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Farm and Household.
Farm and Household. Salt as a Fertilizer.
WftT in it fht Jarmrrt differ ;
i- .V- . .lew M to the rfflprr
ftnd innmr of me p.i.
VI lis 1 1 V I II HI " t it.
..it a a manure T
Hclcnr nd theory have lor ilnec
rloarly domonrtrotcd that It murt by bono
n.,ii ,,.,i.r orrtAln condition" nd In
tain it tuition.: pracUoe (lrm)n(itnit hat
it hm boon nd L proflubto ripplicat Ion
nndor certain rendition and on some wills,
when applied atctrtaln interval and t mr-a.
8o.no f our best and moat l-ract pal,
fanner, have tried unit applied in vnrlotis
quantities, to yarloui cmp, with complete
bucom; other, cpially practicn 1. have
tried it, and aftiT obUintnfC no bum-tit from
h, condemn It as a hunibujr.
Fortunate it in for o, who expect to
tain knowledge from the experience of
others, that wience and nolentilic Birrlcul
tdrisU can reeonrllo theso apparently
opposite facts. Before proceeding further
to tho lnveilirntlon into the cause of these
failures, I wih to lay down four axioms,
' Til : Ht, That th ashes left after tho
bnrnlne; of a plant. Is composed of tho In
oriranie part or aoi! food of the plant ( 2d,
That this food or lnorpnic part can only
Ih! olilnlned from the soil, or through It by
the application of some manuro or fertil
izer; :M, That this inorganic food con
stats of from ten to twelve Inorganic sub
stances; 4th, That each ipoclua of plant,
in order to sccuro a full crop, must have
its proper amount in each substance, and
wilL no matter how much may exist In
the soil, appropriate but little or. no more
than its particular portion. Keeping these
facts in remembrance, let us investigate
some of the causes which led to these fail
ures, all of which, had we a fair and exact
analysis of the soil, could bo accounted
We know that salt is composed mainly
of chlorine and soda, both of which enter
into the composition of all or nearly all
plants and grains. Now, soils may con
tain enough of both chlorine and soda, in
some other form, to supply tho wants of
the plants, as for Instance, chlorldo of linio
or sulphate of soda. In this caso, accord
fntg to our fourth axiom, the application
of salt would produco Utile or no scnslblo
.Mont II nn t iA ntlmr liaml t lin anil
should contain too small a portion of
chlorine or soda to supply tho wants of
the plant, the application of salt would
produce a good elleet.
Home three or four years ago one of my
neighbors concluded to try salt as a top
dressing for oats, and applied It broadcast
before tho drill, at tho rate of two and one
half bushels per aero over nearly all his
field, and found that it increased the grain
both in yield and weight and tho straw
was brighter, making better winU-r prov
ender. This satisfied him thnt salt was a
good application for oats ; and in order to
see whether it was good for wheat, he gave
tho field another top-dressing of salt, at
mo rate ot two bushels per acre. At liar-
....., 1.- ...... 1.1 .1...-.. .:i- i ..
lri-a nu i-uuiu uL'icci uo uiucrcnee uciwocn
the crop on the portion to which tho salt
was applied, and that which had no other
stimulant than farmyard manure. He had
made a great discovery, viz : that salt was
good for oats, but bail for wheat. Such
conclusion Is just tho reverse of tho facts
as ascertained by careful experiment, for
salt has always been found more beneficial
to wheat than to oats. Perhaps your
readers will ask, why then was It bo In his
case f Simply because ho fell into tho er
ror, too common among those who apply
concentrated manures or fertilizers : liud
ing that one application was good, ho con
cluded that another of tho same substance
would produco a like effect. Wo must re
member that the amount of any one inor
ganic substance removed bv ono Binglo
crop is comparatively small, henco ono
npplictiticatiou may supply enough for tho
wants of several successive crops, and of
course tho second application would pro
duce no effect until tho first was entirely
exhausted. This is not only truo with
salt, but also of phosphate of limo, guano,
ttc., but as these two stimulants rmilnln a
greater variety of inorganic, matter.
not so soon cease to show any apparent
actum of tho crops. In many cases ono
dollar's worth of salt will produce a great-
increase in the crop than two or three
times this amount expended in sonn-other
There are other considerations which tn.
fluence more or less the success or failure
of an application of common salt. Wo
know that in tho salt marshes near tho
seashore only particular classes of vogeta-
n in uourisii, allowing mat some par
iiruinr prouucxa ot ino sou aro more
benefitted by salt than others, and so it is
with our cultivated crons. for althomrh nil
of them contain a portion of the Inorganic
substances which composo .common salt,
yet some contain and require much larger
amounts than others, and if tho supply is
ii up, wui sooner exhaust the sou.
If common salt only benefited tho crop
by tho direct inorganic food which It fur.
lushed, wo could easily ascertain what
i-rupn wouiu oe most likely to bo benefited
by it ; but tho salt acts iu other ways. If
salt is applied to soil rich in other alkaline
substances, it causes a change to take
place among them, and thus benefits the
crop,wnuout actually entering into tho
circulation of the nlitiiL
In order to show tho effect produced by
common salt, I will make a few extracts
from a list, containing thu result of several
rAMciuuc.mn, wiitcn i uavo beloro me.
When applied at the rate of ono hundred
and sixty pounds to wheat, it increased
the yield of grain four hundred nud sev-
cniy iwo pounds per acre, at a cost of
niiecn cenu per bushel, and tho grain
weighed two pounds moro per bushel.
nen applied to barley at tho rato ot
luree hundred pounds per acre, it increased
tiieynld six and a half bushels per acre.
But theso experiment must not tin tab on
M a certain index of tho action of salt
upon luese crops, lor iu effect upon dif-
lereni sous is by no means regular, and
,u".t 11,11 '"y e ascertained by ex
penment; but there aro lew soils which
are not benefited by it. Sabwiklu, in
Sowing Good Seed.
As vb sow so shall ye reap," was never
more truo than to-duv. Crop after crop
Haying been taken from our fields without
tuuiuiem application of manuro, the cle
ments of fertility lw..w, ... i,.,,,i
. , J ' ' 1 ' v I'll. ' J VAunuo,'
co., ana we cannot afford to have those
elements still remaining consumed by the
growth or weeds or poor grain. Soino
think that Providence put weed-seeds in
the ground at the creation, and man can
never get thosn out ; but it is certain that
he has got many kinds out in soue locali
ties, and whether it is interfering with the
irealor s d m it !,. .v,..i - ." .
. . .y WeeJ Ulat Rrws in our wheat
w a boarder consuming flKd wliioh It has
rarneu and will never pay for. Why
wit that the corn crop is as good now
tn all parts of th ..ni,i..7nn.i in
parts of New England it his been better
fnTil . 1 fn t,Ln and the quality is
fully as good now as it ever was but this
JUL Uu of olher P'n I "'ink this is
IDS and nrennrln.t i. i r
,.,' .1 V " ecu mr uur cum-
J , T ;t?lar btCHUse have been able
UtFM earlitst ripened, and
plumpest kernels for seed.
'Wjli? lkiaity .f Ikndolpu. Vt . many
7VU'C v "le increased eflort for
.overal years to sow nnt i..,....
'.rliest rlne'ned kernels of
ttL Willi thn ! . i-
thr were 4a bushcU per acre!
"Tthat bv nluniin n...
iiened and beat of .11 Ci.t.' i
ris!ii liiTt i T. V. . M. fonnerly can be
; . "wo "y ue a coubtaut uu
nmvimfint J uu
' vZ Z. .... .
. n mive showed a dcirreo of
animals. Davinrv; ,.rUa,s the human
"JW animals.6 We
Them tile beat (l Z SIS?" VV
them tno best lood and .k.,i7. V
kindest csre. often iiL??
and we have found tiSiV'?S?li l,,h
Probably, at the low iJ,, lt
r, . ,.r ..n r ! r. i . '
i ol all the labor Usl,,.. Y.
n and Add crop, iteon
icds. llundreJs of thonn. ?
garaen ana neia crop, i, in lUe d -
of weeds. Uun W of thousand.
lars are annually expend in
.cparator. in flour millet.
0 cvators. in taking out f..,,i ..r.u
ho saved did farmers loir only seed of the
best quality, and by tho same means a
much more uniform and better quality of
ii"iir wouei do socureu. vor. Am. in.
Tonso wiFB. if vou would make home
nPPy. strive aiso to maxe 11 oeauuiui.
