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A Lengthy State Paper by President Harrison. A Vigorous Foreign Policy is Essen tial to Maintain tho Di-nity of Our Government. Our ltolntions "With Chile, tlio Boring1 Sea Mutter nml tho Now Orleans AInssacro are Discussed. Plon for tho Abolition of tlio "Clerrj rounder" In Politics lho Tariff", Itecl- proclty, Pensions nml Other tin portnnt hulijrotn ltccclvo , Attention 'jnupsls of Vo imrtmcnt Reports. Washington, Dec 0. The following' Is the President's message: To tho Sonnto and Housoot Representatives: Tho reports ot tho honJs of tho sovoral execu tive departments required by law to bo sub mlttod to mo. which aro herewith transmitted and tho reports of tho socrolary of treasury and altornoy general furnish a comprehen. slro low of tho administrative work ot ths Inst llscnl vear relating to Internal affairs. It wculd bo of great ndvantngo it theso re. ports could nave an attcntUo ncrusul by evorj" mombor of congress and by all who toko on Interest In public affairs. Such a porusal could not fall to exolto n higher upprcclutlon of the vast labor mul conscientious oflort, whlca are given to tho conduct of our civil adminis tration. Tho reports will, I believe, show that overy Suostion has been approached, considered and eclded from the standpoint of public duty und upon considerations uflccltng tho publlo inter ests nlono. Again I Invito to every branch of tho service tho attention and scrutiny of con Kress. itFCirnoou, trade nPLAiioNs. Tho work of tho state department during tho Inst j ear has been characterized by on unusual number of important negotiations und by dip lomntio results of a uoinblo ana highly bene flclol character. Among theso aro tho recip rocal trade arrangements which huo been con cluded, in the exercise ot tho powers conferred by section 3 of the tarltl law, w 1th the republic of Brazil, with Spain for Its West India posses sions, and with San Domingo. Like negotia tions with other countries have been much ad vanced, and it Is hoped that bo oro tho oloso of the year further donnttlve tradu arrangements ot great valuo will bo concluded. TltK SEAT, IISHKIUI-.S DISPUTE. In view of tho reports which had been re ceived as to tho diminution of tho seal hords In tho Hiring Sea, I deemed it wise to propose to her ma estv's govornmont in February last that an ngrecmont for a closoJ session should be made, ponding tho negotiations for arbitration 'Which thon s cined to be approaching a favor bio conclusion After much correspondence, and del.ijs for which this govoinment was not responsible, un iigreoraoct was reached and signed on tho l.'th of .Tune, by which Great Ilritaln undertook, from that date and until May I, ISM, to prohibit the killing by her sub jects of souls in tlio Herlng Sea, and the govern ment of tho United States during tho same pe riod, to enforce Its oxlstlng prohibition against pelagic scaling and to limit tho catch by tbo Fur Seal company upon tho Island to T.rux) skins. If this ogreoment could hnve Leeu reuchc-d curlier in response to tho strenuous endeavors of this government It would hnvo been more effective; but, coming even us Ittous it did. It unques tionably resulted in greatly diminishing the destruction of tho seals t)j tho Cunud un seal cries In my last annual message I stated that tho basis of arb tratioa proposed by her majos ty's gov ornment for tho adjustment of tho long pending control ersy as to tho seal ilsherles wus not acceptable. I am glad now to be able to announco that the torms are satisfactory to this gov eminent, hav o been agroed upon, and an agreement us to the arbitrators Is nil thut is necessary to the completion of tho convention. Invicwot the advanced position vvnlch this government has taken upon the subject of in ternational arbitration, UUs renowed expression otour udhcrenco to this method for settlement of disputes such as hav o arisen in tho Bering sea win, I uouot not, meoiwim tnc concur rence of Congress. OUIt BOUNDAHIES. Provision should bo made, for a Joint demar cation of the frontier Hno boiv. ecu Canada and tho United States wherever required by the Increasing border settlements, and especially tor tho exact location of the water boundary In the straits and river?. OPENED TO AMERICAS) MEATS. The law of the lust congress providing a svs tern of inspection for our moats Intendod for export and clothing tho president with power to exclude foreign products from our market in case tho country sending them should perpetu ate, unjust dlscrtm'nallons uguinst any product of the United Slates, placed this government in a position to effectually urgo the removal of such discriminations ngalust our meuts It Isgratlfjlngto bo able to state that Qor mii'iv. Henmnrk, Italy, Austria and Frunoe. In the order named, hav o opened their ports to Inspected American pork products. Tho re moval of these restrlcilons In overv Instanco vi uh asked for and given solely upon tho ground that vvu bud now provided a meat inspection thut shouid oo accepted us adequate to tho complete removal of tho dangers, real or fan cied, which has been previously urged. The state depattment, our ministers abroad, and tho secretin y of agriculture have cooperated with unllnggtng nnd intelligent zeal for tho ac complishment of this great roiult. Tho out lines of an agreemont liavo been reached with Germany, looking to equitable trade concessions in consideration of tho continued freo importation of hor sugars, but tho tlmo has not jet arrived wuon this correspondence can be submitted to congress. the Tuonm.Ls in urvzil. The recent political disturbances in Brazil have excited regret and solicitude. The in formation wo possessed w as too meager to en ablo us to form a satisfa -lory Judgment of tho causes leading to tho temporary assumption of supremo power by President Fonseca, but this government did not fail to express to him Its unxlous bollcltudo for the peace of Urizll and for the maintenance of tho free political Insti tutions which had recently boeu established there, nor to orfer our advice thut gicut moder ation should bo observed In tho clash of parties and tho contest for leadership. Theso coun sels were received in tho most friendly spirit, and tho lati st information is that constitu tional government has been reestablished without bloodshed THE NbVV oru.r.NS lynching. Tholjnchlng nt New Orleans in March last of eleven men ot Italian nativity by a mob of citizens was a most deplorable and discredit able Inoldent, It did not howevor, huvo its origin in any animosity to tho Italian people, nor In any dlsrtspect to tho governmontof Italy, with which our relations were of the most friendly character. Tho fury of the mob vvus dirt cted against these men as tho supposed participants or accessor cs in tho murder ot a cltyomcer. I do not ulludo to this as mitigat ing in any degreo this offense against law and humanity, but only ns affecting tho interna tional questions which grow out of It. It was onco represent d by tho Italian ralnlstor that several ot those whoso lives had been taken by the mob were Italian subjects, and u demand was made for the punishment of the partlcl pants and for in Indemnity to tbo families cf those who wero killed. It is to be regretted thai tbo manner in which theso o alms wore preBemi d w as not such as to promote a calm discussion of tbo questions Involved; but this may well bo attributed to tho excitement ana inaignation wuun tho crime naturally ovoked. Tho views of this government as to its obligations to foreigners domi ciled hero