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THE PERRYSBURG JOURNAL, FRIDAY, APRIL 30, 1909.
REASONS FOR SOURING MILK. Lactic Acid Bacteria Cause Milk to Sour; Introduced Into Fluid In Various Ways. Many of tho lowor plants find sugar a suitable food. In making use of this food, the sugar Is chemically changed and In Its place wo find many new chemical compounds differ ing wldoly from tho sugar from which they originated. Somo bac teria In this process form various kinds of acids and gases. Among these Is a largo group of closely re lated bacteria which cause tho souring of milk by breaking up tho milk sugar Into lactic acid. On account of this .peculiarity they are commonly called tho lactic acid bacteria. Typical lactic acid bacteria do not form gas. They do not have spores and therefore are destroyed nt a comparatively low tem Ipeiaturo. They aro extremely widely distributed, and it Is only under excep tional conditions that milk Is obtained entirely free from them. They sel dom or never occur In tho udder it self, but probably aro introduced Into Typical Lactic Acid Bacteria. the milk with tho hair, bits of feces, and dust that fall Into the milk in tho barn. Milk is an excellent medium for tho growth of lactic acid bacteria, and un der favorable temperature conditions they multiply with astonishing rapid ity. The acidity of the milk Is so close ly connected with tho life processes of this group of bacteria that It may be taken as a tough measure of their de velopment. Tho acid, as fast as it Is formed, unites chemically with the casein, which exists as very flue par ticles suspended In the milk serum. When tho acid reaches a certain per cent, the acid casein is precipitated and tho milk is said to have "curdled" of "clabbered." This result may be hastened by heating. If milk or cream that ih slightly sour is added to hot coffee, or Is otherwise heated, it cur dles. Milk which has undergone a strict ly lactic acid fermentation has a firm curd, free from gas bubbles and with a small amount of whey on tho sur face. When shaken the curd breaks up into small particles which settle slowly, leaving a clear whoy. The milk fahould have a pleasant acid tabte. So far as is known, none of tho products of the bacteria of this group Is of a poisonous nature. Some of the bacteria commonly classed with lactic acid bacteria form acids other than lactic, together with large quantities of gas. Milk curdled by bacteria of this class shows gas bubbles and has a dlsagreeablo taste. Tho lactic acid bacteria not only are able to grow in an acid medium, but to a certain point tho acid is a favorable influence. Many bacteria, however, find the itc.ld detrimental to their de velopment and aro not ablo to grow long in milk in competition with lac tic acid bacteria. When the milk be gins to taste sour the growth of nearly all' nonacld-formlng bacteria Is checked. The activity of the lactic acid bacteria themselves is checked and finally ceases entirely when the acid reaches a certain concentration, which varies with difforent varieties. Consequently sour milk usually con tains a nearly pure culture of ono or at most two or threo closely related varieties of bacteria. While the lactic acid bacteria are considered very beneficial In butter and cheese making, thoy aro undeslr ablo bacteria from the standpoint of the milk dealer or consumer. It is almost out of tho question absolute ly to prevent their presence In milk, but the initial number may bo much reduced by observing a few simple rules of cleanliness in handling tho milk. Every precaution which re duces tho amount of dirt in milk re duces tho number of bacteria corre spondingly. Tho Important factors hero aro freedom from dust at time of milk ing, brushing the cows, wiping tho ud ders, and small-mouthed milk palls. It is also of great importance to cool tho milk as soon as posslblo aftor milking to bolow tho tomporaturo at which lactic acid bacteria grow rapid ly. This temperature is controlled by practical conditions, such as tho torn peraturo of tho wator available for cooling, but It should not bo higher than SO degrees Fahrenheit. Breeding geese must not bo fat. They should have corn in limited quantities only during cold weather, and then nt night. Oats steeped in warm water makes a better feed, it should bo fed in V-shaped troughs. Plenty or vegetable food, such as cab