Tliere Is a grave mistako made. In this ro
spect, oftenerfn "tho country" thsn else-
whore, but tjulto as rensurablo as tho Idlo,
frivolous habits no often and so lusllv re
proved in our city and village girls of tho
present time I would sneak of this other
cxtremo, which has caused mnny n house
hold In a few years' time to be eovcrned
solely by a spirit of avarice, and a lovo
of gain to the exclusion of all that was
ennobling or ulevatimr to the mind or orin-
clplcs. Habits of industry and economy
aro very necessary, and a thorough
knowledge of housekeeping should be Tn
dlspensablo to every woman. No matter
wimt position she intends to mi, sho should
bo capahlo of managing her own house
hold well and properly at all times.
Many of our youne farmers' wives, from
the day of their marriago, devote them
selves so entirely and exclusively to the
all-absorbing idea of hmisckorplnir, Hint
iney soon know viry litHo ot what is
taking place in tho world oulsidu the
"kitchen nnd dairy." No matter how
goon an education they may have acquired
In their girlhood, or how many accom
plishments, thny aro all alike forgotten In
tho thousand and ono cares they mil tuko
upon themselves, however competent or
faithful their domestics mnv bo. They
mil inirirt upon "baking, brewing, pick
ling and preserving," year in and year out,
until with their physical strength nearly
exhausted they become sour, fretful, faded
women. AsUlo from bulne irood "house
keepers," they of course desire to bo
"good wives and mothers;" nnd In ono
sense they are, for a bountiflil table Is
usually provided by their own hands; but
whilom tho performance of those duties
tho children must bo wry careful not to
get in their way, neither must they troublo
"momma" wiih questions when she is
busy and tired.
Now, being a farmer's wlfo myself, I
know from experience that it is not neces
sary for tho diss ppoken of to become
"kitchen maids" unci nothing else, unless
they do it purely from choice. A woman
of rclincd, cultivated tastes, limy, if she
will, devoto a portion of each day, how
ever short, to the enjoyment of theso
tastes, no matter how much butter is to
bo made or how many cheeses there aro to
turn. Farmers, as a general rulo, under
stand how to keep the purse pretty well
filled, without any nnxiety, or oxtra exer
tions on the part of their wives, save whut
they may do by careful economy and good
So, weary wives nnd mothers, stop and
rest, and conxitUr. Stay lc in your
kitchens, nnd devote more of your time to
adorning mid beautifying your homes.
Uultivato Dowers, it only n cio ; and if
you understand music, and have 1111 in
strument, becauso you nro married do hot
loso it anil into away your music with
tho mistaken idea that you will have no
more time to practice. Takctimu for your
music, and your reading also. Above all,
do not entirely neglect your personal np-
pearanco 111 your great eagerness to no-
'omiilish UBt such an amount ol labor.
If you do, it will bo nothing Btrango if
your husband sometimes compares tlis un
tidy woman 110 sees every morning, noon
and night in his bouse, to tho neat, Uiste-
lully dressed, cheerful girl that always
greeted him In tho days of courtship ; and
tho compurkon will surely cost iiiin a
I hen there nro children : they should
never bo neglected for anything. Resides
being parent and teacher to them, bu nlso
a companion, and even sometimes a play
mate, thereby gaining their confidence,
and making them understand that they
nave your sympathy ns well us love.
Combino as much ns possible tho beautiful
with tho useful. Uiing nil the refining
Influence you can into' your homes, that
they may mnko a lasting impression on
the tender minds and hearts of vour off
spring while yet they nro young, nnd that
your iiusnanil may realize at last that thero
m ooiiii-i-iiiiiK t-inu 10 uvu utr, bouiu oilier
end and aim in life than merely to "cot
rich." Muko an effort to fill your homes
moro with munic, books, pictures, flowers
ana cncerniiness, ana you win seo ere
long that tho lessons they teach of purity
and contentment will'bo felt, nil through
your nouseiiom. 1 ruiy, there is a vast
amount of labor for " fanners' wives" nnd
all others; yet not moro than one-third
of it should bo done " In tho kitchen."
Jiural JVine Yorker.
The Economy of Mixed or Varied Food
To Tint casual observer tho Torn go pro
duced on an old pasture seems to consist of
but ono or two dillereut species of plants.
Careful examination corrects this error.
and shows that on encli square foot of old
sod tho species of plants which may bo
found aro to no numbered by tno dozen.
We see hero the beautiful provision made
by nature for supplying variety In tho
food of our domestic animals, and it re
quired but little experience to show that
almost all animals love variety. The horse
alternates between oats nnd hay; tho
cow leaves hay to feed upon corn fodder,
and then rejects tho fodder and prefers a
Now wo belicvo that both on tho score
of economy nnd humanity, thu tasto of all
our domestic niiimals should bo consulted
to tho fullest extent possible. Hut beyond
this there is much to urgo us to tntro'
duco variety luto the food of our cattle.
It is well known mat duicrcni kinds 01
food possess very different values as sources
of nutriment. It was at one time supposed
thnt the value of each variety might bo
determined by the per conlnge of nitrogen
which it contained, nnd, ns nitrogen is tho
most expensive ol all tho constituents ol
food, the originators of this theory were
not very far wrong. Hut it happens that
other substances beside c nitrogen nro
necessary for tho support of tho auimal,
and as a certain proportion of nitrogen
can bo used it becomes necessary to pro
vide a full supply of the other elements,
nnd if tho nltroiren is In too large a porpor
tion, it is simply wasted. It is Just as If
we were to furnish a builder with a cer
tain quantity of bricks and mortar for the
purpose of building a house. A ton cf
lime may bo more valuable than a ton of
brick, but if we furnish, moro mortar than
the proper portion, tho excess is simply
Now all feeders ought to understand
that it is not what passes through the in
testinal cnnal of an animal, tint what
passes through his system in other
words, what is digested and assimilated,
that doca him good. Nitrogen is expen
sive and valuable, but it we furnish moro
than the auimal requires, it posses through
tho bowels iu an undigested stuto and is
It Is of courso understood thnt much of
the food that is eaten by herbiverous ani
mals passes through them undigested and
unabsorbed, and it seems that tho action
of such bulky food is necessary, not only
for the purpose of allowing ruminants to
chew the cud, but in order to stimulate
and irritate to a certain extent thosurfuco
of the alimentary canal. Men often over
look this fact, and fancy that they can
feed concentrated and easily digested food
to cattle and so obtain abtonhdiing result,
lieyond a certain limited extent this is not
true, and its fulsity was perfectly Illustrated
by the mortality of the cows fed on the
swill of tho New York distilleries. Swill
nevir Injured an animal if fed iu moderate
quantities,, but animals, especially rumi
nants, fed exclusively on swill, soon be
come diseased. Add bulk and solidity in
the shape of cut straw, and this dilliculty
will be removed. liy adding swill to tho
dry food of any milk cow, wo ran increase
very perceptibly the amount of milk pro
duced, as well as improvo the general
health of the animal.
But it would seem that the chemical
constitution of this bulky portion is not
of much consequence, ri I raw is as good
as anything else, and it would be of great
folly to use extra supplies of rich and di
gestible food, whether nitrogenous or oth
erwise, merely 1 jr the purpose of obtaining
liut whilo wo thus seek to increase tho
bulk of tho food which is indigested by
the aulmul, we must remember that if we
1 tint Vl' bU fw4 pluuxUU ftud UUtftlloiM
article, inch as swill or rooked meal, the
appetite of the animal will be dulled, and
it will refuse to rnt a sufficient quantity of
tbo coarser variety.
This is best remedied by cutting the
straw and mixing it with the concentrated
fond. Moreover, eithct straw or liny, If
cut, should bo softened by long continued
maceration In warm water, or rather bv
allowing it to Ho for somo timo In a warm
and very moist condition. When straw
or hay Is cut in short lengths the necessity
for thorough mnstlcntion is (limlnlHlir.il
The rivriil and sham nieces of straw ti
directly into tho bowels, nnd Instead of
proving a gentlo stimulant they become
harshly Irritant, All this Is avoided by
tho softening process to which we have re
ferred, nnd w hich nt tho samo timo does
not In tho slightest degree diminish the
tendency of tho niiimal, if a ruminant, to
chew tho cud.
Our readers will doubtless remember
tho warm debates which were at ono time
carried on In regard to tho proper length
to which bay or straw should bo cut, and
even in regard to the propriety of cutting
It all. Tho contradictory results obtained
by different experiments were no doubt
duo to a want of tho observance of the
principles Just laid down.
Tho principles which wo have placed
before our readers aro too obvious to re
qulro lengthened demonstration. They
commend themselves to every Intelligent
thinker, and show the necessity for study.
Ing to a greater extent than we have hith
erto done, tho peculiar composition and
ehiiriicteristlo of each different article for
fiMxl. ll't'coni Farmer.
Kill Out the Weeds.