were lully stated In the correspond ence, as well s its purposo to muke an Int estl gallon of tho afiair with a vlow to determine wbothor there wcro present any circumstances that could, under suth rules of duty us wo hud indicated, oieat i an obligation upon tho United fatutes. Tho temporary absence of a minister Plenipotentiary of Italy ul this capital haB re larded the further correspondence, but It Is not doubted thut u friendly conclusion U altnlnuble. borne suggestions growing out of this un happy luoideut wus worthy of tho attention of congress. It would, I believe, be entirely com petent forcongress to makooffcuses against tho treaty rights of foreigners domlcil d in the United St ites cogiilzuble lntho loderul courts This has not, how over, been done, und tbo federal officers uud courts huvo no power in jsuen cases io iniurvsue eiinerior me promo tion ot a foielgu citizen or for the punishment of his slayers. It soeins to mo to follow in this state ot law, thut tho olllcers of the statu charged with police und Jultclal powers in such cases must, In the consideration of Internation al Questions, grow pg out of sink Incidents, lie regarded In tudi sense by fmicrnl agents us to make this gov eminent answerable fortheiracts In cases w hero It would be unswtrable It the XI lilted E lutes had not the constitutional power to daflno and punish crimes against treaty rights. THE ITATA INCIDENT. Tho civil wnr In Chtlo, which began In Janu ary last, was contlnuod. but fortunately with Infrequent and not Important armed collisions, until August S3, when tho congressional forces landed near Valparaiso nad. after n bloody en gagement, captured tho city. Prcsldont Ilal ninccda at onco recognized that his causo was lost, and a prov Istonul govornmont wns speedi ly established by tho victorious party. Our minister was promptly directed to rccognlro nnd put hlmsolt In communication with this Fovernment as soon ns it shonld havo cutnb Ishod its do faoto character, which was done. During tho pendency of this civil contest frequent Indirect appeals wcro mido to this govornmont to oxtend bolllgcrcnt rights to tbo Insurgents nnd to glvo nudlonco to tholr representatives. This wns dcoltncd nnd that policy was pursued throughout, which this government, when wrenched by otvll war. so strenuously Insisted upon on tho part of European nations. The ltntn, nn armed vessol commanded by n naval oillcorot tho Insurgent licet, manned by Its sailors, nnd with soldlors on board, was seized tindor process ot tho United States court nt San Diego, Cal , for a violation of our neutral ity laws Whllo it tno custody of an onicor of the court tho vessel wns forcibly wrested from his control, nnd put to sea It would havo been inconsistent with tho dignity nnd self respect ot this government not to havo Insisted that tho Itatn should bo returned to S in Diego to abide lho Judgment of tho court. This wns so clear to the junta of tho congressional party, est ab Ushod at Iqulquo, that, before tho arrival of tho ltntn nt thut nort. the secretary of farultm re- lntlons of tho provisional govornmont decided to rend Admiral Drown commnndlngtha Unltod Stntcs naval forces, a communication, from which tho following Is nn extract: 'Tho prov Islonal government haslearnod by tho cablegrams ot lho Associated Press that tho transport ltntn detained In San Diego by ordor of tho United States for taking on board muni tlons of war nnd In possession of the marshal, lolt tho port, c.irrjlng on board this official, whu was landed nt a point near the coast and thon continued hor voyage. If this nous bo correct this govornmont would deplore tho conduct of tho ltnta and. ns an evidence that It Is not disposed to support or nvrrco to the infraction ot the laws of tho United States, tbo undersigned inkesndvantago of tho per sonal relations jon havo been good enough to maintain with him sinco jcur nr rival in this port to doclnre to jou thut" us soon as she is within reach of our ordors his government will put tho llutn, with tbo arms nnd munitions she took on board at San Diego, at lho disposition of tho United States." A trial In the district court ot tho United States, for tho southern district of California has recently resulted In a decision holding among other things, that, Inasmuch ns tho Con grcsstonal parly hud not b"en recognized as a belligcrant, tho acts dono In its Intorest could not bo n violation ot our neutrality laws. From this judgment tbo Unltod States has appealed, not that tho condemnation of the vessel Is u matter ot importance, but that wo may know whnt ths presont stnto of our law Is ; for. If this construction of tho statuto is correct, there Is obvious necessity for revision and amcudment. During tho progress of thowur In Chile this gov o nment tendered Its good offices to bring about ii poaccful adjustment, und it was nt ono tlmo hoped that a good result might be reaction, but in this wo were disappointed. The instructions to our naval olllcers and to our minister nt Santiago, from the first to tho last of this strugg t. enjoined upon them tho most Impartial treitmont nnd absolute non interference. I am sntistled that these instruc tions wore obscrvod, thut our representatives wero always watchful to use their influence impirtlallv. in the Interest of humanity and on more thun ono occasion, did so effectively. Wo could not forgot, hotvover, that this govorn mont was In diplomatic relations with tho then established -government ot Chile as It is now In such relations with tho successor ot that government. lam quito sure that Presi dent Monlt, who has under circumstances of promise for tho peace of Chile been Installed as president of that republic, will r.ot desire thut in the unfortunate event of nnv revolt against his authority tho policy of this government should bo other thin thut which we have re cently observed. No ofllclnl complaint of tho conduct of o ir minister or of our naval officers during the struggle has been prosenlod to this government, ami it is u matter of regiet that so many otour own people should huvo given ear to unofli ial charges and complaints that manifestly had their origin in rival interests and in it wish to pervert the "relations of tho United States with Chlio. THE COLLArsB OP THE GOVKHNMENT OFBAL MAChDA brought about a condition which lsunfortunoto lv too familiar In tho history ot tbo Central nnd South American states. With the overthrow of tho Iialmaccda government, he and many of his councillors nnd olllcers became at once lugitives for their lives and uppealcd to the commanding officers of tho foreign naval vessels in tho harbor of Valparaiso and to tbo resident foreign ministers nt Santiago for nsj lum. This usylum wus freely giv en, accord Ing to my information, by lho naval vessels of several lorefgn powers and bysoverul of tho legations at Santiago The American minister, as well as bis colleagues, acting upon the impulses of humanity, extended asylum to political refugees whoso lives wore in peril I have not been willing to direct the surrender of such of theso prisoners as ai,i still In the Amor can legutlon without suitable conditions It Is believed that the government of Chile is not in a position, in view of tho precedents with which It Ins been connected, to broa-lly deny tho right ot as) lum, nnd tho correspondence has not thus fur presented nny such dcn.nl Tho treatment ot our minister for a time was such as to call for a decided protest, and It was very gratifying to observe that unfriendly mo isures, which were undoubtedly tho result of tho