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THE PERSfl feURG J OURNAL, FRIDAY, MAY 10. 1907. fr I I I ! I I II " 1 I A - 1- t EAT TRIAL ON (Chiefs of the Western Federation of Miners, Accused of the Murder of Former Governor Stuenenberg of Idaho, Soon to Face a Jury -'-State Is Divided on Question of Their Guilt or Innocence-Immense Fund Raised for Defense---Fight Prom ises to Be Long and Bitter. Boise, Idaho. No one living In tho XRocky mountain regions can have an unprejudiced opinion regarding the :Steunenberg murder trial. This is the most important event that has occurred in western America In re cent yeare, and William D. Haywood, secretary of the Western Federation of Miners, charged with the murder of Idaho's governor, has halt the popu lation of the entire westorn country -with him and half against him. This Is tho culmination of a long line of "Bloodshed in the mining camps, begin ning in the Cocur d'Alcno's mines 15 .years ago, and culminating in the 'bloody mining riots in Colorado. The iprosecutlon alms to show that all tho -crimes in tho mining camps which .appeared at the time to have their .motive in tho existing bad feeling be tween tho mine owners and tho West ern Federation of 'Miners were (planned by the "Inner Circle" of the federation. Of this the three officials 'Indicted for the murder of Gov. Steuncnberg were members, and the crimes committed were supposed to be carried out under their directions. 'The defense Is confident of its ability to disprove these allegations, as well -as the charges made In Orchard's "confession," described further on In 'this article. At the time of the Wardnor riots dn the Cocur d'AIencs, Gov. Steunen ibcrg, In the absence of the Idaho -militia In the Philippines, asked for federal aid, and Gen. Merrlam estab lished such stringent military rule that Gov. Steunenhcrg gained the en mity of the entire Western Federation of Minors. Two years later Steunen berg retired from ofllce and returned to his home in Caldwell. Four years later, returning home from his ofllce .at six o'clock on the night of Decem T)er 30, 1905, ho swung open his gar den gate, and a mine that had been -set for him exploded and tore his body to pieces. His head was found .a block away. Two "Confessions" Made. Investigation implicated Harry Or chard and Stephen Adams in tho mur- saylng that It was obtained from htm by coercion and unduo influence. All Idaho is torn between tho prose cution and defense in this trial. Al though broken by great ranges of mountains and divided into separate sections by lack of through railroad connections, Idaho is a unit and Its progressive citizens are well acquaint ed In all parts of the state. Tho popu lation Is small, but enlightened. Rich mines and irrigated farms have pro duced a great deal of wealth, and the resultant culture has not weakened tho moral fiber of its citizens. The people of Idaho are a very high class of Americans. Trial Made Labor Issue. " Tho prosecution of Moyer, Hay wood and Pettibone has been made a labor Issue throughout the United States. For a year and more meet-. lngs have been held, ending with a sensational series in all the large cities a few weeks ago, in which tho prosecution was declared a persecu tion, and the question was asked: "Shall our brothers bo murdered?" The purpose of these meetings was to obtain money with which to conduct the defense, and over a quarter 0f a million dollars has been raised. There Is tremendous Interest In the trial all through the west, even In portions where there are no mines or miners. It is most talked of in labor circles. There the spirit regarding tho trial Is good. All tho labor unions ask is a fair and speedy trial. They have reserved their judgment and are willing to stand by the judgment of any 12 good men. The trial will cosl the state of Idaho over $200,000. The defense expects to spend even more. It has $1,000,000 belonging to the Western Federation of Miners, besides tho $25,000 raised In public meetings. James H. Haw lay, formerly a well-known California lawyer, now of Boise, Idaho, and Sen ator W. E. Borah of Idaho, are lead ing counsel for the prosecution. Clarence Darrow of Chicago heads the defense. His principal assistants are ex-Gov. John T. Morrison and John F. IlllilJ Dpi 1 wMmmmmmsaBmi nm m gga pwK; t&$z- WIAT