Tn mrnlrMi. (lirlOl
- - - i- viii uuvdo tut; 1 r mr otu-
fer weeds to grow in every corner of his
fun IV rif flVfifif fnnin fluit oLln
... , .,,( iilivj diuv, nuu j tiiiti-
sido, allowing them to goto seed, and fill
tho country with their noxious growth,
ought to bo compelled to suffer tho entire
evils of flllcll A roliran llmtn Ma nam lw.n.1
or rather his own farm. Hut we hardly
niiow now mni can bo Drought about.
Ho of courso will have to bear a share, but
his neighbors, however careful they may
be on their own farms, cannot prevent
nrnrv imut. iP wln.l re...., 1. !...!.... 1
, J f' ..in,, ui iiifiiifi mini
and scatterinir It noon their ill U'...,.U
may subserve a pood purposo to somo ex-
h:iii, in coiiii:imiK iiirmers 10 cuilivntc
their hind morn thnn 1 hrv wnul.l If ih. ..a.
cessitv of knnnlnrr tlwm il.mrn .11.1 t...t ,.v
1st, but with tho best of management nnd
n . . .... ,1 :,, 1 0 . .
Kiv:i.n;n. IMIU IUCIO W1U UO CllOUgll Kill lor
It would bo a wholesome law, nnd ono
that would meet the approval of all good
nit-i n, linn wouiu oongo every ono lor
his neighbor's good, if not his own, to
I. ...... SI... I.. .. ' . .
nuuii inu wix'uh iron. propHpumg on liifl
lfind. A Mimiantlfl aitla nintr Iwa i,r.iv.nilM,t
fmm tlllltlirintT llV bimnlv crnnitr Ivw. Il.rt
"""rt WJ vm.m.w.j tiling bliu
stalk of tho green plant. And this is
i 1.1 , . 1 . ....
wuiiiniioiiiu uu none, jjon l let tho op
portunity puss till too Into, but tnko somo
unoccupied moment beloro tho semis
ripen, and with scytho or brush hook, go
Into thn fencn corncra nml lwutil T.i,,.ta .....I
do not leave 11 seed bearing weed to Bland,
II you need a maxim to work by, tuko
41,1. . II A i ... , J '
.mo. ainiKiKT in prevention is worm
nnound of rum" In tl,,. ,,,,.1 ....
.. .....v. . mi. 1 nuu llf-
tato Holds there will bo many weeds in
spilo of tho cultivator, that will grow up
and mature seed niter tho crop is too lnrge
to boo. A " Imnil " witlt a ...Ill
,. M Dutu , mm t. Ill
do immense good among such. Keep
uunu wiu ncuus in every possibio Way
nnd let tho "sweat of tho brow," by
which men onm their brend, bo expended
.11 oiuer uireciions. wtteoimn Farmer.
Soiling Milch Cows.
The following Is an extract from Mr. V.
Btcdnian's paper on " Dairy Htock and its
Management, read before tho Franklin
Club ot Massachusetts:
Much has been said and written unon
summer feeding or soiling, compared with
pasturing, lluro as in many things which
relnto to ngrieulture, no definite rule can
bo given. We must be iruided by tho con
dition of the soil, location, and other con
tingencies. In sections where nnturnl pas
ture lands aro scarce, or whero land is
valued nt a high price, nnd is easily culti
vated, tho advantages of soiling can hardly
bo over-estimated; whilo for tho larger
portion of New England it would not be
good economy H adopt this system to any
great extent Yet I think thero aro low if
any dairymen who would not find it to
their advantage to cultivate a portion of
green fodder, to keep up the How of milk
during tho usually warm and drv mouths
of August and September.
As food for soiling, I would recommend
mainly clover, oats, and corn. A few feeds
of early sowed rye may bo used to ailvun-
........ .. .1.- ..Ll. . ,1 ...... ..
wiku iiom mo iuiu 10 1110 yum ot May.
This soon becomes woody and unpalatable,
and is recommended only for early feed.
Ureen clover, on rich land, will bo tit to
cut about the 20th of June. Data should
no sow ii early in April and again
about tho tlrst of May, nt tho
rato of four bushels to the acre.
These will keep tho supply from Juno
15th till July lUth. Ily this time, com
planted the tirst week in May, should be
tit to cut. The planting should bo con
tinued nt Intervalsof two weeks, until tho
10th of July, fcuoh n succession as this
will afford a- regular supply of succulent
food until the lirst of October. The clover
may be cut three several times, either for
summer or winter use, or the soil may bo
inverted nnd corn planted upon the samo
The oat ground, which Is cleared pre
vious to thu lOlhof July, should be used for
growing Swedish turnips. 'I heso I would
sow in drills thirty inches apart, manuring
in tho drill, either with fresh mauuro from
tho cow sheds, wilh compost, or with
special fertilizers. The latter I use, nnd
recommend only when tho supply of tho
former falls to bo equal to tho demand.
All tho ground cleared after tliesowinij of
Swedes, nnd previous to tho lOih of
August, I would plow nnd sow to ilio
common or English turnip, sowing tho
The quantity of land appropriated for
soiling will vary according to tho extent
to which it Is desired to pursue the system.
One-fourth of an aero to each full irrown
animal, nnropi iated in tho w ay indicated,
will produce nn astonishing amount of
the best feed for dairy cows, beside, great
ly enhancing tho amount of valuable
A (niKiT revolution has occurred In solectlng
fruit trees for plantiug. Pushy
plants aro now sought for. Tho Blunle
w hich tho sido branches make Is consid
ered beneficial to tho tree. As to tho ben
eficial effects of continual digging about
trees, which we oppose, all cultivators aro
not unanimous; but most of them now
aliandon it after some years : tho differ
ence of opinion K'ing bow many years
after planting; shall this stylo of cultivatim;
continue? With very low branched trees
thero is this ndvautago, that the plow or
the spado cannot approach very near the
trunk. Hich soil is however csontial to
good growth and givnl crops. This Is tho
essence of good cultivation.
In preparing for planting trees, the soil
should be stirred at least two feet iu depth.
Of courso tho trees should bo planted in
tho holes only so deepasthev stood in the
ground before, rather higher if nr.y thing.
as me son w 111 seme. liixKl common soil
may 1k tilled in the holes if tho natural
soil is very bad; any thing if applied as
manure may be stirred In the surface-soil
after the trees nro plauU-d. Some object
10 making deep Holes for planting trees, us,
if Die soil is stiff, they become wi lls col
lecting water from surrounding soil, and
rotting the toots. It U best to uudcrdraiu
such soils before planting. If this cannot
lie done, it is In st to plant such ground in
the spring. Tho water objection is a fatal
one for fall planling iu such grouml.
B....l . W....W..
Do not Play with Babies!
Em'K 1 u.i.v with those who.se mothers
are "nervous creatures," and whose
fathers aro wideawake, ;;ii ahe.ldativc,
steam cngiuish men.
Voting America has loo many nerves
already, and too high strung at that; too
ready to vibrate at a touch. Do not play
upon them, lxl them le quiet.
For the first three or four mouths of his
mortal life let him be hauled und cuivd
or, tia fax as puvticullo, fty uuo quivt per
son, and after that let him not be ratight
up and tossed up nnd tickled and cackled
fit by every one who comes along. Keep
him quiet. If grandma, or aunty, or
"hubby" want to enjoy the baby, let
them approach him carefully, reverently
snug him up gently, talk to him soothlnir
ly and sensibly, nnd have a good timo wilh
him without selling him all nn springs
and making a fool ol him.
After he is able to talk, do not say smart
things to hlra nnd tench him to make pert
replies, nnd, when old enough to be sensi
tive to remnrks, do not sny of him, in his
presence, as though he had no sensibility,
" What a little man !" "He looks like his
mothur." "How ho hns grown tall I'
Leave him to Ms simplicity nnd uncon
sciousness. Ho will wnko up out of them
Boon enough without.
If tho family to which he belongs Is
busy nnd bustling, keep him out of the
way of it ns much ns possible, I,eud him
in tho "green pnstures" and bv tho "if ill
waters." Ten chances to one," tho sensi
tive, nervous system in him greatly pre
dominates over tho organic His head
his front head particularly Is too large, his
stomach tno small, his fingers too Btmrp.
Study to change his condition, nnd work
away at him till tho predominance is the
other way, or until thero is developed in
him a greater cnpaclty for living a long
life than dying nn early death. To this
end let him be fed regularly, and nt physi
ological intervals, with plenty of simple,
nutritious food, avoiding all stlmulnnts
even llesh incuts In his earlier growing
yearn In both food nnd drinks. Get him
to sleep in tho day timo nnd to bed enrly
nights and let him sleep as long as ho will.
