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THE PB.RRYST3URG JOURNAL, FRIDAY, OCTOBER 23, 1908.
r t BULGARIA MOVED BY HATRED OF THE TURK STROKE FOR LIBERTY LONG PLANNED For Centuries the Domination of the Sultan Has Galled Proud Little Nation Now Determined, with Arms If Necessary, to Throw Off the Yoke Dreams of Past Greatness Revived Large and Su perbly Equipped Army in Readiness for Eventualities. LONDON. For thoso who know Bulgaria and tlio Bulgarians it is not hard to understand what Piinco Ferdinand's pioclnniatlon of the Independence of tho country means to his people. It is tho consummation of 30 years of patient, crafty, never-swerving effort, always directed to tho ono purpose, by the minds of statesmen who wero not afraid to match their wits with those of tho prime ministers of tho great western powers and whoso rewards were occasional victories. It is tho consummation, too, of tho prayers and liopes of tho 4,000,000 people of Bul garia over slnco tho treaty of Berlin, dictated by Disraeli, deprived them of tho advantages secured for them by Russia in tho treaty of San Stcfano. A westerner can hardly appreciate the Bulgar's haired for tho Turk. It s tho relic of centuries of slavery, during the time when Europe was awaking from the sleep of the middle Ages, and it is hatted that knows no GEN. NIKIPHAROFF OP BULGARIA. . 3&8SS$igS A. .& .W.V - v I'lioto Underuood & Underwood, N. Y. ' bounds, no modifications, that is un dying nnd impossible of mitigation, Bulgarians hao never forgotten that In the olden days, when western Eu xopo was for tho most part sunk In barbarism, the czar of all the Bulgars ' dominated tho entire Balkan pcnlnsu; la, and the Bulgarian cliuich was a treasury of learning and art. It is a far cry from Stephen Du shun, last of the Balkan czars, to Fer dinand, crar of tho Bulgars, and, In deed, the Bourbon blood of Ferdinand contains not ono drop of the fluid that flowed In the veins of the medieval .hero, but to tho Bulgars tho proclama tion of Tlrnova represents a return to tho old estate. On tho fatal field of Kosovo, "the plain of the blackbirds," so called from tho hordes of scavengers that de scended on the slain, June 15, 13S9, Sultan Amurath dealt tho final blow to tho Servian and Bulgarian armies com manded by King Lazarus. From that day until the last century the Ottoman empire dominated eastern Europe nnd BULGARIAN ,foontftgr41i,aap7fltfUt,l'X Vmieiwtwl A Vou'anrood.H, T. tho Balkan peninsula was turned Into a second Asia Minor. It is ono of tho proudest boasts of tho Bulgars that for mpro than four centuries they wore tho bulwark of Europo against tho Mohammedan armies, and that when they did fall they fell gloriously, fighting to tho last. Then Came Degeneration. But in tho cycles that came after Kosovo tho Bulgar race degenerated sadly. It became a race of stolid peas ants, heavy, stupid, uneducated, and so it remained until tho wave of insur rection swept over Europo in tho first half of tho nineteenth century. San Stcfano mado Bulgaria nominal ly free from" Turkey. She was to have almost tho whole of what is now known as Macedonia, with a seacoast on the Aegean, besides tho country be yond the Uhodopcs. But this did not suit Disraeli. Ho summoned tho con gress of Berlin nnd British battle ship3 proved too much for Russian diplomacy. Bulgaria was hacked, cut down, amputated into a tuppenny-ha'penny piinclpality, a vassal stato of Turkey, bound to pay a fixed annual tjibute, to bo determined later. And the Bulgarians wero not dis couraged, oven though disappointed. They began their uphill fight at once. They Ignored tho clauses of tho treaty binding them to vassalage; they ig nored tho tribute to Turkey, and, when tho time came, in 1885, they annexed Eastern Rumclla, a Turkish province having about tho same status as Bul garia proper, and over which tho prince of Bulgaria was governor-gen-eial. Turkey was afraid to fight Bul garia then, but Servla, jealous at such an. Important acquisition by her young er neighbor, declared war and was whipped at Slivultza. Since then Bulgaria has been devot ing her efforts to educating her people, to building up tho most efficient fight ing machine owned by a small power in Europe, and to skillfully carrying on a propaganda in Macedonia calcu lated to