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THE PERRYSBtTRG JOURNAL
OLO RELIG 10 GO Only Farmhouse on Manhattan Island Given to City. Quaint Homestead, Last of Ito Kind In Ciotham, Will Be Transferred to Isham Park and Turned Into a Muocurn. Now York. Tho Inst remaining ifarmhouso on Manhattan Island will I bo formally presented to tho city Iwlthln a few dayo. Commissioner Stover, who will accept tho gift on 'bohalf of tho park department, haB promised to provide a pormanent alto Ifor tho ancient house In Isham park, overlooking tho Hudson river, In tho upper part of Manhattan Island. Tho house Is tho old Dyckman res jidonco, which has stood for ovor a century on a portion of the extensive Dyckman farm, now cut up Into fcuilding lots nnd already showing tho effect of tho northward trend of pop ulation hy tho rows of apartment liouses which are rapidly wiping out toll traco pf tho broad Dyckman mead ows. , Tho curious old farmhouse pre sents an odd contrast today to theso evidences of modern development aa ono catches a glimpso of it at tho -corner of Two Hundred and Seventh atreot from tho trolley cars running up Broadway. "Had Broadway gone a few foet more to tho west or Two Hundred and Seventh street a bit further to the north tho enreer of this interesting landmark which HnVs Now York with one of its earliest Butch families would have been cut off sud denly, and thero would have been no talo to tell of its presentation to tho city and tho preparations being mado ly tho Daughters of tho Revolution to turn the old place into a museum. Tho house was built in 1784, and its appearance has undergone practically no chango. It was tho third Dyck man homestead, or rather farmhouse, for tho old Dyckman family prided themselves on their skill as practical farmers and never assumed manorial ' magnificence, oven In name, although .z?zz r;.. . jsJ The Old Dyckman House, 207th Street and Broadway. t they owned more acres than scores of old city families which have been (credited with great land posses sions. Jan Dyckman was the ancestor of the Manhattan Island family of that name. History states that ho joined his Dutch neighbor:! In tho little set tlement around tho fort in 16GG, when the town had just come under Eng lish rule. Perhaps that is ono reason which induced Jan to get as far away as ho could from tho English rulers and yet remain on the island, for less 'than ten years later ho was tho owner of several hundred acres at tho north ern extremity, bordering Spuyten. Duyvil. There, for over, two hundred years tho Dyckmans lived, exemplifying to tho minutest detail tho traditional characteristics of tho Dutch in frugal ity, industry, simple yet generous hos pitality, and tho art of minding their own business. "When necessity de imanded they served tho city as alder men or, constables, and they wero al .ways actlvo in furthering tho best in terests qf tho early Harlem village. Lntor members of tho family added to tho broad acres acquired by tho original arrival, and at ono time near jly tho entlro tract of fertile meadow lland north of Fort Georgo hill, as far ,as Spuyten Duyvil, was owned by Alio Dyckmans. Tho first Dyckman farmhouse stood ,ln tho upper part of tho tract near Spuyten Duyvil crook. It was a small house,' later replaced by a largo build- Incv lirtt'flnt'lnnp rr li tTnulnm n If tin 'to tho east of tho present Dyckman house at Broadway and Two Hundred land Seventh street. It was burned Jdurlng tho Revolution by tho British. Tho family lost no time in restoring their damaged property. Ono year after the evacuation of tho city by tho (British tho present homo was finished. It waB built by Jacobus Dyckman, tho eldest of tho nine children of William Dyckman. Tho latter died in tho house in 1787. Tho present Dyckman house is now Judgo. They bought It sovoral yenrs ago from tho purchaser of tho old jplace at ono of tho Dyckman auctions. Jt foil into good hands, for Mr. Judgo Suxb guarded Jho old placo from dam ingo aa jealously as if It wero the ihomo of his ancestor - -rfN fcx5: - y"-4OTaiowwMBarVfMSlTi POULTRY HOUSE PLANS Structure Intended for General Purposes on Farm. Suitable Place Provided for Incubators Free From Any Disturbances Space Is Also Reserved for Sprouting Oats. Tho plans given below show a houso that Is intended for general purposes on tho farm whero a 'largo quantity of poultry is markoted each year. This houso Is also convonlent from tho fact that it provides a placo for