bage, boiled potatoes and clover, should be supplied until the grass begins to grow and tho birds go to p astute, . s A ., , a m. " I ' I i KEEPING PROFITABLE COWS, Many Kept In Iowa That Do Pay for Their Feed and Caro. Not A dairy authority in Iowa asserts Hint there arc hundreds and hundreds of cows kept for dairy purposes in Iowa which do not yield sufficient to pay for tho feed which they consume, for thoy consume as much feed ns do the profitable ones and require as much time nnd caro In milking. There was a tlmo when tho dairy cow was not expected to milk for nioro than six months In tho year, hut with tho present high prices for labor and feed this condition of affairs can no longer profitably exist. Tho lactation period should bo at least nine months In length. Tho amount of milk a cow should produce to be profitable is variously stated at from 5,000 to C.000 pounds annually, or sufflclent to yield from 200 to 240 pounds of butter fat. This should vary, of course, with the locality, price of labor, feed, etc. However, it Is safe to say that a cow with reasonably good care, that does not produce tho lesser of these amounts is not a profit able animal. Yet how large a percent age of so-called dairy cows will stand this test? In order to determine accurately n cow's usefulness as a dairy animal it Is well to weigh one day's milk every week or ten days during the lactation period. At the same time a sample should bo taken for testing. The tlmo of freshening should also be noted In order to determine the length of tho lactation period. The same authority asserts that It is a good plan to keep a book account with each cow, charging her with cost of feed cousumedand labor expended, and credit her with value of milk and calf. In this way It will not bo dim cult to pick out the non-paying In dividuals. DAIRY NOTES. Hollow concrete blocks make an Ideal silo that will not crack or the contents easily fieeze. Machines for making silo concrete blocks may bo purchased for about ?20. With tho exception of where the very best cedar Is used, all wooden silos should often be painted inside and out in order to preserve the wood and to prevent leaking. For paint for this purpose, coal tar is about as good as any kind. It serves well for filling cracks and Is also a good preservative. The question of the one purpose and the dual purpose dairy cow has almost ceased to be discussed by rational dairymen. "The difference between the dual purpose dairy cow and the dairy cow," says W. D. Hoard of Wis consin, "is just the difference between a machine that is made for its pur pose and one that Is not. What would you think or a man who would go out to cut grass with a sewing ma chine?" When every dairyman comes to own his own farm and comes to under stand the most economical use of skimmed milk and manure, dairying will become a profitable Industry. The skimmed milk and manure com bined may bo made to represent as much as the butter fat of the dairy. It Is better to build two or three silos of narrow diameter than one of wide diameter. When sllnge Is used for summer feeding it will keep bet ter with small top surface exposed. The power of production In a cow is inherited. If the cow is a good dairy animal by inheritance and is given good care and feed she will be come more productive as she Increases in age. The quantity rather than the quality of her milk Is influenced by feed. Partial Cow Ration. No one should attempt to run a steam engine that was driving a mod ern threshing outfit with but 30 pounds of eteam. Yet many dairymen at tempt to get profitable results from their cows by feeding them a partial ration. They attempt to run them with but "30 pounds or steam." Chemists tell us that two-thirds of what a cow consumes goes to maintain her body. Tho remainder goes toward milk pro duction. It is evident to all that tho profit must come from tho feed over and above that which tho cow requires for maintenance, and that the more she eats tho greater will be tho profit. There are many good cows in tho country that aro not rocognized as such, and cannot bo made profitable unless they receive more feed. Thero Is no profitin feeding partial rations to milch cows. Wo cannot get profitable re sults running cows on "30 pounds of steam." If there is a food shortage, ono might bettor feed full rations to half tho number rather thun feod tho many