In short, let him live a good denl as the
littlo pigs and calves do. Do not put fine
clothes on him. I.et him touch tho ground,
play on the lap of earth, and keep away
from him Intellectual and social excite
ments. (Theso remarks apply to girls ns
well as to boys).
If you do not look out, Old America
will become so smart nnd keen nnd quick
thnt it will " Hash in the pan," or so niton
tinted that It will vanish into thin nit, nnd
there will be nothing left or W.liarhester
( N. Y.) Krprm.
Tirosrc of our readers who have not al
ready heard of tho new "Institution"
called rianchetto will undoubtedly soun be
gratified or nmuzed or puzzled, ns tho case
mny be, by lis nppenrnnce, ns it is nlrendy
offered for salo In several cities. It con
sists of a simple oblong, or sometimes
heart-shaped bonrd, about eight inches
long, by live to seven wide, nnd a quarter
of an inch thick, supported on wheels or
castors, on which 11 moves freely when
touched, nml has a soft pencil fastened into
one end. Tho work of this pencil is the
mystery of tho wholo. It is declared thnt
when placed on a sheet of white paper,
nnd lightly pressed by two persons for a
few minutes, it will trace on tho paper nn
answer, moro or less intelligent or correct,
to any question a third may proposo. It is
nlso asserted by some that the past nnd
tho futuro nro equally revealed, nnd that
distnnco cren'es no dilliculty to this won
derful innniniute lorluneteller, matters
passing on the other sido of tho world be
ing as certainly luade known ns thoso in
the same room. Marvelous stories nre told
of tho supernatural powers of "Plan
ohetto" by its admirers, such ns making
known tho doings of friends in other hem
ispheres, nnd various other miraculous in
formation, such ns is usually expected from
mesmerism, spirit-rappings, and tho like;
whilo on the other hand some do not hesi
tate to pronounce it n base imposture, nnd
to declnro that, having followed all the di
rections minutely, they nro unable to ex
tract a worJ of nny sort from tho reticent
machine. A writer in Chambrri' Journal
is especially severe on what ho calls the
"three-legged impostor," nnd, though nc
knowledgiug that marvelous tales were
told him by two of his friends, who wero
eyo-wllnesses, 0110 nn nccomplished lady,
and the other a scholar of quickness and
humor, nnd who, he thinks, certainly be
lieved them to be true, yet disbelieves thu
whole of it bemuse ho could never succeod
In nny bucIi efforts at conversation.
It appears to .bo of French origin, its
nnmo signifying a littlo board, and is
known to French, Russian nnd Spanish
courts. In England, one mnker snvs ho
has sold four hundred and sixty-six I'lau
ehettes, besides sending several nbrond.
This maker declares thiit the wood must
bo good, hearty stuff, and well dried, but
declines to give nny other advice ns to its
construction. However, it is now conceited
thnt they can be mado bv nnv ordlnnrv
carpenter; and wo recently saw n very
simple one iu this city, nuulo of a piece of
cherry bonrd, in the Bhapo of a heart, tho
dimensions being ns above, tho two little
castors being of brass, and placed under
1110 broad end ot tho heart, while the
pencil was placed nt tho point of tho
Tho author of n volume on Plnnchetto.
published in England, irives minute In
structions for its use, by the observance of
which nu tiiinks most, persons mny in time
become coutidnnls of its mysteries. It is
not maintained by nny Unit nil thn answers
given nro true, or that any person, how
ever unsuccessful ho maybe in its use, can
put implicit reliance on its teachings.
Thero nro various theories ns to this re
markable little companion, some maintain
ing that tho inlluenco Is mesmeric, others
that it is electricity, or somo unknown
connection between tho brain or nervous
system of tho operator nnd tho board so
lightly touched by his fingers. Thero aro
some of courso who wilt attribute it all to
supernatural causes, nnd somo who utterly
refuse the least credence to nny of the mys
terious results nlllriiied.
Theso latter just now occupy the safest
ground. It seems to l.o clear that in tho
cases when " Planchetto " moves without
being mischievously or designedly Impelled
by tho operator, that the influence is mag
netic, Just as in the case of" tablu-nioving"
under similar conditions. It is but proper
to say that wherever experiments with the
toy have come under our observation, the
writings of " Planchetto" have either been
such as would puzzle even a I'hampollion
to decipher, or else they have been so
manifestly tho work of tho operators, for
the purposo of creating merriment, mis
chief, and laughter, that no ono could be
deceived into the belief that either spirits
or any other supernatural nirency have
anything to do with them. " I'lauchetto "
is an amusing toy, and nothing more.
Vhiladiiphia Isdyer, June S lfi."
Rich without Money.
Many a man is rich without money.
Thousands of men with nothing in their
pockets, nnd thousands without even a
pocket, are rich. A man born with a good,
sound constitution, a good stomach, a good
heart, and good limbs, nnd a pretty good
licad-piooo, is riclt Uixnt bones nre" belter
thnn gold, tough muscles than silver, nnd
nerves that flash tire and carry energy to
every function, are bitter than houses and
lands. It is better than a landed estate to
havo had the right kind of a father and
mother. Hood breeds and bad breeds exist
among men ns really as anion sr herds and
horses. Education may do much good to
cheek evil tendencies or to develop good
ones, but It Is a great thing to inherit tho
ngni proportion ol faculties to begin with.
Tho man is rich who has a gihhl disposi
tionwho is naturally kiud. natient. cheer-
ful, hopeful, nud who has a ll ivor of wit
and fun in hi composition. The. hardest
thing to get along with iu this life is a
man s own self. A cross, sclti.-h fellow, a
desponding and complaining tVUow, a
timid, oarc-burdened man these nre nil
boru ill l.irmed 011 the inside. Their feel
may not limp, bul their thoughts do. A
man of fortune, 011 the brink of I ho grave,
wouiu giaaiy pan witn every dollar lo ob
Uiii a longer lcaso ol' life.
A Poor Memory.
TiiKKF. are various reasons why somo
persons have a poor memory.
First, they may have overworked their
brain, and exhausted tho energies of the
nervous system. A majority ol the pople
tax Uiur minds lo thu munist, and iustiad
of rein vigorai ing themselves after ex
haustion, coin inuc their labors liil their
systems n deranged by eMi'ssive menial
application, and the bruin loses the power
of receiving or retaining tho impression
ui.ulu upon it. Many have iiiiUaliiied
themselves for labor by overcharging their
brain uhu more than it can do. It ro
ijuii'ts great prcjcucv of tuitd, much Jlnu-
ncsg nnd decision of thnncter for an
ardent, enthusiastic peri on to take rest
when W3rn presses upon him and oppor
tunities for labor multiply, and ho fre
quently continues In business till sickness
entirely disables him from pursuing his
Inactivity of mind is another fruitful
source of a poor memory. However strong
nnd vigorous the mind mny be, originally,
unless exercised, It is like gold and silver
laid awny In a nnpkln. which become tar
nished, though if tiled daily, they would
be bright for years.
Irregularity of life is another reason for
poor memory. If persons are subject to
extremes, sometimes getting up early nnd
sometimes lato in tiie morning, if they in
dulge in excesses of any kind, or trille with
their organization so as to impair its
fiowcr, they cannot expect to have clear
dens on any subject especinlly a good
memory. It is important to live systemati
cally nnd methodically If wo would pre
serve the brain in a good condition. Dis
sipation spoils tho memory. When the
nervous system is over-stimulated by alco
hol, tobacco, opium, or by nnything thnt
excites the bruin, the result is unfortunate.
may Increase the brilliancy for a time,
but Boon the constitution becomes affected
by tho over-stimulation, nnd the mind will
bo subsequently more dull nnd obtuse than
Language of the Eye.
The eye obeys exactly the action of the
mind. When a thought strikes up, the
vision Is fixed, and remains looking at a
distance; In enumerating names of per
sons or countries, as France, Spain, flrltain,
Germany, the eye winks at .each new
name. There is an honesty in the eye
which the mouth docs not participate in.
"The artist." as Michnol Angelo said,
must have its measure in his eye." Eyes
nre bold as Hons bold, running, leaping.
They spenk all language; they need no
encyclopedia to aid in the interpretation
f their language ; they respect neither
rank nor fortune, virtue nor sex, but they
go through and through you In a moment
of timo. You can read In the eyo of your
companion, while you tnlk with him,
whether your argument hits, though his
tongue will not confess it. There is a look
by which n man tells you he is going to
say a good thing, and a look which gays
when lio has said it. Vain nnd forgotten
are nil fine offers of hospitality, if there is
no holiday in tho eyo. How mnny inclina
tions nre avowed by tho eye, though tho
lips dissemble I How often does one come
from a couipnny in which it mny ensily
happen thnt ho has said nothing; that no
important remark has been addressed to
him, and yet in his sympathy with tbo
company he seems not to have a sense of
the tact, for a stream of light has been into
him and out of him through his eyes. As
sonn as men aro off their centres their
eyes show it.