prevailing oxcltcment, wero at onco re scinded or suitably relaxed. THE ASSAULT ON AMEIUCN SIUjORS AT VAu- pmiaiso. On the 10th of October an event occurred In Valparaiso so serious and tragic in its circum stances and results as to very justly oxcite the indignation of our people and to call for prompt and decided action on ths part of tils govern ment A considerable number of tho siilorsot the United Stutcs stcamsiilp Baltimore then In tho harbor of Valparaiso, being upon shore leave and unarmed, wero assaulted by armod men nearly simultaneously In different locali ties in tho city. Ono petty officer was killed outright and seven or eight sea men wcro seriously wounded, ono of whom has since died bo savngo nnd brutal was tho assault that sovoral of our sailors received more than two, nnd ono ns many as olghteen stab wounds. An Investigation o tho affair wus promptly mado by a board of officers ot tho Ualtimoic and their report shows that these assaults wero unprovoked thut our men wero i onductlng themselves In a peaceable und orderly manner, nnd thut some of tho police of the city took part In tho assault nnd used their weapons with fatal effect, while a few others endeavored to protect our men.' Thirty six of our sailors wero arrested, and soma of them, whllo bo'ng taken to prison, wore cruelly beaten and mu treated, Tho tact that thay w ere all discharged, no criminal chargo be ng lodged against any one of thom shows very elourly that they woru Innocent of any breach or tho peace. So far as I have boon able to learn no other explanation of this bloodv work has bean suggosled than that it had Its origin in hostility to tnoso men as sailors of tho United States, wearing the uniform of tholr government, and not in uny individual actor personal animosity. Tho attention of tho Chilean government was at onco oslled to this affair, nnd a statement of the facts obtained by tho lnvostlgnllon wo bad conducted was sub tnlltcd. accompanied by a request to bo advised ol any other or qualifying facts in tho posses sion ot tho Chilean government that might tend to relieve this allalr ot tbo uppearanoo of an In suit to this government. Tho Chilean govern mentwas nlso advised thut if such qualify. Ing facts did not exist this government would conl.dcntly expect full nnd prompt reparation. It is to bo regretted that tho reply of the secretary for foreign affairs of tho provisional government was coucheJ In an oltem-lvo tone To this no response has been made. This government Is now awaiting tlu result ot an investigation wnicn nas been con ducted by tho oriminul court at Valparaiso It is ropo tod unofficially thut the Investigation is about completed, and It Is expeoted that tho result will soon bo communlcuted to this gov ernment, together w ith some udequate satisfac tory rcsponso to tho noto by which lho atten tion ot Chile was called to this Incident If these just expectations should bo disappointed or further needless delay intervene, I will, by a sneolul message, brlnir this matter again to tho ut cnllon of congress for such notion a may be nocessary. Tho entire corrcspondonco with the government of Chile will ut un early date be submitted to congress THE BPANIHK EXPOSITION, The government and 'pooplo ot Spain propose to colobrato tho four hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America by holding tho exposi tion at Madrid, whlot will open on the Wih of September and continue until tho .'list of De cember, I till J. A cordial Invitation has boon ex tondod to the United States to take jlartln this commemoration, and. as Spain wns uno ot the nrsi nations to express mu intention to par tlclpato in the world's fair at Chicago, It would bo very appropriate for this government to give mio inviiuviou us iriuuuiy promotion. RELATIONS WITH CHINA. Tbo Into outbreak against foreigners In va rious parts cf the Chlnoss empire has been a cause of deep concern In vlow of tuu numerous establishments nf our citizens In the Interior ot that oountry This govt rnmont can do no loss than Insist apou a coutlnuaueo ot tho protective and punltary monsures whloh tho Ohlneso eT ornment hns horotofore applied. No effort will bo omlttod to protoct our citizens peace nbly so ournlng In China, but rocont unofficial information inalcntos that whnt wns at first ro- ?:nrdod as an outbreak of mob violence against orolgnors has assumed tho largor form ot nn Insurrection aja nst pnbllo order. Tho Chinese govornmont has ilocllncd to ro colvo Mr. lllnlr as tho minister ot tho Unltod States on the ground thnt, ns a participant, whllo a senator. In thn onnctmcntot the oxlst lng legislation against tho Introduction ot Chi nese laborers, ho hns becomo unfriendly nnd objcctlonnblo to China. I havo felt constrained to point out to the Chlnoso government tho un tonnbloness of this position, which soems to rest as much on tho unaccoplubillty ot our leg islation as on that ot tho porson ohoson. AIUUTRATION. Tho arbitration treaty formulatod by tbo In ternational American conference lapsed by reason of tho failure to exchango ratlilcntlons fully within tho limit of tlmo provided, but sov oral of tho govornmonts concerned havo ox pressed a desire tosavothls Important result ot tho conference bv on oxtenslon of tho porlod. It Is, In my Jutigmont, Incumbent upon tho United Stntos to consorvo tho Initiative It has taken In this monsuro by ratifying the Instru ment nnd bv advocating tho proposed exten tlon of jo tlmo for oxohango. Theso vlows have boon ma Jo known to the other signatories HEaAUDIMl JEWISH I'RItSKCimON IN IttlsSIA. This gov ornment hns found Decision to ox pross, In n friendly spirit, but with much earn ostuoss, to tho government ot tlio czar. Its serious concern because of tho harsh measures now being onforccd against tho llobrows In Russia. By tho revival of antl somitlo laws, long In abeyance great numbers of those unfor tunuto people havo beon constrained to aban don thoir homes nnd lcavo tho umpire bv reason of tho Impossibility of tlndlng subslstonco w ltntn tho p.vlo to which It Is sought to conttno them. The Immigration of thebo people to tbo United Stntcs -many other countries being closed to thorn -Is larg-ly Increasing and likely to assume proportions which may muko It difficult to Und home and employ ment forthem hero und to seriously nffeoc tho labor mnrkot. It Is estimated thntovcrono in lllon will be forced from Kussia within a few ors. Tho Hobrow Is novor iv beggar; ho his always kept tho law often under severe and opprosstvo civil restrictions It is nlso true that no race, soct or class hns more fully cared fortts own than tho Hobrow raco Uut tho sudden transfer of such a multitude under con dltlons that tend to strip them of thulr small accumulations und to elopross their enorgles and coumgo, is neither good for them nor for us. The banishment, wbother by direct tlecroo or by not loss ccrta n indirect methods, or so largo a number of men and women Is not a local qutstion. Adecrco to leave one country is. in tun nature of things, an oruorto enter anntuer. This consideration, as woll ns the suggestions of humanity, furnishes amplo ground for mo re monst unces which we h ve presented to Kus sla, whllo our historlo friendship for thtt gov ernment can not fail to glvo the assurances that our representations aro those of a sincere vv oil vv lshcr. THE NICAIIAOUA C VNAI. Tho nnnutl report of the Marjtlmo Cantl Compinj, ot Nlcara;ua, shows that much cost lv nnd necessary preparatory work has bocn done during- tho year In tho construction or shops railroad tracks harbor piers and break waters, and that the work of canal construe tlon hns mado some progress. I doem It to bo n matter of the hlgho.t concern to tho United States that this cnal connecting tho witers of the Atlantic und Paclllc oceans, giving us a short water com nunlcatlon betwoenour ports upon those two groat seas should be speedily constructed nnd nt tho Bmnllest pnv tle.tblo limit of cost Tho gain in rrclghts to tno peo pie nnd the dticct saving to the gov ornment ol tho United States In tbe use ot naval vessels would pav the entire cost ot this work wllhin a short series o! years. The report o tho secro tary of the navy shows tho swing in our naval expen llturos which would result. ir this wor Is to bo promotuJ by tho usual financial methods and without thonldoftnls govemmeut the expenditures will probably be twice tbe nclual cost. This will nccessltnte higher tolls and constitute a hctvv and need loss burden upon our commerce nnd that of tho woild Uv cry dollar of tho bonds and stock ot tho company should represent a dollar ot pended in the legitimate and economl.