on half rations. In the latter caso there will bo much ' work and llttlo profit, in tho formor, tho cows ure sure to give profitable returns, and tho labor of caring for tho herd would bo much lessened. Milk Re porter. Milk from Either Side. Cows aro always milked from the off or rlgHt side because thoy have been taught that way. A cow can bo milked from clthor side ir she Is brought up right, but the lessons must begin at the earliest handling of tho heifer. Milk first from ono side and then tho other, and In a short tlmo tho holfor will not mind. It often comes handy to milk from the loft Bldo and tho cows should be trained to stand for It. The roan who will make a pot of his cow will have no trouble and will get greater benefit at milking tlmo than tho ono who treats her &n a stranger, If not an enemy. Dress OptoDa!e B8&08 ALL ARE YOUTHFUL DAME FASHION HAS ELIMINATED THE ELDERLY. Gowns, Mantles, Coats and. Bodices for All Ages Have the Same Touch Illustration That Demonstrates tho Idea. "Elderly" has no place In Dame Fashion's dictionary. Tho slaves of her lamp, the pattern people and all others who create now and beautify ing effects, take only blooming cheeks nnd coquettish natures Into account. Gowns, mantles, coats and bodices for all ages are charming and youthful. Prlvnto makers, of course, must con sider the needs of the Individual cus- Simple and Serviceable. tomer, but even then the costume or wrap designed must go to the young model for inspiiation, a softening of tones, some simplification or elabora tion here and there, accomplishing tho needs of the customer no longer young. Faint tones, especially gray, violet and black, are seen in these doctored editions of a provr.illng mode, and if WOMAN'S REALLY BRIGHT IDEA Scrap Book Designed Originally for Doctor's Waiting Room Make3 Acceptable Present. The wife of a physician devised a way by which tedious waits in her husband's outer office were made much moro bearable. She provided herself with several medium-sized scrap books, not too bulky to handle easily. In these she pasted short stories, old and new, that in the course of wldo reading she had cut from magazines. The stories were arranged under different headings, as telephone, de tective, problem, love, dialect. In this way one could easily find tho kind of literature that was liked. There was a special book or two for children, filled with pictures, funny rhymes, and fairly tales that kept many a small patient peaceful until tho doctor appeared. A short story scrap book, If bound In a handsome cretonno or silk cover with the Initials or tho owner make a delightful gift for a semi-Invalid, or will be appreciated by any woman. If It is good looking enough to lie on the drawing room tablo and pacify her callers while wailing for their hostess to appear. Use of Fringe. Fringe will trim a considerable number of the season's gowns and coats. It comes In various lengths and materials. Much of it, particularly for day gowns, is made of' fine silk cord. At tho top thero Is an effective lat tice work of cord. For evening dresseB there Is the sparkling fringe. It la carried out in crystals and sil ver, In rhlnestoncs nnd mother of pearl. Tho long, soft fringes aro undoubt edly elegant. They outline draperies in most de sirable fashion. Thoy often soften angles and give grace and tone to tho gown. 'New Lining for Coat. Tho girl who can't afford to rollna her coat with Butln, brocade or silk, may chooso a fine quality of French chintz. Sho will bo astonlBhed at tho artistic and Inexpensive result. She wants to got a dainty design of fine quality and In oAra width. Her cout should bo interlined for tho mid winter nnd this Howored surfaco put over it. Rlio will not fool ashamed to take off her iMJ&t at any smart houso, or throw It buck over a chair at a restaurant or theater, Ml I tho customer hns tnsto of her own oho holps tho maker with suggestions as to what she can wear and what sho can not. Middle-aged women of good tasto of ten refuse tho Jaunty lints first of fered them, preferring tho moro Biiita bio bonnet even If It Is n degreo less stylish. Hut bonnets designed for even oldeily heads aro now very smart, and if tho head gets tho right ono the result Is far moro youthful than if a hat wore worn. A very broad, fiat effect, with small flower and nnrrow velvet or ribbon put on compactly, aro tho ear marks