There are eyes, to bo sure, that give no
moro admission into tho man than blue
berries. There nro liquid nnd deep wells
that a man might fall into j thero aro ask
ing eyes, und asserting eyes, nnd prowl
ing eyes, and eyes full of faith, and some
of good and of sinister omen. Tho power
of eyes to charm down insanity or beasts,
n power behind the eyes, that must be a
Victory achieved In tho will before it can
bo suggested to tho organ; but the ninn
peace nnd unity with himself would
move through men und nnture, commnnd
ing nil things by tho eye nlono. The
reason men don't obey us, is that they see
tho mud nt tho bottom of our eyes. -Whoever
looked on the hero would consent to
his will being served ; ho would bo obeyed.
Language of the Eye.-R. W. Emerson.
Don't Write There.
" Don't w rite tliere," said ono to a hid
who wns writing with a diamond pin on a
pane of glass in tho window of a hotel.
"Why?" said ho.
I'Uecauso you can't rub it out."
Tliere arc other thines which men should
not do, because they cannot rub them out,
heart is aching for sympathy, and a
cold, perhaps a heartless word is spoken.
no impression may oe moroauraoio than
that of a diamond upon tho glass. The
Inscription on tho heart may last forever.
On many a mind and many a heart, sad
inscriptions nro deeply engraved, which
no effort can erase. We should be careful
what wo write 011 tho minds of others.
Sketches by Jacques.
THE RULING PASSION.
Varnjllilu iimliiM ivlwi (lmnlil... nvn.
ho iloxllnies of H11: Iji Cnwsn ,Vu,i,vi,i aa
aoiilnr Editor, nml who coiuMiuih in liliimoir.
tloVil. Drool reiltltT. L'mH!l-ll tiinlmi.iir Afxii-.
kfeprr nnd rilliur, and who is equally nt
mime ailendini; to Ills f.imlly paiwr-rminlnu
hditorlal Convention, and nn President tlie-ruol"
contrlvinn to ninku everybody around hlra com
nun nuppy, hi wuvs ready witn a "pwcli at
.lioriusl notira and iin anv occasion, from a
political I'.mciia to a fourth of July oration, and
who uuduriill limitiintiuices la U10 samo genial,
whole-souled irentleiuiili tells tho following good
ono upon himself, lint that the reader of tho
Uakkttk may fully appreciate, the joko, it becomes
necessary to explain, l.iko all other ureal men,
Charley has his littlo pet hohhy, and that is, that a
ireiitleman should always and under all eireum
siancos lie ihonitlxl, and dnrlnsctne whole course
ins nonorunie nun use! ul mo, he never but once
failed to sustain his character In that respect and
that Id Ihu " (rood one " above alluded to.
About a year since, he bad just built a new
dwelling-house, and was ubout moving in. He
had been busy stroirhlmr carpetd, arranl'lnit fur
niture, etc. "etc., until a late hour at night, lie
was about to retire, when it was discovered that
journey to ihu third story to procure some arti
cles conslstiiif; or crockery and other thinga, that
would ke. needed early In the moruiug, was Im
peratlvely necessary, llut hero was a dilemma.
The stairs were freshly painted: he wan dressed
neatly and well, as he alwavs is, and he n-nred
that he would not only mar die paint but would
also soil hU pantaloons In stepping from one tep
the other: but necessity know 110 law. bo,
lump in hand, he started.
Duo hall of the Journey was safely accomplished,
tho art Idea lie w as iu search of were round, and,
ith lamp Iu one baud and crockery lu tho other,
commenced the descent.
To save rubbing (lie back of his tronser legs
against the edge of the steps, he concluded to
step 011 the extreme outer edire of the Blair,
taking two atc at a time.
So carenilly turning his toes in and extending
his arms to preserve his balance, he very carefully
commenced the ilcM-eut ; two steps were taken iu
sstetv, but at the third his foot slipped, and tvry
forcibly seating himself on the next step sway he
weul, a Ui riding dow n hill, gaining momentum
he progressed, until, wilh arms and lei.- ex
tended, he lauded at the foot of ilie stairs, a wiser,
somewh.it bruised aud terribly bedaubed, If not
The imitate of the house hearing the racket of
course, rushed to the scene of action.
There sat I'harley lamp in 0110 hand, crockery
the other in batter of fresh paint, saving
over to himself, tn a very emphatic luauuer, some
' Charley," mid hi better half, " are you hurt "
"Homo," ho replied, "but I dou'i caro for
' i"h, Charley," aald hU wlfo agalu, " tho stair
" 1 kllOW It." ho rtMllled. llNnrtr sii.triillw
the while stieak ilowu the centre of tho stairs.
where Uie paint ouhl lube,
biU JJvh'I oinjur
'And vour new nanis and ni.it am imiUiw
"Veal llfty dollar gone, but t ilon't can fur
Fearing thnt he w a really Injured, hi wife aealu
anxiously inquired if he was 1101.
" No, no," said he, it ' not that."
" What is it then?"
i'JV'.'a''01" -iJuJ "UiniiJ.t'llst!y luuliQ-
WISCONSIN COURT SCENES.
In ono of our iutenor counties, lives and flour-
viiul;u b.i a man now nearly seventy year
v. . ....v , i.j- inn sieriiug integrity, lliuu.
try and peiacieranco made himself au honorable
repuiaiiou iu the I'oiiiiuuiiitv where he live, lie
has for many years held the oltlce of Homily
Judge and Justice of the Peace; but, like uiauy
of Hie Western pioneer., his education is far from
being collegium. Although Mud hearted and be
nevolent he Is nulier iUuk-loiuiorcd, and tli
sp.iis aud technical arguments of the Atloriievs
who imtcllco before him. Cnumeiiili u.o..,. k,.'..
ami at such time ll 1 not unusual for him lo
Uhimi hi. tcuuor. Then look um l..r s,niilMi
deveial yeais since lo pioiniuent uieiuhersof
1. . win e. i-ouuiy were, ti vmg a suit be lore the
oldJu.lge. (me of Ihcm, Vans , uiade aome
disparaging rviuaik wilh reference to one of the
Juik-cs ruling lnai roused the old mail' ire.
i.onkiug at Hie coiiiuiuaciou attorney for a mo
ment mi l his Hi l.n le., he sprang from hi seat.
" Courts adjourned lor one luiuuio I" he roared :
aim Muk.111 ui llsl under au a uos, exclaimed,
at .iM.u leather, making .hoe or any thing
else that honorable, I can heal vom d -d h.H
oil of you. Conns Iu csiou again' and no if
,011 i'n your u u ucad 10 me aaiu IT1 due you
tell dollar. '. '." '
I'o au olher ore ision Van 8 and Dick h 1
cnirage.1 all day in trying acase before hi in. origin
ating ill niB ,.,iy ,,i,a,rel between two lie L: al
itor, ami ihojnry Uiiiiigio agree, the atioruci
stipulated 10 try it beloio Ike l ouic; but one ol
.1.. .1., . iiro.oc.i 10 argue It iiaiii. The
Judoi iniuH.M very emphatically, that hi. miud
made up, and Ue did llol bello any aisunienl
worn,! cliAiig,, the remit; but .till link in.isld
lipou hi. m lit to argue thucisv. and commenced.
-in. 11 I'll av me , oiirf. "Walt a luomenl !
sai.i me jutu-e. Henlierately he arose from hi
ii.iii, airangcu in pau rs on mono:, and Inking
hi. hit .aid to the I unstable In attendance, "I
pin itoiuv now 1, in me Blore. atlU WlleU Una III
g.'ls through I'll i oils bark and enter iuilL'tii.mt
Aud amid tho roars of laughter of the hi.talid.cia,
1.11 i , w. ivwwi- "mki ,1 auartui iiiW,m,
The new suspension bridge at Niagara
WISCONSIN COURT SCENES. VARIOUS ITEMS.
It froze in Tnrls flnrtnr? tho nlehts of
the 10th nnd 11th of June.
Hrm,t5OT0i. Vt.. Jiow claims to be tho
third lumber market in the United Blntcs.
IT Is said thnt Heber C. Kimball, the
dead Mormon prophet, leaves sixty seven
Thjhtt to forty shots a minute can lie
made with the new French gun called the
Tub very lntcst fashionable color in
Paris is a delicate shade of salmon verging
The largest income forlH(!7 paid Massa
chusetts wns f 278,50;), by John 8. Whitney,
A gentleman nt Annapolis hns com
menced the cultivation of crabs, lio hps
4,000 already fenced In.