-al prose eutlouoflha vvorit This Is only poislble by giving to tho bonds tho guaranty ot the United otatos government Such a guaranty would secure the ready sale nt par ot a J per cent bond, from tlmo to time, us the money w as ne dod I do not doubt that, built upon these buslnoss methods tbe canal would when fully in-vugurated, earn Its tlxcd charges and operating expenses. A guaranty of tho bonds ol tho canal company to an amount nocessary to tho completion or the dual co jU, 1 tnlnk, bo so glvonas not to involve any serious risk or ultimute loss. The things to be care-rally guarded ure tho com plellon or the work within tho limit o( the guaranty; tbo subjugation or the United States to tho rights ot thu drst mortgago bondholders tor any amount it may havo to pay, an 1 in tho meantime a control oi the stock or tho compau v as a s-'curlty ngainst mismanagement and loss. I most sincerely hono that neither party nor sectional lln;s will bo drawn upon this great American project, so full of In terest to the people ot all our states and so in ttuestlal lu Its -effects upon the prestige und prosperity ot our common country. EFFECT or TAItOTF LEGISLATION. Tho general Intorest in tho operations ot the treasury donartment has boen much nuzmented during tbo lust ye r by reason or the conflicting predictions, which accompaniid and followed thettrlffand other legislation of tbo last con gres alfectlns; tho revenues as to thu results ot this legislation upon the treasury and upon tho country. On tho one hand Itwasconlendoi that imports would so fall o'l as to lavo tho treasury bankrupt and that tho prices ot artl cles entering Into the living or tbo people would bo soonbunceins to disastrously niioct their comrort und happiness, whllo on theolher it was argued thut tlu loss to tho revenue, inrgeiy tbe result ot pi vein,' sugar on tlio free list, would bo a direct gala to tho peopl ; that thit pricj or t io necessaries ot Hie including thoso most higjly protected, would not bo enhanced; tint I ibor would huvo a larger markot an 1 the products or th farm advanced prices; while, thu treasury surplus nnd receipts would be alcquuto to meet the appropiiatlous ln..'ludln' tho large expenditure i for tho reiunding to tho stutes or lho direct tax and the redouin Ion of tnu I , percent. bonds It is not m? purpose to entor at any length Into a discission of tbe otocts of thu legislation to which I huvo referred but a brief examination of the statistics of the treas ury uud a general glance nt tho state of business throughout tbe country will I think, satisfy any Impartial inquirer that Its results h iv e dis appointed the evil prophoclcs of Its opponents und In a largo moasuro realized tho hopoful pi a dictions of its friends Rarely It ev cr before In tho history of tbo couatry has thora boen a time when thu proceeds of one day's labor or the product of one farmed acre would purchase so large un amount of those things that outer Into tho living of the masses of tue p.-oplo. 1 bulievo that a full lest will dcvoiop tho fact that the t.irin act of tho Fifty first congress Is very favorable In its average erfoit upon the prices of articles entering into common uso. Daring tho twelve months from October 1, 1B.U to September 30, 1MI, the total vamo of our foreign commerce, (imports und exports comb.nod) was l,7.7,HOJ, lii. which was tho largest of any year In tho history ot tho Unltod States The largest In aiy previous yoarwas In 1BK), wben our commerce, amounted to II, 017, 139,03 1 nnd tho last year oxceods this onor mous aggregate by over one hundred millions During thu year ending September !J, 1SJ1, our imports ot morihand'se amounted to bll,1(!is, which wus an lnoiotso of more than eleven minion dollars ov er tuu vniuo of tho Imports ol tho corresponding months or tho pro.odlng year, when tho Impjrts ot mer chandise were unusually lurgo la anticipation of the tariff legislation then ponding Tho uv er.igo annual valuo ot tbo Imports of merchan dise for ho ten years from 1831 to lbUO was ;6j.',. 11,5 J. nnd during the year ending September .a, 1MH, this annual uverugo was exceeded by The valuo of free Imports during tho twelvo months endltnr Sfentumuor M IS'll. VVUS 811S.. RU 337 tnoro than tho value of freo imports dur.ng tho corresponding twelvo months of tho precodlng year, and there was during tho same period u deoreaso of 810 1 twos in thevuluo of Imports ot dutiable merchandise. The percent age of merchandise admitted Iroo of duty dur ing the year to which 1 havo rororre-d. tho lirst under tho now tariff, was 4S 18. whllo during tho preceding twelvo months, under tho old tariff, the percentngo was 31.87, nn Inmuixn nf 1 1 (II nor cent If WO take tho blx montns ending September 30 lust, wbloh covem the tlmo during which sugars have been ad mitted tree ot duty, the por cent, cf value of merchandise Importod free of duly is found to do a larger peroamago man uuy jinut iui year In the history of the government. If we turn to expo is ol merehundlse tho statistics aro full ot gratification. Tho value of such exports of merchandise for the twolve montns cnuinit oepieuiDer au, mm, . tX),09l,U whllo for tho corresponding prev Ioub twolve months It was r)J, 177.1 Id. an lu troaso of $13 Ul i.iui, which is nearly turoo times the averago annual lnoreaso of oxportB of raor chundlso during any year In tho history of tho government Tho increase In tbo valuo of ex ports or agricultural produots during the year referred to over tno corresponding twelvo months ot tho prior year was S1S.H49, 107, whllo tho lnoreaso lu tbo valuo ot exports ot mauu faetured produots wns 81U.8J.1 240. There Is certainly nothing In tho condition of tradu, foreign or domestic, thore Is certainly nothing In the condition of our people of any cluss to suggest thut tho existing tariff and rovenuo legislation bears oppressively upon th pooplo or rotmds tlio commurolnl devolopinont of tno tuition. It may bo argued thnt our condi tion would bo bettor It our tariff legislation vv ere upon a free trade b isls, but It can not bo denlod that all the conditions or prosperity and o. genorul contentment ure present in a largor tlogruo than over before lu our history, and that, too, just whon It vvus prophesied they would be In tlio worst stuto. I thtuit there uro conclusive ovldonoos that the now tnrlit has t routed several great ludus trios which will, within a tow yoars, givo em ploymentto Bevorul hundred thousand Amorl euu wontlngmou and woman. In view or the sotnowiiut uvo, crowded condition of ihe labor mnrkot ot tho United States ovoiy patriotic citizen should rojoluo at such a result. llKCKU'lS AND DtSlJUIlSt.Mb.NTS. Tho report or tho socrotury ot tho treasury shows thai lho total receipts ot lho govern ment from all souicus lor tuu llscul year cndmg June .tu, laJl, woru $ik4,oii :.MJ, wnllotlioex poadtturos for tkosumo period voro.Mil,JJMW, loaving u surplus ot Jj7,J,7ui6f. The receipts of the Usoal year ending June 30, ISJ;, actual uud estimated, uiolJJ,tAJJ,uod und the expend! linos 4jj,OjO odd For tno Usual your ending Juao.SU, 18 ij, tho ustlmatod receipts are sIju, jjj.JjO und lho expenditures Siil.uOJ.uj.e IHE hll.VKll CUINAUE gULSUON. Undor tho law of duly It, 1SJ0. tho sooiotnry of thuireusuiy mis purcn tod slnuo August U, during the ilscal year, 48,8vi-,lUounuosot Hilvcr bullion ut un average oost of l.o,.i per ounce, in exchange for mis silver bullion uuv a been issued -iii1.)