Even In Darkest Africa The Natives
Have Tax Problems, Missionaries Say
Returning to a land where polyg
amy is practiced, taxes are based on
the number of wives a native has,
pygmies are prevalent and decompo
ed meat serves as money, Mr. and
Mrs. Henry Seneff are leaving here
this week to resume their work at a
mission station in the heart of Dark
Mrs. Seneff was formerly Miss Lil
lian Welty of this place, daughter of
John Welty, of Cherry street, where
she and her husband have been visit
ing for the past week.
Working under the African Inland
mission, Mr .and Mrs. Seneff are lo
cated in the highlands of Belgian Con
go, deep in the African interior.
Surprisingly enough tax problems
largely are the bane of the otherwise
carefree natives in the vicinity of the
mission where the Seneffs are located.
Tax Problems For Natives
Heavy taxes are levied on all na
tives by the Belgian government.
Those unable to pay must work on
the roads. Since the African native
is inherently lazy and shuns work as
much as possible he rarely has money
when taxes fall due, hence works on
the roads is a common occurrance for
most tax payers.
The trait, however, has enabled the
Belgian government to proceed with
a very ambitious road program. Of
some 15,000 miles of government
roads in Belgian Congo, more than
one-third are suitable for autos.
The main tax levied by the Belgians
is the ‘‘hut tax,” which represents
about 50 Belgian francs per year.
The exchange rate of the franc is
about 30 for $1 of American currency.
This “hut tax” is levied on the head
of the household.
Belgian official also are using taxes
in an effort to stamp out polygamy,
widely practiced among the
Tax on Polygamy
is no law to prevent a
tive having as many wives
wants, consequently polygamy is com
mon, and it has been customary for
a man to have as many wives as he
An attractive wife usually has a
market price of from four to five head
head of cattle, payable to the father
of the girl. In addition, a husband
must yay one goat to the father for
each child his wife bears.
Each wife lives in a separate hut,
with the husband’s hut standing in the
center. In addition to the hut tax of
50 francs, which is levied on the hus
band’s residence, there is a smaller
tax for each wife’s hut. In attempt
ing to discourage polygamy, the gov
ernment will exempt a man from all
tax when he was only one wife and
four or more children.
Problems many times are encount
ered by the government in collection
of taxes. Within 60 miles of the Sen
small, shy people who flee at the ap
proach of strangers, especially whites.
For many years, these little people
have lived a secluded life, and now the
government is attempting
them out of the jungle, so
can be classified and taxed.
29.2 Bu, I
i per Acre
per Bu. i
ivory is sold. Other tribes trap ele
phants by digging pits, covering them
with brush and then waiting until an
elephant falls thru the opening.
Natives in the area are very black
and divided into two general classes.
One group is a finey featured as the
whites and very intelligent. Men are
tall, usually over six feet. The sec
ond group, of smaller stature, is back
No Guns Permitted
Spears are the only weapons na
tives are permitted to carry. Only on
rare occasions are natives allowed to
use guns, as the government guards
carefully against possibility of revolt.
Natives are forbidden to have
liquor, altho they make home brew
from kafir corn and bananas, a
concocton which is permitted. A very
potent native wine made from the
juice of the palm tree is banned.
Money in scarce and the natives are
not interested in it. Salt and buffalo
meat is the almost universal medium
of exchange in their dealings.
One egg usually is exchanged for
two tablespoons of salt. Meat used
in trading generally is decomposed
and infested with vermin. Despite
this it is relished by the natives. They
have a simple means of dealing with
"crawling meat.” It is placed in a
pot of boiling water, the vermin are
skimmed off when they rise to the top
and the meat is eaten.
Decomposed Meat Prized
In addition to decomposed mdhts,
the natives relish rats, cats and cater
pillars. Medical tests have disclosed
that the digestive tracts of natives
generally are infested with worms.
The mission post where Mr. and
Mrs. Seneff are located is at the ex
treme east of Belgian Congo, which
is nearly a third as large as continen
tal United States.
Altho directly on the equator, they
are in the highlands and the weather
is cool and damp. There is a rainy
season of approximately nine months,
and a dry season of three months in
the highlands. They live in practic
ally the same temperature the year
around. In the lowlands it is always
Lake Albert ,one of the largest Af
rican bodies of water is only 16 miles
from the station. Leopoldville, pro
vincial capital, is 100 miles to the
southwest, and Mombasa, seaport for
their region, is 1500 miles southeast.