It is estimated thnt three thousand
dwellings will bo erected in the city of
Washington during the present year.
TmtRK are over 1,000 newsdealers in
New York and vicinity, and a " protective
union" is now agitated.
Coomr emigrants, to the number of
0,528, have been received in the British
West Indies during the year 1887.
At Uie recent wedding of the daughter
of a New York banker, tho house was vo
cal with Innumerable canaries.
Boston having failed to Identify .the
discoverer of tho application of ether,
has dedicated a monument to the discovery
Last year 14,207 criminal offenders were
convicted and sentenced in Encland and
Wales. 3.510 in Scotland, and 2.733 in Ire-
It Is curious, if true, as stated bv a
scientific paper, that people with grey
eyes aro better marksmen with the rille
than persons with eyes ol other colors.
Tub Boston postofflce Is to cover 2.1,583
square feet of ground ; that of New York
will occupy 05,200 square feet. The site
of the former costs f 403,000 ; of the latter,
Paris papers announced, much to the
surprise of the English, that the Prince of
waies was in i'nris to see the races, and
that he hnd a light with a Frenchman
after the Earl had won the grand prize.
UmoN papers in Canada are rejoicing
much over the action of a Masonic Royal
Arch Chapter in New Brunswick, which
surrenders its old charter, obtained from
tho mother country, and tnkes a new one
lrom tho Canadian Orand Chapter.
A nAinnnEssKii of lircssuire drew tho
lottery prize of 150,000 francs in Paris, nnd
mnde his deputy in the Carpi LcjidatiJ
go to tho bnnk with him to get the money,
taking the honorable member away from
bis duty of applauding ministerial
A man who is in tho habit of taking
note of whatever ho sees, added up the
aggregate amount wagered by seven young
men in a drinking saloon in Cleveland,
and found it to bo $ 743,000. They wero
waiting for somo ono to come with money
cnougn 10 treat.
DANfKf. WF.nsTEn wore a hat the size
of which was 7;5a' i Thurlow Weed wears
the same size; Abraham Lincoln s was
1-10; Daniel Lord s 08; Horace Gree
ley's 7l; James Gordon Bennett's 73o",
Mr. James T. Brady has a head as large
as that of any public man in the country.
A Poem Fon the CoritTs.
A Judge did once his tipstoll' call,
And say, " 8lr, 1 desire
You go forthwith and search tho hall,
And bring me In the crier."
"And search In vnln, my lord, I may,"
The tlpstntr gravely ald,
The crier cannot cry to-day,
Becauso hi wife is dead."
Some old pipes have been discovered in
Scotland, not far from n place on which in
former nges a Roman camp was stationed,
and this discovery has caused a very scion
title English gentleman to prove that our
forefathers smoked from the very begin
ning of the foundation of the Heptarchy.
A little girl, about four years of age,
was induced by the offer of some candy,
by a thoughtless person, to lump from the
third-story window of a building in Ilan
nibal. Mo., a few days ago. She wns
caught by the person makins the oiler.
before she reached the sidewalk, thus
probably saving her lite,
A men farmer of Calais, Maine, aged
sixty-five, recently married a second wife
who is only nineteen years of ngo. A
daughter by his first wife is forty yenrs old
and her daughter aged twenty is about to
married. Thus there Is a child who is
twenty-one years older than her mother,
and a grandmother who is a year younger
than her gruua-uaugliler.
CnossiNO the occau with Mr. II , his
readiness at repartee attracted the notico
of all 011 board, and a wager was laid that
ho could not be caught napping, but would
give not only a prompt but witty reply.
Next morning Mr. II was observed
looking through tho telescope, tho atmos
phere being damp and cold. The interest
ed party, determined to win, touched Mr.
II 's arm, and asked: "Mr. II ,
what ship is that'" " Don't know ; but I
hope it's a Peruvian bark, for I'm in a per
fect chill 1"
A double white camelia, with 1,500 ex
panded flowers and nn equal number of
Inula, was recently exhibited at tho great
floricultural show at Ghent. Thero were
nlso to be seen on a plant of Cnmclian
Chandlcrii, 1,000 expanded and many in
bud, with a like number on a plant of
Camelia Imbricata. These plants formed
cones about fifteen feet through at tho
bnso, nnd an equal height. They wero all
very insignificant plants iu pots ten years
The amount of nutriment contained in
beer is generally grcntly over-estimated.
Liebeg asserts that in one thousand four
hundred aud Bixly quarts of tho best
Bavarian beer there is exactly the nourish
ment of an ordinary two und-a-luilf pound
loaf of bread. This beer is about on a
par with our best American beer. Instead
of being a condensation of the nutriment
contained in the grain, in just so far as
the liquid has undergone fermentation, the
nourishment has disappeared. Journal 0
A scuooi.MASTEn in England lately re
ceived a deputation of his pupils who
came to complain in the name of the
school of the beer furnished them : " My
dear boys, all men and all things aro im
perfect. You too havo your faults, nnd
you ought to occupy yourselves with cor
recting Ihcm instead of undertaking to re
form my cellar. When you have corrected
the acidity of your own tempers, it will
bo high timo for you to complain of tho
sourucss 01 my beer,
Two vouusr women of Wolverhnmnton.
England, agreed to decide by a tight whoso
sweetheart a certain young man should be,
who had shown some slight attention to
both, and who seems to have had no ob
jection to the arbitrament. The time and
plane were duly fixed, and tho women,
partially stripped, sit to on a piece of
waste ground, surrounded by a numerous
body of spectators, among w hom the prize
In dispute occupied a prominent position.
Several rounds had been well fought, and
tho buttle was still on, when the police
came up and stopped iu Tho (;irU were
each nneu .3. od. and costs.
Rkcii'ks: To make a lemon drop le.t
it fall off the table. To nutko a stomach
enko uso pleuty of unripe fruit. To
urnk a (n) ice cream stick a piu in the
baby. To make pastry ueatly have every
ining in apptc pie orucr. 10 niako oals,
sun give them 'milk. To make toad-in
the hole make a hole in the ground, and
drop a toad iu it. '.To make a nice pickle
hunt in the drawer for something in
tho dark, lo make a bed dig into the
pillows, rake up lire sheets, and hod thu
blankets, sew up all the holes in the tiuilt.
by destroying all insects. To
beat eariHts uso malting ; for coolness it
beats carpets. To make a w indow blind
fill ll up w ith bricks and mortar. To
prevent the cracking of a door nail it up.
To obtain bleep Have tunning out "nod
ding acquaintances. lo keep your
spirits place tho decanters ou tho roof
of thu bouse.
Pit IIoi.k Anoki.8. ThcTionextu(lV)
lUt eeU oil" Iho following : In a iieighlmr-
ing village lives a family who recently
emigrated from Pit Hole, and whicti con
tains, among other members, two little
girls, Annie aud Minnie, aged respectively
four and eight years. Ono night, a short
timo since, as her molhur sent Annie to
led, ihu told Ucf to In a good l.'.Uo gill,
go to sleep, nnd the angels would come to
watch her all through the night. Little
Annie's sletD was as sound as the nature
of tho case would admit, her tender flesh
being a rare feast for tho miniature snap
ping turtles that Infested the bed. The
next morning when her mother came to
take her up she gave the followingopinion
of the angels : "Mother, I don't like them
nngels. f don't want them to watch any
moro, they bite so." "Oh, mother I
mother I" cxclnimrd Minnie. "I know
what kind of angels them is; them is Pit
Mant have heard of the " curfew bell,"
but not all know its origin. Its history
runs back to the time of William the Con
queror, who ordered a bell to be rung
about sundown In summer, and at 8 o'clock
in the evening in winter, at which time
fires and lights were to be put out, and
the people to remain within doors, and
penalties wero imposed upon thoso who
neglected or refused to com'oly with the
law. Thi9 was called tho "curfew," a
wora acrivea from 1110 r Tench eouvre feu
cover lire and so the appropriateness of
tho name is readily seen. The old King
nas been generally charged with institut
ing this custom iu order to impress upon
nis subjects a sense 01 their an ect con
dition. But, ns tho "curfew bell" wns
rung in Frnnce long before William's time.
as a safeguard ngninst fires, it is not im-
proDame that he brought the custom with
htm into Englnnd from the Continent, and
that he has been slandered as to his mo
tives. At any rate, he has sins enough to
answer for without this. In the sixteenth
century " bell-men " were added to tho
night-watch in London. They went
through the streets ringing their bells and
crying, "take care of fire and candle; be
kind to the poor, and pray for the dead."
It was tho bellman's duty, also, to bless
the sleepers as he passed their doors. In
" II Peuseroso " Milton refers to this cus
tom : '
" Tho tollman' drowsy charm.