(7,4Ui of the treasury uo.es-manor-ued by tho uct Tho prlco of sllvor on isov. 1 wusouiy w us, whien would glvo to tho silver lo.lar a bullion value ol i'I'a cuius. Uuforo tuu inrlueuoo of tho protect lvo sliver .cgislation vvus .ell la tho inar.tei it never vvus worth In Now York ubovu HI per ounco. The ablest advocates of frou coin igu in thu lust con gress wore eoiiddout in lacli prediction that luupurc-nasts by luo government required by tae iitw would ulouiO uring tuu price of silver to I 'JUpcrouucu, widen would muUo the bullion value of it dollar lot) uents und iioid it inuro. Tno propuocios ot thu antl silver men of disasters to result trom thu colnago of AUOJ;mjO per month were not wider ot the mark. Friends ol Ireo sliver uro not agreed, I tnluk, ns to the cause that brougnt Ihclt uope.ul piedietlons touuunt. Some lauts uro icuown. The exports of savor from London tu India during tuu first nine munths ot this calendar year tell olt ov cr .V) per cent, or $17,40,71 com pared wilu the same months of ttio preceding your. 'Ihe exports of domestic silver bullion noui this country, vvblch nad uvoraged lor thu last ten yoars over I7,WW,0.)J, ten tu thu las. ilscal year to !l.i,?t)i",JJl; while, for thu lirst tmiu lu recent years, thu Imports ol silver into mis country uxceoauu tno i lupous uy f.-,n,ouj. In tho previous Joanne not exports ot silver fiom tue ue unltod states amounted to 8,S1,Uj. The- production of tnc united states lncreusou troji nO,WJ,uud ounces In lti) to W.ujo.oW m lBiw Tno government Is now buy ing und putting usidu annually fl,0A),OAl ounces, wuicu, allowing for 7,140,000 oiiuccs ot nuw bullion used lu tho nils, Is u.iUJ.oj) more than our domestic proancts avail ab.e for coinage. I nopu luo depie-slon lu tno price ot sliver is temporary una mat a lurthor trial or this leglstuuon wilt mote lavoruD.y uttect 11. 'lliat tno increased volume ut cur rency thus supplied for tno use of the pooplo wus needed uud that beuellc.al results upou tr.tdo una prices huvo followed tills legislation 1 tnluk must ba vtry c.ear to every one; nor should It bo forgotten mul lor every dullar of tuesu notes tss led u full dollar's worm ol silver bunion Is ul lho tlmo deposited in tue treasury us security for Its redemption. Uloii tuts sub ject, us upjn tue lurlu, my recommendation is thut tuu e-.vlsting laws be given it lull trial and tnat our business Interests be spared the dls trusm0' tuliueueo vvuieu threats of radical changes uiwa) s imparl. 1 am still oi tue opin on that tho free colnago of sllv er under u Ui.ng conditions w ould disas trously arfectour busiue-ss Interests ut homo uud ubroad Vu could no. hope to in tintu n an uquuiity to thu purchasing power ot the goid uud silver dollar lu our marKets and In lorulu trade the sump gives no udded value to tho million contained m coins. Tno producers or tue country, lis Itirmcrs und lucorc-rs, have thu uighest interest mat every doilur. paper or com, Issued uy tho government sh ill bo us good as any outer. If there Is ono less vnluuulo man unoluer its sure nnd constant errand will be to pay them for their toil, and for their crops The mouey lender will protect himself by stipulating lor paymont In gold, but tuu laborer has njver been uu.u to do mat. To pla.e business upon u silver basis would m.;au a sudden and severe contraction of the currency, bv tho withdrawal of gold ami t,old notes uud Mich un unsettling ot all valuos us would producii a commercial panic. I eun not believe that u people so strong und prosper ous us ours will promotj sujh it policy. Tho producers ot silver aro untitled to just cons derution, but they should not forget lhat the government Is now bujlng und putting out on tue martcul what is thu equivalent of thu entire products ot our silver mlue3 This is more than tuey themselves thought of nsklng twoyeaisago. 1 believe it is thu oarucst de sire of a great m ijor.ty of tho pooplo, as it is minu, thulvu full coin use shall bjmadeofstl ver Just us soon as the cooperation or tbo other nations can be secured and u ratio fUed tuut will give circulation equally to go.d and silver. Tno business of tho world requires the use of both metals; but I do not see any pros pe t ol gain, but much or loss, by giving up tho present si stem. In which a lull use Is made of gold nnd a largo use of silver, for ono In whl h silver alone will cir culate Such an event would bo at once fatal to the further progress nf the silver movement, liimetalism is tho desired end, and the truo friends or silver will bo careful not to ov rrun tho good and bring lu silver monomet ulllsm, w.th its neceisary attendants, tho loss of our go d to iJurope and the relief of tno pressure there for a laiger currency I endoav oreil to keep a closo obsei v atlon of the state of public sentiment In Uuropj upon this quostion. und have not found it to bo such us to justify mo In proposing un international conference. There Is, ho a over I am sure, a growing sentiment In Uuropj in favor otu larger use of sliver, and I know of no more eifectual way of promoting this sentiment than by accumuintlug gold hero A scarcity of gold in the Karopoan reserves will bo tho most persuasive argument for the uso of silver. THE TIIEASUHY hU It PLUS. Tho presence of a largo cash surplus in tho trea,urvlus for many years been the subject ol much uufav arable criticism and has turntshed an argument to those who havo desired to pliiio the tarllf upon a purely revenue bisls. It was agreed by ull that the withdrawal from circula tion of bo lai go nu amount of money w as nn om harassment to tho bjslnoss of the country und made necessary tho Intervention of tho dopnrtment ut frequent Intervals to re lievo threatened monetary panics. Tho surplus on March 1, lfcj, wu- 5ia!,3.'f.-lnO.