GQVGW& 6TUNNBRG WUAM HAYWOOD .dor, and both confessed. In their con fessions they stated that they wero tho tools of tho "Inner Clrclo" of tho "Western Federation of Minors, and 'implicated the officials of tho federa tion In a long list of murders and at--tompted murders. Churles H. Moyer, president; William D. Haywood, sec rotary, anil Georgo A. Pettibone, com mitteeman, all membors of tho "In ner Cjlrclo," wore "kidnaped" in Colo rado on hurried extradition proceed ings and rushed to Idaho on a spo clal train. Orchard has since become .greatly weakened mjntally and Adams has retracted his "confession," Minora denij .,f,1ainn" nin'tho validity of tho power to convIcW Orchard and its Tho complain court has passed' two tcrms r broueht to trial ii th capcs wore a motion to havo flndo tho basis of fow wcoks ago. TJiJwo dismissed ft ruled, Senator Borah"" was over trial could not prevlPS that tho legally held under th have been as habeas corpus pnJW'of Idaho, ponding In the supreme ?,nBa wer0 Tho dofenso then pi1, chango of venue from onod for Boise. This was granted16'1 w Wood, tho defense agree! Jut1 bring up tho question of inot w ,.,, r,i t,w?to wnrui ttiiPSe or. trial of Haywood for May 3 1C , About this trial centers tho gl'; Interest, as tho fate of HnywocP" decide the fate of the othorB, BlnT'Jj three of the Indicted men were eq. ' Implicated by Harry Orchard. Could Not Have Trial Earlier. ---.. f .tTTKSMi of tho "Inner CIkSo 2t Western Ftdsratlon of Minors Orchard's Remarkable . According to his own confcssloB, Or chard was the principal assassin In th pay of the Westorn Federation of Minors, hired to get rid of objection able persons. A remarkablo sldo to his story Is his care not to Injure per sons not Gnomics of the Federation. He planned many times, he confessed, to nssasslnnte Gov. Poabody of Col orado, but, as ho says In his "confes sion": "I could havo got Gov. Peabody time and time again, If I had not been afraid of blowing up those Peabody girls." He tells In another place how he de liberately foiled a determination on tho part of the Federation to destroy a whole tralnload of innocent people. There was a military ball at Victor, Colo., Nov. 14, 1003, In the midst of tha mining trouble In this district. The (military was In control, and the , ,, . , ..miners oojectea to me uiuruiu mw, a The prosecu ion haa been general! ' c criticised for allowing a whole year to k over tQ vlctorVtlrom Crlp. pass without bringing these men tot Knowing that -frtti l'',"i1 KmfKtiKii'JM'irT mmm m iA""r:'y s&a"ak3 VfMS.V"7 jHVL4 WBTldKaLf I i t sJHPbC '.iikifo",'.& '''' '6Z'.'A' 'a' ', '.';'., ''.''.'ZW.iVA WMM& ami .uiti. ". . ..:; r. j r.,. . n..- ly'.WA "-'.m B " J17R6l In securing bettor legislation, espe cially In behalf of unfortunate chil dren. State federations, and many local clubs, havo started traveling libraries for tho benefit of rural districts. Tho decoration of tho home, schoolrooms nnd garden Improvements, nil havo received attention, and tho "homo beautiful" has become famllinr. In every department the wntchword3 havo boen progress and education. CfflGlSMQYG Nugent of Idaho, the firm of Richard son, Patterbon & Hawkins of Denver, and lawyers from every town In tha west in which tho Western Federa tion of Minors has had trouble. Will Bo Hard Fought Battle. Tho trial will be long and hard fought. In tho first place, It will bo dinicult to secure a jury In a state whero every ono takos a vital Interest In tho trial. Tho prosecution will oxort every possi ble effort to secure tho conviction of Haywood, as tho hopa of fastening tho long lino of Colorado murders on the officials of the1 Western Federation of MjSxnjrSMmi AlSBBHsaij'EsaSMI M wiVwSI I lESlv MsmfiTW WWW WTf v fS&&6(? J mfsrofOMzm rAjs1 trial, and many excuses have been made to account for It. The Idaho laws provide that a man cannot be con victed of a crime on the uncorrobor ated confession of an accomplice. It Is stated that the prosecution ha3 delayed because It was unable to obtain cor roboration of Harry Orchard's confes sion. The district attorney yields no information on this point. But since the prosecution is now taking up the case, it is presumed that it has stronger evidence against Moyer, Haywood, and Pettibone than the "confessions" of Harry Orchard and Stephen Adams. The fact that