To blest the door from nightly harm.''
Poets have often referred to tho curfew,
or cover nro, boll. Gray begius his beaut i
ful " Elegy " with
" The ctirfow toll tha knell of parting day."
Longfellow, too, has a pretty littlo poem
telling the story of this bell with charming
Dealing it dole,
The curfew bell
1 beginning to toll.
" Cover the embers.
Tut out the light;
Toll comes with tho morning,
And rest with the night,
" Dark grow tho window,
Aud quenched 1 the lire ;
Sound fade In silence,
All footsteps retire.
" No voice In the oasmbor,
No sound in the hall ;
Sleep and oblivion
Kulgn over all."
King William died, and tho originnl ob
ligations of tho curlew were at last re
moved about tho time of Henry I., in 1100 ;
but the custom of ringing an evening bell
is still kept up in England, with variations
as to the hour. Tho " nine o clock bell "
familiar to most New England people-
which sends so many youug people homo
and to bed, and which in the early history
of our country wn9 almost ns rigidly
obeyed by all, both old and young, as the
old curfew, traces its origin directly to tho
covcr-nre bell, in Longfellow s "Lvan
gelinc," tho custom is well described ;
' Anon the bell from tbe belfry
Rang ont the hour of nine the village curfew
Rose the gntt and U ixirttd ; and silence reigned
in the householi
Executions in England.
"The execution of Barrett," snys the
Saturday Jievicvi, "mnrks the final ex
tinction of ono of tho most popular of our
nncestors amusements. Hanging in pub
lic hns gone the way of Bartholomew Fair,
and has died of the same disease. Tho
blackguard clement has become so strong
in the crowd of spectators that it is thought
better to have no spectators at all. Few
people will regret the abolition of any
spectacl which can attract upon one spot
as hideous a collection of human beings
as nny city 111 tho world can show ; nnd
those will regret it least who hold, with
Mr. Mill, that punishment by death is at
once tho most merciful and most efficient
way of dealing with our worst criminals.
If capital punishment necessarily implied
the gathering together of the brutal mob
which polluted tho neighborhood ot .New
gate on hanging mornings,, it would cer
tainly be an argument against retaining
tho punishment. Having made the dis
covery, however, that we can hang people
without sending nn official invitation to
all the roughs, thieves, nnd burglars of
Lonaon to honor us with their company,
we have removed one ot the chief senti
mental objections to hanging."
The total eclipse of tbe sun, which is to
take place on the lstli ot August next,
will present such a long duration of dark
ness, that astronomers aro anticipating it
with unusual interest. From near Aden
the central lino of the eclipse extends to
the southern coast of New Guinea, cross
ing Hindobtan, tho Bay of Bcngnl, tho
Malayan peninsula, and the Gulf of isiam
on the way; and nt certain places on the
lino the duration of total darkness will to
At the date in question tho moon will
not be moro thnn six hours from its perl
grec ; a two-fold condition which increases
tRu apparent size of the moon, and shows
the apparent diameter of tho sun, nearly
nt tho smallest. Henco tho prolonged
darkness. Such a chance occurs but rarely,
and we cannot wonder that a strong do
sire exists to make the most of it in en
deavors to solve certain highly important
questions in physical science. Vuluckily,
the southwest monsoon will bo at full
blast on tho 101 h of August, which, with
its heavy clouds, will render observation
cither uncertain or impossible, except on
the eastern sido of the mountain raugqs.
An Unspotted Character.
Money is a good thing. csDCciallv in
these hard times, but there is something a
thousandfold more valuable. It is charac
ter tho consciousness of a pure and
honorable life. This it should be a man's
first aim lo preserve at any cost. In times
of commercial distress,, whilo some arc
proved and found wanting, others como
forth tried as by hro. Here and there one
comes out of tho furnnco far more of a
man than before. Amid the wreck of his
fortune be stands erect a noble specimen
of truo manhood. We havo occasionally
witnessed an example of courage in such
a crisis, ol moral intrepidity, that deserved
all honor. Let it be the aim of every busi
ness man, above all things else, to keen
this purity unstained. This is tho best
possession this is a capital which can
never bo tnKcn lrom him this Is tho rich
est inheritanco w hich ho can leave to his
tV Seo advertisement of J. I. Case
A Co., Racine, Wis., Threshing Machine
Manufacturers. These justly celebrated
machines aro used throughout tho West
cm States, and are said to be unsurpassed,
u not unequaicti, in 1110 world.
1 as a
Lincoln, tho new capital of Nebraska,
now contains about 10 houses. The school
lauds south of Lincoln have been Bold
They consisted of !fcJ0 acres, aud brought
Uio handsome price of t3,758, or 11 It J
A Gow Haiui. The habit of looking
on the bright sidu of everything is one of tho
-uost valuahle Uiat call lie formed, ll makes lilu
go along far smoother, and help kuup the
wroiaies out 01 your late. I ry it
The Great Summer Remedy.
Iu the Summer nat lire demand o slJa'0 In
drivm out Uie uioihlSe suhalaiiw collected Iu the
blood, which 1 ure 10 genera: billou -l.l
lllil. and derail.-., th eunro huoi.u i ys el i.
Vh. only remedy '''TUiwk
Ili a cuaracier is ;- ; --- -:i me ir-
thoron-hly t nriftx the uIo.hI. corrmia '' '"
re 11 la rille. of the sj-luiu. ro-lliv Igol ale. Ibe gell-
aood mini where mow U gem -nil d ebiliiy. Jr-
m 1 . U.. ..It .lia iuaL
1 arising from uupa
rule of iue blood ili.nl-r s Herb Hitler, is pro
no ui!d by the highest medical authori.le. the
cat certain, auceny ami ).-..... --j--tallt.
Thoulid. h.v te.ledllttuy, udil..
Clare it I the greato.t aa.l-llit of uatai la h. r
coud'Ct wilh disoae, that the lit hi of science B
ever broujht to our knowledge, bold ty all
d-u'rii aud dealers. lr. S. It llarluiau to-.
I'toufKluiK, Luc4cter, l a.
Secure Itralih 1 Advance.
It f a dlBlcolt to extinguish . sain ft., ..
Mglng J. , but you can prerent a conflagration
rendering yonr flvrelltng are.pM, and you
prevent an sttack of fever b, invigorating and
pnrtrytng your " hnusn of clay."
Tha outside presto upon thn eonimnH,.
tha vital powers at this toaton ta tremandon.
Bvory pora of tha million which cover the sns.
of tha body Is a drain upon lu sobnc) ana
strength. To mcot this depletion, to keep np
stamina nnder snch a consUnt outflow of dis
solving flesh, a tonic and Invlgorant Is absolutely
necessary, and timo, that trie all things, h
proved that HOSTETTER'B STOMACH PIT
TBR8 Impart a dogreo of trength and resistant
power to the over taxed vital forces, which Is un
attainable by any other known mean. The effect
this Inestimable vegetable preparation Is to In
crease the appetite, accelerate digestion, tone th
secretlvo organs, give firmness to the norves, pu-
rny tno oiooa, cneor th spirits, and, by thus
rallying all the force of the body, enable It to
defy the enervating Influence of the heat, and pasa
trinmpbsntly through Ihe trying ordeal of the
summer months. As a safeguard against epidem
ana s preventive or the recblenoss, lassitude,
prostration, of which so many thousands
complain at this season, it has a national reputa
tion founded on twenty-five yoars of uninterrupt
ed and tincqnaled success.
AJF.T" VATKI) fortho Best "Mm r
Jrnnl mid Col In x" yet. Issued. Py lion. K. It.
Mansfiklo (well known as " K. P.M. of fliicimmtl
O.zrttk ami "Veteran I lltasrvMr' nr tlm K..w v.,.1.
Toots.) Two editions Finnish and German, full
accniiiu 01 Tnese nisi inmuftlicrl men, Willi hteel I'nr
trillts and Maps, Hepnhllean Platform, and Letters of
Acceptance. Price LOW, tn suit the times. Large
rrofl is to Airenfs. For territory apvu-hrve Wfmt or
noiava, apply to nnr Western ofncp.'R. tl. LAM I1KIIT.
o. Drawer, No. in, nioomlngton. Illinois. Kist or
J .",i,'ly ,n " w-, A '"" ,u' co- Publisher,
a . ., 1 b. -a i .uie iiuiiiii, inu.
Koborts' Family Knitting- Machine.