-J Thupjll-yof applying this surplus to thn redemption of lho interest bearing securl ties of tno United Slates wus tbouht to be preferable to thut of depositing It without In terest in national banks. There huve been ro deemod since tho date last mentioned ot Inter est bearing securities -i ,07iviA resulting in u reduction of theunnu'l intorest charge of M 1, ilsi,47. Tho money which had been deposited In banks without interest has been gndually withdrawn und used In the redemption of bonds. Thu result or this policy, or tho stiver legisla tion, and of tho rofundlngor tho l!i percent, bonds has boen a largo Increase or th j money In circulation At tho date last named the cir culation wus iJ'.JOI.Jli.iS')), or iildJ por capita; whllo on December 1, 1811, It had increased to $l,fi77,'4yi,i.7'), or J J). M per capita Tno offeror the secretary of tho treasuiy to holders of tho 41 i per cent bonds to oxtend the tlmu of ro temp tlon, ut tho option of the government, ut an In terest oi J por cent., was uccupicu uy tno holders of about ono half tho amount, nnd tho unextended bonds uro being redeemed on pre sentation. THE WAIl DEPARTMENT. Tho report ot tho socrotary of war oxhlblts tho results of an Into llgcnt, progressive und business llko administration ol a department, which has boon too much retarded as ono or mere routine Sonio espcclully good work has boeu ucoompltshcd. Tho efforts or thu secre tary to reduce the percontuge or desertions by showing tbo causes thut produued it have been so suceussiul us to onablo him to report for the lust year n low or percontago of desorttons than has beon before reached in tbo history of the army, Tno work of securing sltos for shore battorlos for harbor defonso and the innnufiiuluro of mor tars und guns of high pow.r to equip thom have mado good progress during tho year. Tbo preliminary worlc of tests una plans which so long delayed a start, Is now out of tbo way, Some gun havo beon completed nnd with un enlarged shop and a more complete equlpmentat Wulerviloi mo army win soon do uuroasv ot tno navy In gun construction Whatever unavoida ble causes of delay may arlso ther.i should be nono from delayed or Insufficient nppropria tlons Wo shall bo groatly embarrassed In tho proper distribution and uso of naval vessels until adequate pbore dotenes uro provided for our harbors. 1 concur In the recommendation or tno socro tury that tho throe-battalllon organization bo udoptod for the Infantrv Tho adoption or n smokeloss powder and or n modorn rilte equal in runge, proolslon and rapidity of lira to tbo best now in uso will, I hono not be longer uo laved The nroltot of enllsllnL' Indians undor gunlzlngthem Into soporato companion upon the same b tsls as other soldiers was made the BUbjcet of vory careful study by tho secretary und recolved ray approval. Boveral companies have beon completely orgunlzod and soven more a o In, process of orpanlza Ion. The ro BultsotBlx month's training huvo more than ruollc.ed the highest anticipations. UNLAWFUL CItirlr.SP. IMMianATION. The onforcomont by tho tronsury department ot tho law prohibiting tho coming of Chlnoso to the Unltod Stntos hns boon oltootlvn ns to such is Book to land from vessels ontorlng our ports. Tho rosult has boon to divert tho trnvol to vos sols ontorlng tho port ot HrltlMi Columbia, whonco passago Into the United Slates at ob scure points along tho Dominion boundary is easy. A considerable numbor ot Chlnoso laborers havo, during tbo past yoar, en tored tho United Stntos from Cnnndn nnd Mexico. Tho officers of tho treas ury department and of tho dopartmont of Justloo havo used ovory means at tholr com mand to Intercept this Immigration; but tho Impossibility or perfectly guarding our oxtond nd frontier Is apparent. Tho dominion govorn mont collocts n bend tax or tMfrom every Chi naman ontorlng Canada nnd thus derives n con siderable rovenuo from thoso who only uso its ports to roach n position of advantage to ovnde ouroxoluslon lnws Thoro seoms to be satis factory ovldonco that tho business of passing Cninnmen through Canada to tho United Stntos Is organized and qulto active. Tuu department of justloo hits construed tho laws to require the ro urn of nny Chinnmon found to bo unlnwfullv In this country to China ns tho country from whloh bo oamo, notwithstand ing tho faot that ho camoby way of Canada; but scvornl of the ditrlot oourts have. In ci s brought boforo thoia ovorruled this vlow or tno law nnd decided thut such persons must bo re turned to Canada. This construction robs tho law or all effectiveness, oven If tho decrees could bo exoctitcd, for tho man returned can the next day rocross our bordor. Hut tho ouly upproprlittlon mndo Is for sending thom back to China nnd tho Canadian officials reruso to nllow them to ro entor Canada without tho pay mont of tho S.V) head tax. t rocommond such legislation ns will rcmody theso dclcctB in tho law. In previous mossngos I hnvo called tho at tention nf pnnirn9 to tho necessity or soot tondlng tho Jurisdiction or the United States courts so as to mako trlablo therein nny felony committed while in the not of violating a law ot tho United Stntos. Theso courts can not hav o that lndepondcnco nnd effcctlv cnoss which tho constitution contomplntos so long as tho kl ling ot high cour. olllcers. Jurors, nnd wit nesses in tho dlschnrgo or their dutlos or by reason ot tholr acts as such, is only cognlzablo In tho stnto courts. Tho work dono by tho attorney gcnoral and the ofllcors ot his depart ment, oven undor the presont luadoquato legis lation, has produced sonio notable results in tho lntoiest or law and order. THE POSTU, SEIIVICE. In the report ot tho postmnstor goncrnl sonio very gratifying results aro exhibited and many botterments or the sorvlco suggested A po rusal ot thn report gives ubundanl ev ldcnco that tho supervision and dlroctlou of tho postal sys tem havo been characterized by an intelligent and conscientious desire to tmprot o tho service. Tho rovonues of tho dopartmont show an In crease or over . (X)0,00J whllo the estlmnto for tho y car 1M) I shows a surplus of receipts over expenditures Klght thousand miles ot now postal service havo been established on railroads: the car dis tribution to sub stations In tho great cities has been increased about I J per cent, whllo the percentage of errors In distribution has been reduced over ono half. An appropriation was given by tho last congress for lho purpose of making somo experiments In free delivery lu the smallor cities nnd towns. Tho results ot these experiments have been so satisfactory that the postmaster general recommends, nnd I concur In the recommendation, that tho Iroo delivery system ba at onco extoaded to towns ot fi.OOO population. Ills discussion of tho In udoquatc facilities cxteiidd under our present svstem to rural communities und his surges tions with u view to glvo these communities a fuller participation In the benellts of the post nl sorvloo aro worthj ot jour careful consider ation Over B I 000 neighborhoods ure. under the pres cnt svstem, receiving mall at post offices vvhoro money ordors and postal notes uro not Issuod Tho extension ot this system to lhoo commu nities Is espcclu ly desirable, ns tho pitrons or such offices uro not poss- sed or the other facll Itlcs offered In more populous communities for tho transmlslon ot smnll sums or monov. I have, in a mosngs to the preceding congress, expressed my views as to n modified uso ol tho telograph in connoctlon with tho postal service. THE NAVY. Tho report or tho secretary ot tho navy shows v gratltylng Increase ot new nival vessels in commission Tho Newark. Concord. Kenning ton nnd Mlantonomoh havooeen aided during the vear. with an aggregate of something more than 11.000 tons Twonty four sr ships of nil cluss tire now under construction In the navy yards and private shops but whllo the work upon inrm is goi g lorwnri sansi itioriiy tuu completion ot the moro important vessels will yet require nbout a year's time Somo or tho vessels now undor construction. It Is believed, will be triumphs ot nnvnl engineering. We havo now at Washington a gun shop, or g ml7Cd and conducted by naval officers, that In Its system, economy nnd product is unex celled. Experiments with armor pinto have been conducted during the year with most Im portant results It Is now belloved thnt a plate of higher resisting power than any lu uso has beon found nnd thtt tho tests havo