Adams has retracted his confession practically destroys It as evidence, and Orchard is understood to be in so weakened a state of mind that ho will not be able to take the stand, and the prosecution will be forced to seek to have his sworn testi mony, on which the Indictments were brought, admitted as evidence in the form of affidavits. The confessions of Harry Orchard and Stove Adams for tho murder of ex Gov. Steunenberg wero obtained by James McPartland of tho PInkerton detective service, who broke up the Molllo Magulro gang in Pennsylvania In the seventies, and secured the con viction and execution of 17 members. Murder of Steunenberg, When ex-Gov. Steunenberg was mur dered, Dec. 30, 1905, the nature of the death trap set for him and seemingly the probable motive for tho act pointed suspicion toward tho "Westorn Federa tion of Miners. James McPartland, su perintendent of the western branch of tho PInkerton service, with his office in Denver, took up the caso. Three days after the, murder McPartland ar rested Harry Orchard, In whose room In a hotel In Caldwell was found a sus picious white powder and somo lettois. In his trunk In the railroad station, It Is claimed, wero found materials for making bombs, a cipher code, and let ters from several Federation officials, containing Instructions and advice. How "Confession" Was Got. McPartland set about obtaining a confession from Orchard. He 'worked on his nerves by placing him in soli tary confinement with silent attend ants. At tho end of a week McPart land appeared, sowed tho seed oi dis trust In Orchard's mind, and loft him to ruminate oer what ho believed to be the treason of his Instigators. Mc Partland did not como back for days. By that time Orchard was ready to talk. It took live days' steady writing to take down his "confession." It takes seven hours' rapid reading to get through with, this document, which pui ports to glvo tho eutlro history of tho this train was to return at two o'clock i In the morning. Orchard, according to his "confession," was ordered by Sec retary Haywood of the Federation to wreck the train on a very dangerous curve. The attempt to wreck the train was made; spikes were pulled from a rail on a curve of a 300-foot embank ment. "When I was ordered to wreck that train," says Orchard In his "confession-," "I said I would not do It. And I was the man who passed the word to the conductor, warning him to look out." Tho conductor took warning and the wreck was averted. Tells of Another Crime. In the long story of his "confession" Orchard tells of many things. He con fessed to the blowing up of the Inde pendence railroad station. The Find lay mine, at Independence, Colo., em ployed nonuiilon men. Tho plan, Or chard says, was to kill off two shifts at once by blowing up the railroad sta tion as one shift was going to work and another leaving. Two o'clock In the morning was the hour selected. Orchard says that this crime was "framed up" in Haywood's room In Denver. Haywood made his "get away" by inducing a saloonkeeper named Neville to burn down his sa loon, get tho insurance money, and then to travel north through tho moun tains. On the first night out, Orchard pretended to have forgotten his gun, and rode back in the night with tho ostensible purpose of getting it. At that time he says he laid the mine which tore 13 men limb from limb and crippled six moro for life. Judge Goddard's Escape. The "confession" contained accounts of efforts made to "get" two judges. In ono Instance Orchard says' ho had planted a bomb Just outside the gate before Judge Goddard's house, burled six inches below tho surfaco, ou tho outside of tho gate post, covered with a pleco of sacking, and attached to a fine wire connected with a small bottle of acid, which lay above a heap of potash and sugar, deftly placed over tho explosive. Tho Httlo wire from the bomb camo just above tho surfaco and a (Ishhook was fastened to tho end of It. A screw eo was dilvcn intp tho gate and a piece of Iron wire was at tached to It. When tho two wires wero connected tho slightest opening of tho gate would explode tho bomb. But Judge Goddurd, said Orclmid, constant ly failed to como when ho was expect ed, and tho "job" was forced to wait uutll Orchard should finish some other work ho had on hund. Tho tlmo never camo when Orchard wa3 