Tills to the moRf eomrtlPtc nnd rnpl. KnltHmrMnchlnfl
the world. Si-t up it own work, ll wtn up a CiiU
hIjeimI stocking in A qtmrtiT of ft minute. It tit I'OSI
TIVKI.Y the only machlno that t-nn knit a uiitHj
double heel. It will knit Plain, KiM.l or ricmnctl,
cIommit opt 'ii work of all flzt' with either roarxe or
flue van, of woolen, cotton, linen or Bilk. It will knit
fliiin'd patterns, it knltn with on. two or lliree
thread!, nt the sainn time. It narrown unl witlens,
knlttlni? a heiiutll'ul slinpyil Atorklni;. It knits nn eml-lew-f
variety of nrltele. It In ho simple and eat-lly
worked thai ft child run learn to knit w lui It. It is not
liahlu to Kft out nf ordur, nnd is tho nnwt durahlo
machine lnanntnntured. Kvvry machlno Is shipped
ready for nmnlinr, and ft ramnhlct of Instructions
which will unable any out to kinl, is scut to each ptir
clniser. t?f" Afronts wanted In overy town In tho Northwest,
e pay a ltirirer cnmmUslon than any other Company.
Address with stamp,
GEO. B. LEONARD, Madison, Wis.,
LIPPlfJCOTT & BAKEWELL.
Axes, Shovels, Saws; &c
118 Watw HI., Plif bnrgh, Fiu
MUX OWNFH8 and 1,1'MItKK MKV will find It
(Trent ly to their advantne. to ne SAWS nnd AXKS
manufactured by Ul'IMN'COTT & liAKKVKIJ,,ritts
nurjih, pa. Or" CuiwUler well bel'uru ordering fruni
other parties your
For everr nanp, Mill, Mnlay and Clrenlar Haw, from
to TN inches. In Oil Tempered, Patent tiround, ami by
our Patent Tempering Process (for which we have II. o.
patents, exclusively our own), timdoof uniform temper
nil over the circular saw. llnrri nml ho It Hpota lu
the same saw arc thu nlwnyH Avoided 1
We areaUo solo owners anil inauutuciurcrsof
Colburn's Tatont lied Jacket Axe.
With this Axe, any lumber man will, with The samo
labor, cut 25 percent, more timber per day.
etr1. We are also Agents for UOYNTOVS TANG for
ffWOnr Goods are for salo by all Dealers In Uie
Trade Mark Lira INCOTT & CO.
All Antidote for Tobacco.
Is STCAt rfmeilv- tnvariahl .mwiaa nil
- - -' -... , I...,, la . .... i . u vninuvi. u nu ' til
It I. nlW. an Mll.nl .nA.l.. 1. ..JA. .1. JT
luTiuiuicaiuungKiij, iusBtHvs ((rutti noiirjriiuij' HU
streritheiiilV iiowvr. enables the atomuBto lltnat
th faTarticst rapt, makt leop rsfreshKig, and estab
lished robust huJstfi. iSmor and Utieuvrt for iity
I'mr Cured, Hfty Ontyfer Box, post fro.
A Treatise on tbo liTWlou inflect of Tobaoco, with
list of testimonial, ruvnop etc, bent ran.
Agent wanted. AddrAUr. T. K. Abbott, Jcney
City, N. J. j
A Clekotvan'b TafriMOKTSr-Oim Box or Ann.
DOM cured my brofW and myiV fx netkb rAlia.
Jiev. I. wiioiHAKia, KclW Station, Pa,
IfKALTn i ajjiTStrkiiotii GArKiro.-i7jfieJ tlert
. oJteMni am restored to found kbUI by using
."" Al"C". 8. D. BowLia, ProaiwetSlJIl, Mo.
ln.. .1, . . :JF
KriM TtlB TT fi fP... O a , .
send a sunnlvnf a KTlUnTW Tha Ann
' tlont iUt work sumclt. o. T. Ejua
THE BfiEiT IMEHICAI KIITTEB."
r - t-'v ".;-' ; v
Farms & Fruit Lands.
The Illinois Central Railroad Company havo foi ale
tracts of 40 acres and upwards, iMt.uuo acres of enolce
farm inn and fruit lands, all ly tug adjacent to their road.
For graln-prowlne, stock-rafslmr, and every purpose ol
protliable agriculture, thuse lands pohsusa every requi
site ot soil aud cllmats.
THE FRUIT REGION
Southern Illinois Is noted for Its wonderful fertility
tho production of apples, pears, peaches, and all
kinds or frulta. During the season of the titeclal
Fruit Express Train ttrouifht over ftKt.OiX) tx.xes ol
peaches and SO.ouo bushels of strawberries to thb airo
alone, from thence furnishing the tlrst fruiU of the
season to all the northern market, twi.uno acre ol
these fruit, lands are now oflejed for sale ou favorable
Title in Fee from the State.
AU Station A (rents are provided with plata, showing
the lands for Haiti in their vicinity.
tW Information frlven upon all points at the office o
the Land Pe narlment, AS Michigan avenue, Chlcm,'.,
a descriptive pamphlet, with maps, idiowtutf the
exact locality of all tbe lands, sent to any person wnt
ln for the same, lu any Unguaxe, to
JOHN B. CALHOUN,
LAND COMMISSIONER, CHICAGO.
CENTS WILL BUY A CASE contatining
U I I tabling X autre line Letter Taper, M KnveliH
.lilt Penholder. tlideatrlicttlilo I'm, f'enell. A
V V Ul'AUAM'tKl) KKl'KUT ruU ItllKL'MA
TISM, (liurredlfiiu purclnued l any drug More,) lo
piece of Jewelry nluod at from SU cent lo UK. One
cm In every hundred coutaln a TKN Dul.LAU
liUliKSllACK. Ko humbug, bent by nulll ou rocelpt
M ceuu aud 2 red stMiiw. AtldreM
H. H. WOOLRIDGE & CO.,
J. I. CASE & CO., Racine, Wisconsin.
Parties wl.iilnir to niireluwe tlie ltKST MACIIINR In
am, wilh Hie rli'linui'.l Womlbiiry i Moiiulei!.) t'lliiiax
or l'tlt lViwera, Hie niiifHU-il to full on our l.oeut
Afinl.nl nil I1111-. nam point. In Um Wealim f ll;' 1
or to rite to tin- I'lituiumy tor Hll Ulullled trlc 11.1,
wllleh will Ih' still rm:K by mall. m
MAKHI KV. Al. 1.1X1 AttS'S
HAKIltt.U.E aSII t I ll.KISV.al
I'lileasii, llliuol. Muuului luivr oi iu .lilu.
blaVaA UlUULKa. I'll-.
J. I. CASE & CO., Racine, Wisconsin. CAMPAIGN MEDALS.
J. I. CASE & CO., Racine, Wisconsin. CAMPAIGN MEDALS. Buy only at the Manufactory, One
sample, twenty-five cents ; six samples for
sample, twenty-five cents ; six samples for one dollar, by mail. Agents wanted.
LANPHEAR & PENNY, Cleveland, Ohio.
A .enla Wnlilrd.
vi ..iu ..... r..ti,le aireiil. wauled
II 'mu ontuv mm rtl.leV .
or LUlili ion Wlii.Ww l-.ili.li. imi
huu", ..111. , or .lore, rn.ni. Uj Al-.-iiIj o.. r
Jllll T. Kalillrfed.iie aelil oa reeel.l of fl.UU.
W. alo kii conalai.lly o" hand full U..y ol
At.-lil' amaU new and Uarlul nrllrlea m ll M l"re
Mie.1 Kolder. Ii.ilia liuni ii.-nt. THiii-v". Mirir Tors
hii. nam. i M.-.l.il.. I'Kini! W h.-eU, Maie t-ai. l.iiuu
Alaikri., h.,aiT' blarrh l.l.a and lUurhu. Pialo
llller and llllv ..llier B..d elli.ii! rllele. I..i part in -ulaia
i.t.ltVM. A. UKALltOllU A CO., J I llalk
M-ll TO iMI VV It IIOVTII l-A I. A V
U la. Mid to A- 10 uia1- or li'lti ..'. to U.I...-I.I. o
nf Hour 1'AriM- I.N r HI A.TIMI NNIIIIK
W vum; t'l.lirtlKK lI.s. A.l.lr.-l Al
r WlH ., li William .IreeC, a'rw Vurt, or lit
jiearlw.rn alreet. t IiU-ho, 111.
a. i',t-i , w m. , .
Kour Macntftrenily IKiicmiM Vf.vllcal Hot.lts, t nn-tahiw-i:
IiiKrtaia i I j , . K U- 1 liui-rn..tluu, ir ll u
anU Wnju t'i,ffri!.l t:c oit r,s . let XJ n-nu, by ad
(lr.-M.tiDf 1'U JvtlM VaV.M'Uai'UUU iSo. tfO I J'ni.i
VVC. Li'-jr. i-J M W