demon strated thut cheaper methods of manufacture than those heretofore thought necessary can be used. THE INDIANS. The report of the secretary of tho Interior shows that a very gratifying progress has been mado In all or the bureaus which maku up that department. The work In tho bureau of Indian affairs was perhaps novor so largo as now by reason cf tho numerous negotiations which have been proceeding with tbe trlbos for a reduction of tho reservations with thn incident labor oi making allotments and was never mora carelully couductod. The good work ot reducing tho largor Indian reservations by allotments In severalty to tho Indians und tho cession ot the remaining lands to the Unito 1 States for dlsposltloa under tho homestead law, h s boon prosccutod during tho year with energy and success. In September last It was enabled to open to settlement in Oklahoma 9)0, TO J acres of land, nil of which wus taken up by sottlors In a stnglo day. Tho negotiation for the relcaso by tho Choro keos of tholr claim to tbo Cherokee Strip hns mado no substantial progress but It Is still honed that the cession of this lnrgo nnd valu ablo tract may bo secured. Tho prlco which tho commission was authorized to offer Sl.'-ft per uore Is, In my Judgm -nt, u fair und adequate ono and should havo boen accept -d by tho In dians Slnco March 4, IttT-, about '."1.000,000 acres havo been separated from Indian reserva tions and added to tho publl- domain for tbo uso of thoso who desired to secure free homos under our benoliesnt laws. THE PENSION miHEAU. The administration or tho pension bureau hns beon characterize! during the year by great diligence. Tbo totnl numbor ot pensioners upon tho roll on tho .'Jth dny of June, 1E0I. was il'D.l'X) Thoro nero allowed during the fiscal yoar ondlng nt thut tlmo MY) rW) cases Of this numbor, 10.'.aj7 wero allowed undor the law of June 37, I'M The Issuing of oerlllicntes hns been proceeding nt tho inte of about 30 0)3 per month ubout 5 per cont. of thoso being cases under tho now liw. Tno commissioner says ha will bo able to carefully ' odjudlcatu and nl low 3J0 (XX) claims during tho present Ilscal vear. Tho appropriation for the paymont of pouslons ror the ilscal yoar 18 W 01 w is ll!7.0V 70S, and tho amount expended $ll3.r30,sl0, leav ing an unexpended surplus of JIW, 111. Tho commissioner is qulto confident thnt there will bo no cnll this year for a dellclunoy appropriation, notwithstanding tbo rapidity with whloh tho work Is bolng pushed Tho mis take whlcu has been mado by many In tholr ex n,'goruied ostlmatosof tho cost of pensions Is In not taking account of Vio diminished valuo of lirst payments under tho recent legislation. Theso pavmonis undor tho general law, but o been for many years very large, ns theponslona when allowed dated from the time of tiling thu clulm, and most nt those claims had beon pond lngfor j oars. The lirst payments under tho law of Juno, IBfci, nta relatively small and, as lho par cent, of tbe casus inorouse and thut of tho old casos diminishes tbo annual uggregato ot first payments is lurgely reduced. Durlnx tho last tour months 113,175 certifi cates were issued. Tbouvonigo lirst paj mont 'iiurlntr thoso four months wns tlJl.hA. while tho average first payment upon ouch allowed during tho yoar ending Juno SO, 1811, was JJ3D 3-1, bolng a reduotlon In the average lirst pay ments during these four months of I07.4H. Thn estlmuto for nouston expenditures for tho Ilscal your ondlng Juno 30, 18H, Is JHt.O'A 0)0. which after a curoful examination of the subject, the oommlsslonor is of tho opinion will bo Buflloient While these disbursements to the disabled soldlors' of tho civil war are large, th y do not realize the nxavgor ttod esti mates ot those who oppose this bcnefloont legislation. The secretary of tho lntorlor shows with great fullness the euro that Is taken to ex clude fraudulent claims and also tbe gratifying fact that tho porsons to whom theso ponslons aro going ure men who rendorod, not slight, but substantial war service. THE CENSUS BUREAU. The work of the oensus bureau Ii now far In ndvanco and tho bulk ot tho enormous labor in volved complolcd. It will be more a rlotly a statistical exhibit and loss encumbered by ossays thun Us Immediate prodoccssors. Tho mnthnila nnraiifld have boon fair, careful and Intelligent, nnd havo secured tbe approval of statisticians who havo followed them with u BilonttUo nnd non part san Interest. The ap propriations nocossury to the oarly completion und publication of tho authorized v duines should bo given In tlmo to secure ng st do. lays, whloh lnoreaso the cost una at tno same tlmo ditnlnlshos the value of tho worlc AcirtionLTtmAL DErAitTMittrr. If tho establishment ot tho department ot ag riculture was rogardod by nnyono ns a mere ooncosslon to tho ttnenllgbtonod domand ot a worthy class of people that Impression has boon most offootunlly removed by tho great re sults already attained. Its homo Influence hns been very great In disseminating agricultural nnd horticultural Information! In stlmulntlng nnd directing a further diversification ot crops) in dotoctlng and eradicating diseases otdo- tncstto nnlmnls; and, mora than all, In tho close and Informal contnot which it has established und maintains with tho farmers and stock roll ers of the whole country, livery roquost for In f oi mat Ion has had prompt attontlon and ovory suggestion merited consideration The Inspection by this department or cattle nnd pork products intendod ror shipment abroad has been the basis ol tho sua esses which havo attended our cnorts to seoure tho re moval ot tho restrictions maintained by Kuro ponn grv orntnenls For ten years protests and petitions upou tnls subjoet from tho packers and stock raisers ot the United Stntos have bocn dlrootod ngainst theso restrictions whloh so sorlously limited our markets nnd curtailed tho proms of tho farm It Is a source of gen orul congratulation that success has ut lust bocn attained. Tho grain crop ot this year was tho largest In our history, 10 pur ront greater than thnt of last i ear, nml vet tho now markets that have boen opened nnd tbo largor demand resulting from short crops In Iluropo hnvo sustained prices to such nn extent that tho enormous surplus of meats and breadsluffs will bo mar keted at good prices, bringing relief nnd pros perlty to nn Industry that wns much depressed. The v nine ot tho grain crop ot tho United States Is estimated bv tho secretary to bo this year J.100,0 0,0 X) more than Inst; of moot, SlnO 000,000 more, and ot all products of tho fntm, S700.000,. COO more Tltn CIVIL SFUVICE. Tho report or tho civil service commission should receive lho careful attontlon or the op ponents, ns well ns tho friends ot this reform. Tho commission Invites u personal Inspection by sonators nnd roprosontutlvos or its records and methods and every rnlr crltto will reel that such un examination should preoode a Judg ment ot condoinnulion, either ol tho system or Its administration. It Is not claimed that either Is porfect but I bollovo thnt the law Is being executed with Impartiality nnd that tho svstem Is incomparably bailor and tnlrer than that or nppolntmcnts upon tnv or. I hav during tho year extended the classlilod servloa to Include superintendents, teachers, matrons antl physicians In tho Indian service. PllOTLCTlON FOH HAILWAY KMPLOYLS. I havo twtco bofore urgently called tho ntten Honor congress to the necosslty or legls utlon ror tho protection ot tho lives or railroad em ployes but nothing hns yot been done During tho j oar ended June 30 1MU, W1U branemou were hilled and 7,811 maimed while engaged In coup Hug car. '1 he totnl number of railroad om plojos killed during the year was tf.sSl, and the number Injured '-'- 800 Tbls Is a cruel and lnrgoly a needless sacrltlce. 