able to bet tho mine. Women and Club Culture jBy Mrs. AdUl Stevenson " Former Vice President's Wife Tells How Clubs Have Benefited the American Woman Mission ary Societies Gave Impetus to the Idea Women Have Learned Self-Control, Unselfishness and Obtained Broader Views of Ufe Mothers' Club the Best of All. - - (Copyright by J. B Dowlci.) (Mri Adlnl Stevenson Is known tlio country over as the wife of tho former vice president of the United States. Dur lnp? her four years In Washington Bhe was a distinct social success. She has served as president seneral of the Daughters of the American Revolution and as a prom inent officer In other Important organiza tions ) Through the medium of the clubs, and by their own volition, women have turned upon themselves the search light of close scrutiny. The result Is that many of the defects of character which were overlooked and pardoned because of the feminine source now stand before the court of their own choosing. The crucial test is, What have the clubs dono to demand perpetuation and the gratitude of a credulous pub lic? It was not a sporadic but a most in fectious disease, this almost spontane ous uprising among women Into a higher and nobler valuation of thelt apabllltlcs and dormant powers. Perhaps the credit of Introducing lb methods to the American women aiuld be given to the missionary so clfes. The first movement for or Bfed, independent work by the Amecan -women In behalf of heath en wnen was Inaugurated In New York, prn 186o, by Mrs. T. C. Dore mus. In 18,. the Rev. David Abeel re turned fi his mission In China and pleaded icvfew York the cause of the zenana woen. This germ of a "wo man's miss to woman" took root In the heart of 'ts, Doremus. Twenty-six years later, iien she heard the stir ring words of missionary from Bur ma, Mrs. Doretua resolved that this appeal should d response In the hearts of America women If It could be accomplished. -n isqo her fondest hope3 were realize and an Independ ent, undenomlnatloui ooclety was or ganized to send outungle women to the east. The orgaratlon took the title of the "Woman's'jnlon Mission ary Society of Amerlcifor Heathen Lands." This was the &t organized effort of woman to conuW labors of magnitude nnd Important Kindred societies, or cW, sprang up all over tho country, vhat these societies havo done for theVurch at largo Its rocoids will tell. And let It be borne in mindhat all this was tho result of organize club work. What aro a few of the thoughts gleaned and acts loarnrd by women In the arena of club life? They havo learned a moro respect ful regard for tho rights of others. Further, they have leLrned that a meroly self-centered woman Is neither ornamental, useful nor happy. Self ishness kills to the root every high and noble aspiration of the human heart, and in this class, tho Insincere woman finds her place. Women have learned confidence In their ability to conduct business upon strictly business principles. Thoy havo challenged tho respect of the business world In tho successful sno- acement of their financial affairs. They have learned that correctneat In statement and absolute Impartiality are essential In a presiding officer; that personal ambition must be elimi nated in the discussion and decislon of all matters concerning tho welfare and progress of tho body; that the voice must be properly modulated nnd that distinctness In articulation an'l correctness In pronunciation are es sentlal in addressing largo audiences, ns well as helpful In speaking to smaller assemblies. They have learned that courtesy and promptness aro the keys that open tho door to success. Unswerv ing justice Is a mightier weapon In woman's hands than nil tho sergeants at-arms the American congress can muster. Women are generous and most forbearing If they believe that justice and right Is tho law of tho chair. Clubs are a source of recreation, refreshment and invlgoratlon. For every young mother, especially, wo would recommend one or two clubs not more. Those should bo In tho di rection of her personal taste. The value of an hour's healthful study each day, wholly removed from tho care of children and tho many perplexities of the housewife, will serve as the best tonic our young wo men can procure. Music, art and literature, philan thropy and reform, civics and sclenco all offer