o the newest bonnets; and whero theso aro absolutely rejected, a heavily trimmed toque sometimes bridges tho difficulty between the thing too young and tho thing too old. Feather boas, lace and net collar ettes, and little shoulder mantles of silk or lace, provide suitable wraps for those who dislike being without somo species of covering. Tho illustration demonstrates a pleasing model for cashmere, which Is a material to be found In every city and town of the United States. This gown is so simple nnd serviceable that every woman must recognize its ad vantages. The bodlco and skirt are separate, but the button trimming is arranged to give a semi-princess effect. Tho waist is closed at the back with hooks, and the bands and buttons are of satin, cov ered buttons of this sort being at this moment extremely fashionable. The little chemisette of tucked mus lin gives the simple touch fashion likes, but this may also be of not, lace or slllr. Tho long, closed sleeves shown are much in vogue, but slnco there are wearers who still Insist upon elbow lengths, the model allows for both styles. The five-gored skirt is a useful ono for' cashmere,' and tho entire design would accommodate Itself to a number of other modest wool or silk materials. Light-weight serge, summer flannel, pongee and many wash toxtures, such as gingham, linen and light-weight duck, are also feasible. If cashmere is used, pale gray, fawn color, mauve and violet are all modish and rewarding tints. Silk-covered buttons, pipings, tiny stiff bows and neckties in color are all seen on many of the white net and lace waists. The bows, which are very small, are placed In rows of three at the front of the collar and sometimes down tho front of the bodice. if satin or silk cannot be afforded, cashmere or veiling would do for this diess, and if tho latter has a satin stiipe bordering it would not affect ele gance. In fact, the bordering could be used In place of the guipure hero employed upon the bodice, and so les sen expense. MUSLIN DUST CAP. 9NCHSS .. A3 IHCHCS 9 vanes 2.1 tfCHS If 'you use a small figured muslin for tho back and featherstitch plain white muslin for tho front you will have quite a pretty effect. You can .draw out a pattern by this, and havo an Inch hem on tho bottom of tho hood-back, and draw up with one-half yard of baby ribbon. TJso about one-half-inch h6m on tho turnback part of tho plain muslin front. Airing Clothes. Never put away Immediately in drawers or wardrobe any articles which have Just been taken off. Hang thorn In a placo which tho air reaches for at least an hour. Put thorn away after having brushed and folded thorn. Clothing which Is not laundered should ho hung out to air during tho day, from time to time, turned wrong sldo out. Clothing which has bcon worn a long tlmo, if not aired properly, con tracts most dlsagreeablo odors,, und no perfume will conceal thom. Air, wator, sunshine and firo havo disinfecting qualities whloh aro puri fying; and wo should Ul sw how tc avail ourselves of them. r it ! L s Practical Fashions LADIES' WAIST. Paris Pattern No. 28C3, AH Seams Allowed. Though giving the Impres sion of closing at ono side or tho front, this pretty and simple pattern really closes at tho center-back. Two broad tucks at the front and back are stitched their entire length, the tuck over the shoulders being stitched to within a few Inches of the bust line. The removable chemisette Is of allover lace, and small buttons trim the tucks In the front. Tho pattern is in seven sizes 32 to -14 inches, bust measure. To procure this pattern semi 10 ccnta to "Pattern Department," of. this paper. Write name ami address plnlnly, and bo sure to give size and number of pattern. N0.2E65. SIZE NAME TOWN STREET AND NO STATE MISSES' COMBINATION GARMENT Paris Pattern No. 2802, All Seams Allowed. Developed In nainsook. Per slan lawn, thin cambric, jaconet or batiste, thl3 dainty combination gar ment, comprising a corset cover and petticoat, will be found to be very use ful to wear undor the lawn or batiste frock. Tho pattern is In three sizes 13 to 17 years. For a miss of 15 years tho garment with flounce requires 4 yards or material 30 Inches wide, or 3 yards 42 Inches wldo, each with 4 yards or edging 7 inches wide Tor ruffle; 3 yards or heading, 3 yards or ribbon and 3 yards or nar row edging. To procure this pattern send 10 cents to "Pattern