Enroute to Mombasa when they left
Africa in 1938 the Seneffs traveled in
one and one-half ton truck.
mission station is the Ituri for
,the largest African jungle.
Pygmies are Shy
its depths live the pygmies,
Women pygmies usuallly
four feet in height, and
stand about five feet. A very primi
tive race, they are nomadic and ex
tremely hard to trace in the jungle.
At hunting, however, they are ex
ceedingly skillful. They kill elephants
by spearing the gigantic beats from
underneath in the abdomen. The ele
phant meat then is eaten and the
Thickly Populated Area
At the station Mr. and Mrs. Seneff
have charge of the outside work and
travel from one native village to an
other. The region si thickly populat
ed, and they touch 300 villages within
a 50 mile radius of the station. In
each of the villages is a native evan
gelist, whose work is supervised by
Some of the country the Seneffs
visit is very wild. In addition to ele
phants ,there are buffalo, leopards
and lions. Once Seneff encountered
two lions while walking in the road.
He stood perfectly still—to run would
have started the lions in pursuit—and
after surveying him curiously the an
imals turned and disappeared. Lions
will not attack human beings unless
they are hunyry or have bee wounded
Coffee and ivory are the principal
exports from the area. In their farm
ing ventures the natives raise corn,
white potatoes »nd tropical fruits.
There is a ready market for these
foodstuffs, since the Belgian govern
ment operates large gold mines in the
49 Lb. i
"King’s Palace” and Garden
GERMANS IN OHIO
German pioneers crossed
Appalachian Mountains at
The first Germans to penetrate
the Ohio country were noted for
exceptional services in Indian af
fairs, Conrad Weiser and Christian
Frederick Post. They were con
cerned not with settling the coun
try but almost entirely with mis
sionary work among the Indians.
The first German settlement was
at Columbia, now part of Cincin
nati. It was founded (1788) by
Major Benjamin Steitz, an officer
of the Revolution. By 1792 the
settlement had 1100 inhabitants.
Another early German colony
was established on the banks of
the Little Miami by Christian
Waldschmidt in 1795, near the
present postal station of Milford.
On the Upper Muskingum, the
Pennsylvania German, Ebenezer
Zane (Zahn) founded Zanesville.
To pay for his lands he contracted
to cut a pack horse trail from
Wheeling to Chillicothe to Mays
ville, Ky. Mail was first carried
over the Zane Trail in 1797. The
same year Zane laid out New
Lancaster (now Lancaster).
The first German newspaper
west of the Alleghenies, printed in
Pennsylvania Dutch, appeared in
New Lancaster in 1807.
Stephenville, named for General
district and furnishes all the food for
French is the legal language of the
province and English cannot be
taught. In English provinces where
English is the legal language the sit
uation is reversed.
Everything is in readiness for the
opening of the fall term at Bluffton
college next Tuesday, administra
tive officials reported this week,
freshman class of approximately
is expected, one of the largest
Homecoming festivities will
celebrated at the college this year
Oct. 21. The day’s celebration will
be climaxed with a night football
game between the Beavers and
Grand Rapids college.
Three alumni groups have held
meetings recently. At Columbus a
group of 50 alumni gathered on the
Ohio State campus to hear talks by
Dr. Harry Good, an instructor at the
state university, and President L. L.
Ramseyer. Last Sunday Wayne
county alumni met at Smithville.
Earlier in the summer a group of 25
alumni gathered at Cleveland.
Bluffton college football drill will
be started within the next week
under the direction of Coach A. C.
Burcky. The Beavers will open their
season this year with a night foot
ball game against Kenyon in
Lima stadium on Sept. 23.
YOU are looking forward to a profitable
grain crop next year and good clover or al
the year following, then use fertilizer high
in potash when seeding this fall. Potash in
creases yield, stiffens straw, and keeps the grain
from lodging. It improves quality by plumping
out the kernels and increasing test weight.
To insure good growth of clover or alfalfa fol
lowing grain, plenty of potash must still be avail
able in the soil. A 2-ton yield of clover hay re
quires 3 times as much potash as is needed to
produce 25 bushels of wheat 4 tons of alfalfa
need more than 7 times as much.
Use 200-400 lbs. of 3-12-12,0-12-12,0-20-20, or
similar ratios per acre for fall seedings. Often
the increased hay yields more than pay for the
fertilizers used, leaving greater profit from the
increased grain yields.