advance her interests in that country. At tho same time tho Bulgarian statesmen have been watching and waiting an opportunity to proclaim the country's Independence. Actually, they have always been free; nominally, the sultan has been their suzerain. In Piinco Feidinand they had a leady tool at hand. lie is vain, ambitious and equally crafty. As a statesman ho has proved himself no mean antagon ist duilng tho 20 years of his reign, and he has been willing to saciilice anything for tli3 prlvilego of calling himself king. Prince Tolerated for His Brains. So Europe has had tho curious spec tacle of a ruler, selfish and bound to his own ends, working hand in glovo with his people for the same lesult. It Is indiffeiout to his subjects what Fer dinand of Bulgaria calls himself. They despise him personally, while recog nizing that he is an able ruler, and let it go at that. In tho Turkish revolution, brought about by tho Young Turks party, Bul garia saw tho opportunity sho had awaited so long. In fact, some ex tremists may be prono to believe that. Bulgaria had a hand In the organiza tion of tho Young Turks. Feidinand saw Instinctively tho best way to accomplish what ho wanted. Austria, trembling over tho safety of her tenure of Herzegovina and Bosnia, was anxious for nuy plan that would undermine tho treaty of Berlin. Very likely Austria was only too happy to have a small nation like Bulgaria start ARMY DRILL. tho ball rolling, rathor than run tho risk of bringing down upon her own head tho wrath of tho great powors. Bulgarian statesmen nnd army offi cers havo ropcatedly doclarod that all Bulgaria wanted boforo declaring war ngalnst Turkey was tho moral and flnunclnl particularly tho latter backing of ono of tho great powors. Apparently Bulgaria has that now In Austria. If Italy, Russia nnd Germany can bo induced to keep their hands off then thero is not much chanco of Franco nnd England, who, after all, havo few interests at stake, Interfer ing. That at least appears to bo tho argument of tho Bulgarian govern ment. Can Put Big Army In Field. Thnt Bulgaria Is prepared for war nono who has had an Intlmnto vlow of tho country can doubt. Bulgaria's army on a pcaco footing consists of CZAR ALEXANDER'S MONUMENT IN SOFIA, BULGARIA. from stereograph, copyright, by Underwood & Underwood. N. T. over 50,000 men of all arms. Accord ing to Capt. Mischlcoff of the general staff plans had been mapped out wheieby 200,000 trained men could be put In tho field on the opposite side of the Macedonian frontier in two weeks. In another two weeks two more armtes of 100,000 men each could be placed on a war footing. Military service is compulsoryi two years being the minimum teim, and a man stays 18 yeais in the reserve after he has completed his time with tho colors. Consequently, tho whole able-bodied male population of tho country has bee.n trained in arms. Tho army is divided into nine mili tary districts, each of them tho head quarters of a division which, on a war footing, would become an army corps. Similarly tho entiro army is oiganlzed on a skeleton basis. Tho regiments, whoso peace footing is 800 men, would bo increased to tho strength of the Japanese regiments, a trifle more than 2,000 men. Drilled on American System. Bulgaria's cavalry has been drilled on tho American system. Shock tac tics aie never used, and the men are taught to make themselves of use In reconnolterlng and scouting. Possibly tho total force of tho cavalry corps would bo 7,000 sabers. So far as mounts go, it has tho best Hungarian or Russian horses that money can buy, quite up to those in the American service. Tho artillery has recently been equipped with 80 brand-now six-gun field batteries of the Creusot make, and, all told, probably has about COO quick-firing guns, not counting ma chlno guns and heavy siege pieces. Tho infantry, which is splendid fight ing material, carries tho Mannllchor five-shot rifle nnd knife bayonet, and is largely officered by men who havo been under fire In tho Macedonian revolt. It was n favoilto trick, whjlo the revolution la&ted, for officers to bo given Ieavo of absenco for an In definite length of timo, to visit their friends. They went acioss the fiontior with tho insurgent chetas. Perhaps tho greatest military advan tage Bulgaria possesses lies in