Department," of this paper. Wrlto nnmo and address plainly, and be Euro to fjlvo size and number of pattern. N0.2S62. &izn NAME TOWN STREET AND NO v STATE , What Did He Mean? Ho You lomember tho moonlit night, 25 years ago, when 1 pro posed? She Ycb, indeed. Ho Wo sat thoro for more thar an hour and you novor opened your lips. Sho Yes, dear. He That was tho happiest hour of my life. Cleveland Luador. Tho things that comu to those who wait am generally tho things that no ono elso wanti. fn Jk lit 'oj ml 1 lo: J- Tr? -X. "..V Ml in mill vim I ft PROOF FOR TWO CENT8. If You Suffer with Your Kldneya and Back, Wrlto to This Man. O. W. Wlnnoy, Medina, N. Y., in- vltos kidney sufferers to wrlto to him. To nil who encloso postage ho will re ply, tolling how Doan's Kidney Pills cured him after ho had doctored and had boon In two dif ferent hospitals for eighteen months, suffering intonso pain in tho back.N lameness, twlngo3 V when Btooplng or lifting, languor, dizzy spells andrhou matism. "Boforo I used Doan's Kid noy Pills," says Mr. Winney, "I weighed 113. Aftor taking 10 or 12 boxes I weighed 1C2 and was com pletely curod." Sold by all dealers. 50 cents a box. Foster-MIlburn Co., Buffalo, N. Y. A FACER. Ho You havo looked on my face for tho last time! She Why? Aro you going to grow a board? Don't Cough, But Live Long. If every couch were cured before It Rot a strong hold, human life would bo length ened by many years. If every coughing suf ferer Knew that Kemp's Jlafcim 'would stop the cough in a few minutes, he would he glad to escape the ccrious consequencci. If any medicine will cure a cough. Kemp's Ilaloam will do it. At druggists' and dealers', 2oc. v m A Natural Doubt. "Do you think that oculist Is a prac tical man?" "Why shouldn't he be?" "Because ot his business. Doesn't ho go In for eye deals?" V Shake Into Your 8hoe Allen's Foot-Ease, a. powder for your feet. It cures painful, swollen, smarting, n eat InR feet. Makes new slioe3 easy. Sold Ly all DrUKulsts nnd Shoe Stores. Don't ac cept any substitute Sample FREE. Ad dress A. S. Olmsted, LeRoy, N. Y. One Point Settled. "They say the new Mrs. Bangs is a very good plain cook." "I don't know about the excellence of the .cookery, but she's plain all right." WANTED. Beech plane stocks. Stato price. Gage Tool Co., Vlneland, N. J. A man with a roving disposition la not necessarily inconstant. Mr. Wlnsloir'n Soothing .Syrup. For children tcctblai;. gotten thsKumg, reduces In II animation, olUj t pain, cure wind colic Sic a bottli A brother Is a mirror that never flatters. Cured by LydiaE.Pinkham's Vegetable Compound Paw Paw, Mich. " I suffered terrl- z oiy lrom female his, 4m including inflani- mation ana conges tion, for several years. My doctor said thorjB wa3 no hope for mo but an ' operation. I began I takinc Ivdia E. J Pinkham's Vegeta ble Compound, and I can noy say I am a well woman." ElIMA DltATEK. DOCTOR ADVISED ' OPERATION Si3SO't'5Aii'C?o " "- ' - Another Operation Avoided. Chicago, 111. "I want women to know what that wonderful medicine, Lydia E. Pinkham's "Vegetable Com- Eound, has done for mo. Two of tho est doctors In Chicago said I would dlo if I did not havo an operation, and I never thought of seeing a well day again. I had a small tumor and femalo troubles bo that I suffered day and night. A friond recommended Lydia E. Pinkham's VegGtablo Compound, and it made mo a woll woman." Mrs. Alvena BrEiujNa, 11 Langdon St, Chicago, 111. Lydia E. Pinkham's Vegetable Com- . Sound, made from roots and horbs, aB proved to bo the moBt successful -v remedy for curing tho worst forms of femalo ills, including displacements, inflammation, fibroid tumors, irregu jarities, periodic painB, backache, bear-ing-down feeling, flatulency, indlges tion, andnorvouB prostration. It costa but a trifle to try it. and the result bas been worth millions to many Buffering womon. If you Buffer from Fits, Foiling; Slricneiw, Bpftsius or Intra children or friends Unit do no, my NovrDlHuotery will relievo tliein.nml all) ou mu usked to do In aendfor a FREE Bottlo of Dr. May's Eplleptlclda Curs. It lias cured thousands where overythlnff clxa foiled. Hout fre with directions' Uxor... Prepaid. Quornnteea by May Medical Lab oratory, under the Ntitlonnl Wl and Druc Act, June Wth, ipoa. Onnrnnty No. W, I'leasoBtroAQE and full mldrenl. " ., , p h8. W. U. MAY. 54B Pearl Street, W YoiU Cliy. J ill