Consult your county agent or experiment station
about the plant-food needs of your soil. See your
fertilizer dealer. You will be surprised how little
extra it costs to apply enough potash to insure
good yields and high quality.
Inveetanent Building Washington. D. C.
Midwt OHi—: m. Building, Uiayotta, Ind.
Dr. Clarence O. Lehman, 1916,
been appointed president of
State Normal school at Potsdam, N.
¥., according to word received here.
Dr. Lehman had served as head of
the department of teacher training'
at the school for a number of years.
THE BLUFFTON NEWS. BLUFFTON, OHIO
LET’S EXPLORE OHIO
One of the notable of all
the Ohio German settlements was
Zoar, founded by 225 German Sep
aratists in 1817 under the leader
ship of Joseph Bineler.
The group .wchased 5500 acres
of land in Tuscarawas county. All
property was 'd in common.
The society i ained intact un
til 1898 when it disbanded and
some $2,500, worth of prop-
The Light Bear rs of the Presby
terian church met Saturday afternoon
with Franklin and Joan Mayberry
Ralph Marshal who has been a sum
mer student at 0. S. U. returned here
Friday to spend several weeks vaca
tion with his parents, Mr. and Mrs,
Miss La Donna Campbell will leave
Monday of next week for Ada where
she will attend Ohio Northern Univer
Mr. and Mrs. J. O. Cupp and dau
ghter Edythe .-pent Thursday with
Mr .and Mrs. D. W. Core in West Lib
Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Marshall re
turned home Tuesday night from a
five day visit with Mr. and Mrs. P. A.
Morse in Centralia, Ill. While there
the accompanied Mr. Morse on a bus
iness trip that took them into the
Sharecropper section of Missouri.
Mr .and Mrs. Glen Huber and fam
ily spent Thursday and Friday with
Mr .and Mrs. Perry Huber of Indian
apois who were guests in the George
Huber home near Lafayette.
Mr .and Mrs. Harry Mills and dau
ghter Mary Lou, Miss Harriet Eysen
bach, Mi. and Mrs. Oliver Brotherton
and Dan Rupert all of Delphos Mr.
Evan Soash of Bluffton and Mr. and
Mrs. Orlo Marshall and daughter Jean
enjoyed a steak roast at the Colum
bus Grove community picnic grounds
Thursday evening and spent the even
ing in the Marshall home.
Mr .and Mrs. Russell Jones of Pitts
burgh were entertained at dinner Sat
urday evening in the home of Miss
Miss Mary Marshall was a week
end guest in the home of Miss Francis
Cooney in Bluffton and attended a
picnic dinner at Riverside park in
Twenty-five members of the Farm
Bureau Youth Council of Allen County
held a meeting in the home of Mr.
and Mrs. Herbert B. Marshall last
Miss Madeline Bixel of Pandora
who spent several days the past week
with her sister, Mrs. .C. Marshall,
left Monday for Rittman where she
has been a member of the teaching
staff in th* Rittman schools for a
number of y. ars.
Mr .and Mrs. Walter Cupp and fam
ily enjoyed a steak roast at the home
of Mr. and Mrs. J. O. Cupp and dau
ghter Edytb Wednesday evening.
Among those from this vicinity who
attended the State Fair in Columbus
the past week were: Mr. and Mrs.
Edgar Begg and Don Martz, F. C.
Marshall, son Robert and Wendell
Amstutz. Mr. and Mrs. Howard Carey,
Mr. and Mrs. Glen Huber and children
Jeanette and Buddy, Mr. and Mrs.
Herbert Marshall and sons Herbert,
Jr., Ralph, Kenneth and Don, Harold
Marshall and son John, and Mr. Glen
Mayberry and son Roger.
Mr and Mrs, Stephens and family
returned from a western trip Wednes
day which took them as far as Spo
kane, Washington. Enroute they vis
ited Miss Eunice Trumbo at Council,
Idaho and she accompanied them on a
trip through Yellowstone park
The September meeting of the Pres
byterian Missionary society will be
held Wednesday afternoon of next
week in the home of Miss Enora Mar
shall. Tin following program will be
given: Worship service, Mrs. Walter
Cupp Book review, Mrs. William
Reichenbach: Topic, India, Mrs. Glen
Mayberry Year Book of Prayer, Mrs.
W .E. Marshall.
Mr. and Mrs. Otto Badertscher and
daughter Doris Jean and Mrs. Eugene
Tscheigg were in Orrville for the week
end as guests of Mr. and Mrs. Willis
Steuben, and New
were established in 1797.