tho fac). that both her personnel nnd equip ment aio at a maximum of efficiency. This Is based on statements by offi cers of her general staff. Provisions of the Treaty, The principality of Bulgaria was creatod by tho treaty of Berlin, signed July 13, 1878. It was oidered by tho trenty Unit Bulgaria should be constituted an autonomous and tiibu tary piinclpality under tho uuzoralnty of tho sultan, With a Christian govern ment and a national militia. Tho prince of Bulgaria should be freely elocted by the population and con firmed by tho subllmo porto, with tho consent of tho powois, but no mombor of any reigning houso of tho gicat European powors should bo elected. Eastern Ruraolla (slnco Its untoa with Bulgaria, also known as South ern Bulgaria) was created by tho treaty of Berlin. Signed July 13, 1878. It was to remain undor tho direct po litical and military authority of tho sul tan, under conditions of ndmlnlstratlvo autonomy, with a governor general nominated by tho porto. On Septem ber 18, 1885, tho government wnB over thrown by a revolution and tho union of tho province with Bulgaria pro claimed. Tho estimated area of tho principal ity of Bulgaria proper is 24,380 Eng lish squat o miles, nnd of South Bul garia (or Enstom Rumolla) 13,700 squaro miles. By a census taken in Jnnuary, 1000, tho population of tho whole principality was ascertained to bo 3,744,283, including tho population of Eastern Rumolln (1,009,981). At tho census of Jauary 1, 1900, it was H 3,7S3,1S9, the population of Eastern Rumelia being 998,431. Germany's Game. A short time ago Germany was tho isolated power of Europe. England, Franco and Russia were banded to gether to hold her in curb. Austria and Italy will bo closely bound- to her again and Russia may be detached in whole or pait fiom tho other drel bund. Tills is already indicated in the dis patches. Tho tieaty of Berlin, which settled the status alike of Bulgaria and of Bosnia and Herzegovina, being virtually torn in pieces, the czar's gov ernment will naturally demand its share of the benefits. Its eyes will naturally be turned to the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles and a demand will be made for tho renewal of tho embargo upon the passage of wai ships tlnough the straits. Thus Russia will hopo to gain tho naval ndvantage of her great littoral upon tho Black sea instead of having to depend upon tho ports of tho Baltic, which aro practi cally Ice-bound every winter. May Split with England. And this Is where tho split with England may come. Tho opening of the straits would place Russia in a position to contest at an early day her supremacy In the Levant. With her great interests in Egypt and with tho necessity for guarding tho Suez route to India against nil attack, it would become imperative upon her in the course of a few years to keep a vastly moro powerful and expenslvo fleet in tho Mediterranean than is at present needful. The reward offered to Italy for con senting to the Austiian territorial ag grandisement is no doubt a hand In tho colonization of Tripoli, towards which she has long had aspirations. This concession is not unlikely to suit Germany's plnns, since it may create suspicion and jealousy on tho part of France, aiming as It does to a com plete preponderance of influences In tho north of Africa. Germany cannot but bo pleased also at tho blow to tho Young Turk move ment, inevitable fiom tho loss of so much tenitory to tho poite, oven though the hold on It was llttlo moro than nominal. Down to tho tlmo of tho Young Turk uprising, Germany was the most Influential of tho powers at Constantinople. Tho sultan relied on tho knlsor for support against the i est of Emopo and the kalsor hoped to secuio giefct advantages first in tho way of lallioad concessions and ultimately in territory in tho Turkish rogions of Asia, Tho Young Tutk suo cess dispelled the German Influence and curbed German ambitions. Ed ward of England supplanted William as the best friend of tho Ottoman gov ernment. Anything that might tend to cuuso roactlou In Turkoy, there fore, could not fall to glvo satisfaction In Berlin. Practical Fashions 1 LADIES' "GIBSON" SHIRT WAIST. Paris Pattern No. 2G10, All Seams Allowed. Tho wldo tuck over the shoulders, which gives this waist its name, is stitched to tho bust