their attractions. Through the clubs mainly women have learned the power of "silent thought" and Its retroactive effect upon those around them. Also, that needful repose in. the contemplation and In the accept ance of events as they come glvo tho endurance and resistance necessary In times of great stress. Tho contact with bright minds, helpful suggestions and Interchanges of views havo been most beneficial. Has it been a benefit to woman Who will say "no?" Quickly followed clubs galore 1 Margaret Fuller, the Shakespeare, th Longfellow, tho Browning, and other clubs. Later camo tho patriotic or ganizations. First and foremost of these stands the national society of the Daughters of tho American Rev olution. Tho work of the national so ciety during tho war with Spain alono would give It deserved renown. Other patriotic organizations aro tho Colonial Dames, tho Daughters of tho Confederacy, tho Daughters of the Cincinnati, tho Woman's Relief Corps and many more. All these clubs (for such thoy are) have had undoubted Influence upon the patriotism of our country. To your honest judgment we leave It to decide whether or not these clubs havo been of benefit to tho American women. Undoubtedly tho greatest factor in tho development of women aro tho distinctive woman's clubs. They havo passed boyond tho experimental peri od and aio an assured fact. Tho cornor stone upon which these clubs wero founded was and is edu cation, in ltB broadest, highest sense. Thiough them every nvenuo of thought and endcawr has been opened. Thoso clubs wero organized not for the benefit of womon alone, but for tho uplifting und bsttorment of mankind. The hl3tory of tho General Federa tion of Woman's Clubs Is too well known to need a word of Introduction or dofense. After a trial of 15 years tho General Federation of Woman's Clubs has proved itself potent In ef fecting many municipal roforma. and If club life is not overdono stores of delightful knowledge may be laid away for future use. You will find it most resourceful when tho children need careful guidance In their courses of study and reading. The value of club life upon woman la Apparent In Its effect In broadening her views of life, in enlarging her sympathies and in extending her knowledge along every line of thought. Tho beautiful study of parliament ary usage has also engaged her atten tion. Tho effort to preserve the "forests primeval" of Minnesota Is ono of tho great undertakings of tho Minnesota club, 5,000 strong. Kentucky women have gone Into tho mountain fastnesses and brought order out of chaos and comfort out ot confusion through social settlement work. Tho Chicago Woman's club, which. Is about 30 years old, was the first to provide funds for a kindergarten In the. public schools of Chicago. It was influential In starting the vaca tion schools In Chicago and has re cently raised many thousands of dol lars for benevolent purposes. The clubs of almost every stato havo their Individual work. Can anyone estimate the value ot such varied and successful endeavor? think not. Liko tho old wine at the feast, wa hare reserved tho best for the last. ri!ie National Congress of Mothers foufd Its birth In the tender heart and symnthotlc nature of Mr3. Thcodoro W. Btn'ey, who was tho organization's first pculdent. It wodd bo Impossible In this arti cle to toich upon all tho vital matters pertaining, t6 the advancement and el evation of home and family which, have been brought out at tho various conferences of this organization. Sut fico It to say that tho homo h.i3 boen invaded in eiery nook. Motherhood in all Its phases has teen presented tho care' in rearing our daughters; tho physical sldo of motherhood, her edity, environment, tho caro of tho deaf, the blind, tho truant and tho re sponsibility "of tho stato toward tho delinquent child. Tho father, too, Is being loudly re minded that with"" the mother lio must sharo tho responsibility of rearing tho Httlo ones. Wisdom of the Ravsn. , Two collie dogs wero hunting rab Mts, and 'tho l nvens wero soaring overhead. As tho dogs drove tho rab bit out into tho open near the top ot a hill it ran strulght Into a trap nud was caught. As tho dogs camo near llo ravens camo down, and by loud crouklng managed to drive away both. Then thoy started In to devour tho rabbit, which thoy Quickly dispatched.