Real German colonization fol
lowed the. successful Indian cam
paigns of General Mad Anthony
Wayne. Today a German township
appears in almost every Ohio
county. Towns with scriptural
names—Bethlehem, Salem, Naz
areth, Goshen, and Canaan were
chiefly settled by German Mora
vians, Dunkeis nd Amish. Ger
mans settled in Cleveland when
the Ohio Cai i v as opened. Can
ton, Massillon. Alliance and Mi
nerva were devc. by Geimans.
Their indust ri hand trans
formed the .'’side from wil
derness to rich farm lands. Their
skill and ent quickened the
development of industries.
erty was divided among the mem
bers. The “King’s Palace,” Bine
ler’s home, is now a museum out
of the jurisdiction of the Ohio
State Historical Society and is
open to the public.
garden is alsc
The Zoar flower
The first mayor
David Ziegler, was
exploits against the Indians made
him particularly beloved by early
settlers. One of the state’s mer
chant princes, Martin Baum, was
German. In 1810 he brought th
first iron foundry to the west, bui
the first Ohio sugar refineries and
established textile mills and other
a German. His
He also aided in introducing
sailboats on the Ohio, supplantin
flat and keel boats.
The Methodist preacher, Hein
rich Bohm, born in Pennsylvar
in 1775, of German pare:
preached throughout Ohio in G
man. His was the first Germ
sermon heard in Cincinnati,
September, 1808. “The village,
he wrote in his journal, “promist
to grow very rapidly. It already
has 2000 inhabitant""
Weaver and Mr. and Mrs. Jacob
Mr. and Mrs. Roy Clemens, Mr. and
Mrs. Jacob Amstutz and Junior Hoov
er and Mr. and Mrs. James Yant of
Beaverdam spent last Thursday at
The C. E. society and young peoples
class of the Presbyterian Sunday
school will hold a steak and weiner
roast at the home of Mr. and Mrs.
Edgar Begg near Columbus Grove,
Saturday evening at 6:30, as a fare
well to those who are leaving for col
lege in the next few weeks.
Mr. and Mrs. Harrison Bassett and
son of near Lima were Sunday even
ing guests in the home of
Mrs. W. E. Marshall.
and Mrs. H. O. Hilty re
turned home last Wednesday after
spending five weeks with relatives in
Washington and California.
Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Wells
son spent Friday evening at
Charles Montgomery home.
Mr. and Mrs. W. I. Moore spent
several days with relatives in Illin
ois and also attended the Moore re
and Mrs. Merton Moses and
and Mrs. Catherine Welch
Thursday afternoon at
Charles Montgomery home.
Mr. and Mrs. Harry Moore
family of Detroit spent over
week end here with relatives.
Past week callers of Mrs.
Montgomery were Mr. and
Ernest Klingler and daughter Betty,
Battles and Mrs. Merton Moses.
Zellar and daughter of Colum
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Ruggley
granddaughter, Mr. and Mrs.
Ruggley, Harry and Mildred
Past week callers of Mrs. Law
rence Hosafros were Mrs. Noah
Stewart and daughter, Hazel Henry,
Mrs. Howard Smith and Mrs. oJhn
Don Oates spent last week with
Tommy Owens of Lima.
News Want-Ads Bring Results.
A Magnificent Serial
Don’t miss a single in
stallment of ’’Prologue
to Love" as it unfolds
serially in this paper. A
dramatic, powerful tale
of love and hatred in the
mountains of British
Columbia, it is one of
Martha Ostenso’s great
est, most vital stories.
Starts Next Week
Trio Confess To
Three youths are being held in
Lima awaiting grand jury action,
after pleading guilty to charges of
armed robbery in connection with the
Aug. 21 holdup of the Blue Bell
restaurant in Beaverdam.
Arthur Detrick, 21, of near Elida,
was arrested for investigation, early
last week, and on Thursday confess
ed to the Beaverdam robbery, auth
At the same time he implicated
Paul Shaffer, 19, of Columbus, and
Woodrow McClurg, 22, of Lima.
Shaffer was arrested in Columbus,
and McClurg was seized in Lima on
his return from Michigan where he
had gone, shortly after the holdup.
Arrest of Detrick and Shaffer also
is believed to have cleared up the
robbery of a general store at Jumbo,
in Hardin county on August 18.