lino In front and to tho waist lino in tho back, and gives tho only perceptible fullness. Tho model Is particularly suitable for mcssallnc, satin or chif fon, and a protty stylo is to wear ono of tho large lace yokes, which may bo bought ready made, as seen In tho Il lustration. It also adapts itself to hand embroidery, and is simple in con struction and becoming when worn. Tho sleeves aro in tho mousquetniro style, and aro mado over a lining. Tho pattern is in six sizes 32 to 42 inches, bust measure. For 30 bust tho waist requires 4.M yards of material 20 Inches wide, 3 yards 27 Inches wide, 2 yards 3G inches wide or two yards 42 inches wldo; one ready-made yoke. To procuro this pnttern send 10 cents to "Pattern Department," of tills paper. "Wrlto name and address plainly, and bo euro to Elvo slzo and number of pattern. NO 2610. SIZE, NAME TOWN STREET AND NO STATE , BOYS OVERCOAT. Pails Pattern No. 2585, All Scama Allowed. This jaunty littlo outside garment for the small boy is devel oped In dark blue, green, or brown broadcloth, Venetian cloth, serge, tweed, cheviot, or jovert cloth, as well as in black or bins frieze, which Is much used for boys' coats. Tho model falls straight from tho shoulders, and is fastened in double-breasted effect with cloth-covered or bono buttons. A black patent leather belt gives tho long-waisted effect, but if desired this and tho cuffs on the regulation coat sleeves may be omitted, and tho lat ter finished with a straight stitched edgo and ornamented with small but tons, matching those on the front of tho coat. Tho pattern Is In four sizes two to eight years. For a boy of six years the coat requires 3v6 yards of material 27 inches wide, or 1 yards 54 inches wide. To procure this pattern ncn'l 10 cents to "Pattern Department," of this paper. Wrlto namo and address plainly, and be suro to elvo sizo and number of pattern. NO 2585. SIZE. NAME TOWN STREET AND NO STATE In European Universities. Last year tho 125 universities of Euiope woio attended by 228,732 stu dents. Berlin was in tho lead, with 13,884; next camo Paris, with 12,985; Buda-Pesth, with C.551, and Vienna, with 0,205. Our Foreigner Friend. Tho tomato is a nativo of South Araorica, chlelly on tho Peruvian side of tho Andes. From Pom tho plant was taken to tho United States, Eu ropo and tho othor countries where It Is now cultivated, ijl I l c TJTo ! I o A ftnV 8EASIDE SILHOUETTE. -JjSC 'UA1!iktX jiSii Jft'tt t"v AV A young couple who aro vory much taken with each other. They Did. Undo Henry Nolllo, I hopo thoy obsorvo tho Sabbath at that lako ro sort where you spont your vacation. Pretty Niece Indeed they do, undo. On Sundays thoy always servo a regu lar four com so dinner. Alltui it l'nt-Knr,n liimlrr Forswollcn.BwratltiKfi'ct. (IIVMlnsfintrdlof Ttin original powder (or tliu feet, 25a ut nil Druggists. It Is only tho mistakes of othor poo plo that nro funny. 1YDIA. E. PINKHAM No othor meclicino 1ms been so successful in relieving tho suffering of women or received so many gen uino testimonials as has Jjydia 32. Pinklmm's Vegetable Compound. In cveiy community you will find women who havo been restored to health by Lydia E. Pinkham's Veg etable Compound. Almost every ono you meet has cither been bene fited by it, or has friends who havo. In tho Pinkham Laboratory at Lynn,Mass.,nnywomnnanydayinay kco tho files containing over one mil lion ono hundred thousand letters from women seeking health, and hero aro tho letters in which they openly stato over their own signa tures that they wero cured by Lydia E. Pinkham's Vegetable Compound: Lydia E. Pinkham's Vcgetablo Compound has saved many women fiom surgical operations. Lydia E. Pinkham's Vcgetablo Compound is mado from roots and herbs, without drugs, and is whole Bomo and harmless. Tho reason why Lydia E. 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Cuie h an uniurpaascd re medy lor couclu, coldi, urondiiui, Mlhma. hoartcne And throat and junj allccUool, It god direct to the teat of the trouble and gcnnaUy ccatorrahealihy condition Mother, can give their children IW Cure with perfect confidence in ill curative iMjwcrt and treeuom from opiaicx. amour lor halt a century. At all druggUu'. 25 cU. sigk CARTER'S llVER PILLS. CARTERS 12hTTLE WlVER J,- zzi - . i ;WrA V?, 1 4o8 'JILa Mi it Kf K Wwm