'lho government Is spending uonrly $1 000 UK) annually to save tho llvos of shipwrecked honinen, every steam vessel Is rigidly inspected nnd required to adopt the most approved safot; uppllances All this Is good; but how shull we excuse tbe lack of Interest nnd effoit In behalf of this army of bravo yoilng men who In our lund coiumerto ore being sacrificed every year by tho continued use ot uiillqiiuted und danger ous nppllsiio -s A law requirlug ot ovry rail rend thn equipment of Its freight curs, with an tomuttc couplt rs uud ulr brakes would v cry soon undgrcitly reduce the recent fearful death rule among railroad employes. Tho method ot appointment by tho states ot electors or presldrnt und vice president has re contly attracted renewed Interest by reason of u departure bv tho s ntool Michigan from tho method which h ul boen uniform In ull the stales. Prior to lssa unions methods had been used by the dliterent stutcs and even by th snino state. Alter a full test ot othur methods without Important division or dls-ent lu uuy stato and without any purpose ot (party ndvan tnge.&s wo must bellov e, but solely upon tho consideration- that uniformity was desirable-, the practice of nil thn states wus brought Into har mony. That ibis concurrence should now be broken Is, 1 think, an unfortunate uud oven n threatening episode, und one thnt may well sug gest whether thu stutes that still glvo their ap proval to the old nnd prevailing method ought not to secure, by a constitutional amendment, a prnctlee which hns hud the approval or all Tlio rocont Michigan legislation provides tor choosing tbo congressional electors tor presi dent by congressional districts, nud the tno senatorial electors by districts created for that purpose, 'tins legislation was. oi course, ac companied by a new congrcsslonnl apportion ment and the statutes bnug tho electoral vote of tho stato under tho lnlluonco or tho "gerry mander" These goirvmnnders for con gressional purposes are. In most cases, buttressed by n gerrymander of tbe legls lntho districts, thus it milking impossible for a majority or the legislature ol tho state to correct apportionment und equalize tho con gressional ul tricts A minority rnlo Is estab llshcdthat only n political convulsion can over throw. I havo recently boen advised that In ono lounty ol n curtain stnte three districts ror the olocilon or members ot tbe legislature are constituted as follows; One has 0 ,0eW popula tion ; ono 1 1,0 0 nnd ono 10,000; w htlc In unather county detached, non contiguous sections have beon united to make n Icglslnllvo district. These methods hnvo already found effective ap plication to tho choice of senators and repre sentatives In congress, and now an evil start has been made in tbo direction or applying tbom to the cbolco by tho states or electors of president und vlco president If this Is accom plished we shall then have tho threo groat de partments of tho government lu the grasp of tho "gcrrymaudor" the lecislntive ana execu tive directly und tho Judiciary indirectly through the power of appolnimcnt- An olectlon Implies a body of electors hav Ing proscribed quallllcations. ouch one of wi om has an equal valuo aud Inllucnco In determining thu result. So when tho constitution providing thnt ' each stato shall appoint" (elect) "in sucii manner ns tho lezls nture may thorcof cHroot, a number or electors," unrestrlotcd power was not glvon to tho legislature In tho selection or the methods to be used "A republican form of government" Is guaranteed bv tho constitution to each state, und power given by tho samo In strument to tho legislatures of tho stnte to pre scribe methods for tho eholco by tho st ite. of electors must bo exercised under Hint limita tion. Thn essential fenturesor such a govern ment are tho right or tho people to choose tholr own officers nnd lho nearest pr ictlcablo equali ty ol V aluo in tho suffrages given in determining that choice. It will not bo claimed thnt tho power given to tho legislature would support a Invv provid ing thnt tho persons receiving tho smallest voto should be tho electors, or a law that all the oltctors should bo chosen bv tho voters of a single congressional district T ie stato Is to choose, and under tbo prctenso of regulating methods, tho legislature can nolthorvost tho right of choice elsowhcro nor adopt m thods not conformable to republican Institutions It is not mv purpose hore to disous tho question whether n choico by tho legislature or by tho voters of equal slnglo dlstr ots lr. a cbolco bv tho stato. but only to recommend such regulation of this matter by constitutional amondment ns will secure uni formity and prevent that disgrncotul partisan Jugglery to which such a llborty of oholco, if it exists offors a turaptatlon. Nothing Just now Is more Important thin to provide every guar anty for tho nbsolutoly fair and free choico by en equal suffrage, within tho respective states, of all the officers or tho n itiounl govornmont wbothor thnt suffrage Is applied directly, as In tho choico of inomlurs of tho bouso of reprosuntntlv os, or indirectly ns In the choice of senntors nnd election of president. Ilospoct ror publlo officers nnd obodlenco to law will not eonso to bo tho characteristics of our pooplo until our o.ootlons oouo to declare tbo will of majorities fairly useorlalnod, without fraud, supproas'on, or gorryn nnder. If I wero cnllod upon to declnro whoreln our chief nntlonnl dan ger lies I should say without hesitation In the ovorthrow of majority control bv tho suppres sion or preservation or tlio popular suffrage. That thoro is n roal danger hero all must agree, but Uih energlos ol thoso who soo It havo boen ' chlolly expoudod in trying to fix responsibility upon tho opposite party, ruthor than In efforts to make such pructlcos Impossible, I bellevo it would bo possible to constitute a commission, non partisan in its membership and composed or patriotic, wlso and Impartial men to whom a consideration of the question of tho ovils connected with our election system and mothods might be commivea vviin agooa prospeot of securing unanimity, in some plan for removing or mitigating those evils The constitution would permit tne selection of tbe commission to be vested In the supremo court. If that mothod would glvo tho best guaranty of Impartiality. To tbe consideration of theso vory grave questions I Invite not only tho attention of con gross, but that of all patrlotlo citizens. We must not ontortaln tho delusion thut our poople have coased to regard a free ballot and equal representation us the prloo ot tholr ulleglunce to laws an I to civil magistrates I huvo boon greatly rcjolood to notlco that many orllenoosof the Inoreased unlflontlon of our peoplo nud of a revived national spirit, The vista thut now opoiiB to us Is wldor und more glorious than ovor before Qrotifloatlon and utnazoment struggle for su premtoy ns wo contemplate the population, wealth and moral strength of our country. A trust, momentous In its intluenau upon our peo ple and upon tbe world Is for a brlof tlmo, com mlttod to us. and we must not bo talthloss to lu first condition tbe defense of the free i nd equal lnlluonco of the people in tbo choice of publlo officers and In tho control of publlo af fairs. UKKJAWIM JlAUWaON, r im0t,iypr yiWBffi n"TJt rxtt B,jfc urn w "f t Vtt T n i .