Charles Decker, operator of the
store, is said to have identified Det
rick, and Shaffer was later impli
In the holdup of the Blue Bell
restaurant in Beaverdam two of the
youths entered the building early in
the morning, ordered coffee and then
one of them leveled a revolver at
Miss LaVonne Beemer, the waitress.
They took all the money from the
cash register, then hid Miss Beemer
awaken the proprietor, Mrs. Leota
Peters, who was sleeping in a back
room, from whom they obtained a
larger amount. Their loot was ap
According to police Detrick and
Shaffer were the two gunmen and
McClurg sat in a taxi awaiting them
about one-half block from the res
45-Day Open Season
For Hunting Ducks
Duck bunting this fall will be per
mitted during a 45-day open season,
according to 1939 migratory bird
regulations announced last week in
In Ohio the season will open on
Oct. 22, instead of Oct. 15, as a re
sult of the new ruling.
Daily bag limit for ducks is 10,
with the possession limit remaining
at 20. When any daily limit includes
canvasback, redhead, bufflehead and
ruddy ducks, not more than three of
any one, or more than three of the
aggregate of these kinds may be
For geese and brant the daily bag
limit is four, and not more than
eight may be in possession. The
daily bag limit on coot remains at
SPEAKER AT LIMA MISSION
During the month of August the
Lima City mission provided 1046 free
meals and 297 transients received
free lodging, Adam D. Welty, sup
erintendent of the institution, re
ported this week. Rev. Clifford
Hillifield, of the Ft. Wayne Gospel
Temple, is conducting services at the
mission every night at 7:30 o’clock
this week. His stay in Lima will be
closed this Saturday with a mass
meeting in Memorial Hall.
Here’s history-making value
acclaimed the biggest, finest,
sturdiest washer for the money
since Thor built the world’s first
electric washer over 33 years ago.
Large, sanitary tub, porcelain in
side and out Thor multi-vane
Super-Agitator and approved
Free Rolling Safety Wringer
first to meet the new, rigid 1940
Safety and Efficiercy require
ments of the Underwriters Lab
Thor is a washer designed and
built to satisfy the exacting re
quirements of particular women—
women who insist on results.
It’s fast, gentle, thorough water
action will restore your clothes to
their original spotlessness with
out a trace of wear.
Stop in today and see this
THURSDAY, SEPT. 7, 1939
Change Announced In
Old Age Pension Act
Persons who were 65 years of age
prior to January, 1937, may now be
come fully insured under the amend
ed social security act, it was an
nounced last week by William A.
Ashbrook, manager of the Old Age
Insurance Bureau field office in
Previously such persons were ex
cluded from monthly benefit pay
ments, but with the passage of
amendments it now is possible for
them to become fully insured.
To qualify for insurance benefits,
such workers must earn at least $50
in each of six different calendar
quarters after January 1, 1939.
The wages of individuals who re
main at work in commerce or indus
try after reaching the age of 65 are
now subject to the same payroll de
ductions and taxes as those of
younger workers. Taxes will be col
lected back to Jan. 1 of this year.
After becoming fully insured in
dividuals under the amended act, the
workers will be entitled to monthly
benefits when they retire from em
A number of friends and relatives
gathered at the home of Mr. and
Mrs. John Chidester Sunday to help
celebrate the birthdays of Gerald
Chidester, Mrs. Guy Eikenbary and
Jean Chidester. Their birthdays oc
curred on the first, second and third
The ocasion was celebrated with
a basket dinner at noon on the
Among those present were: Mr.
and Mrs. Sam Balmer, Mrs. Solo
mon Steiner and sons, Mr. and Mrs.
Gerald Chidester and daughters, Mr.
and Mrs. Oliver Steiner and son,
Mr. and Mrs. John Nonnamaker and
son, Mr. and Mrs. Guy Eikenbary,
Mr. and Mrs. John Kieffer, Mr. and
Mrs. Kenneth Chidester and son,
Miss Sarah Amstutz, and the host
and hostess Mr. and Mrs. John Chid
MUNSON R. BIXEL, M. D.
Office Hours: 8:30-10 A. M.
1-3 P. M. 7-8 P. M.
Office, 118 Cherry St.
Phone 120-F Bluffton. O.
Melville D. Soash, M. D.
The Commercial Bank Bldg.
D. C. BIXEL, O.D.
GORDON BIXEL, O. D.
Citizens Bank Bldg., Bluffton
Savings & Loan Bldg., Ada
Francis Basinger, D. D. S.
Evan Basinger, D.D. S.
I’m telling all
about my new
Basinger's Furniture Store
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