liia1ily
grtifyini, and .Urns t til (be ,ftotm (if -.llie
npinic-ipul: a.utlmrilieii lo prrmiQlt! the rojer.
ity of tliu national metropolis will rcoirtlie
flTieiqnt an7 eiiortSiri "S -bCriillon of Cuu-
"?' ' 1. I-ii-i.!..! r .' . T
( .'flioi'po'tj.of tliu,.Cotnniitisiiiier t-l Agri
culiura rfvicws .tifl,operi.Di of Lii pepart-
incnt during )liq-iu.t year., nnd suits - the i; aid
of .'CoBgri's .lu Its ( tlorUloj tnQourAg ;! tboaa
Btnlci whiclii'sotitireej b' war, uru now earn
etly rngsged ih the rcorgaulxstiju of dbmei
tie'iuQustry;'- ';' ' "!; ' ". t.J
J(7fls inl)jct of' congritutalhw 'tHuf no
foreign' coiniiinuitbii ai;aint:' bar - ljme8tio
pence mi.l sjifuiy, or ovr le'uimalo ' tufTuc-DC
among tlo uatious, hsvo been '('irined or( t-U-mpttd
,,Vjilf fcotinieot pi. reconciliation,
kyaltf pud patuiotisiu !; jnorcaicd at Lomer
a mora jiul. consideration ' of our ' rational
character and righit hal baa nianifvttrd by
foreign Bttlin. 'I ' Ir-I-'' i.'i-i..
' 'The entire suecesS oi the ' Atlsnt ic1 'Tele
graph bctweo tlie coast ol IreUtid 'ami'- ths
rrbYlnod p( S'ewfonudlnnd, lHi,' Wchirtieut
which has be'erTjuidjf ' celobrateil ili "both
heniiphre a tl) ppeping pf. ap cranio the
progress ol eijiHi tta ,Ther i , reasu to
expect tst equal iboci-bi will st'snd, sud even
greater isbulis (olbr, the enterprise for : cou
tieetiej the t Contineittc thrHigli .tlie .' !
eifi.; Oc-poii l-jr t'.ie prc.wvlwl llutt ol ttlefrau'a

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