tho Incubators, whero they will bo far away from any disturbance, and whero tho fumes from tho machines will not be a bother to tho occupants of tho dwelling house, whero tho In cubators aro so often kopt. As tho running of any incubator requires that a fairly closo watch bo kept upon" it to insure a good hatch, it would bo necessary that tho building bo located within a short distance of 100 ffint. Tho floor plan of tho incubator cel lar shows four incubators placed along tho sldo wall of tho room. It will bo seen from tho plan, howover, that at least eight incubators could bo placed in this room without crowding it to the limit. Under the steps and along tho wall, as Bhown in tho diagram, are a number of shelves, on which eggs may bo stored, provided tho tempera turo of tho room Is kept at a point be tween 40 and 60 degrees. It has been found that eggs that aro kept at a temperature any higher than this will bo weakened to such a great ex tent Uiat tho chanccB of a good hatch aro reduced to tho smallest. About one-quarter of the room Is reserved for a space to bo used for sprouting oats, and as this space would bo damper than tho .rest of tho cellar, it would bo necessary for it to be' board ed In. Windows about two by three inches are placed around the walls of the cellar to allow sufficient venti lation. Care should bo taken that tho windows that aro shown directly over tho incubators aro not opened in severe weather, as this Is liablo to affect tho temperaturo of the egg chamber. It wiii bo noticed that tho cellar floor and side walls aro shown of I A CCL h.A concrete. This material may also bo used for tho central pillar, which Bhould bo about one foot square. As the ontire building is 20x20 foet, this will leave only a ten-foot span on tho first floor. For this span 2z8-inch timbers could safely bo used. The stairs shown herein are only two feet wide, but could bo mado wider if thought necessary. Tho floor plan of tho "killing" room is next shown. This plan may bo ar ranged to suit a person's conveni ence. Thero are 24 fattening pens in this plan, they being placed in threo tiers. Each pen is shown as 2x2 feet with a six-inch ledge outsido for feed troughs. A store room for feed is li- -4- i j it pt xn I- .1 I, i. ( ' ' I nuci ' in r : 5.. j I rwn I 'J ' shown included in thlB building, as It would bo inconvenient to carry feed from tho barn or other places whero food 1b gonerally kept. In this storo room could also bo kopt shipping crates and packing poxes. Suggestions for Handling Horse. Whllo crushed corn and cob meal Is an oxcoliont ration for horses it is apt to produce gastric colio unless some thing else is fed along with it, such as oats, bran or oil meal, to act as a lax ative for tho cob fiber, which is a tri , flo difficult to digest. SPRAYING FOR SOUND FRUIT Experiments In Missouri Show That I Practically All Unsprayed Fruit lo Ruined by Disease. Tho man who still clings to tho idoa that Bpraylng does not aid in tho pro duction of fruit should bo convinced by tho report of W. L. Howard of tho Department of Horticulture of tho Uni versity of Missouri. By tnklng or chards hero and thero ovor tho stato of Missouri, Prof. Howard has just fin ished a sorlos of experiments that show that practically all unsprayed fruit is ruined by diseases or insects. In ono orchard where a part was sprayed and a part was loft unsprayed, only 1.2 per cent of tho Arkansas black apples could bo clnsscd as clean fruit after tho trees had been loft un sprayed. In tho samo orchard, whero tho samo brand of apples had beon sprayed, tho crop of clean fruit waa 7G.7 per cent Anothor orchard of Missouri pippin apples experimented with tho samo way resulted in 2.1 clean fruit for tho uiiBprayed part and S8.5 for that part which was sprayed. LESSONS FROM THE DROUTH Stronger Emphasis Than Usual Is Laid on Importance of Preparation of Good Seed Beds. A member of tho crop production of tho University of Illinois reports that tho results ub seen in crops this year seem to empbasizo stronger than usual tho Importance of good tillage. They have shown also how important it is in a year like tho present to prepare good seed beds for the grain; that tho beds should bo well packed, and soil on top loose, and a mulch on tho very Gurface, ih order that moisture be conserved. Thero wero two crops in Illinois that Device for Breaking Crust. seem to havo stood the drouth especi ally well. Those were alfalfa and soy beans. The average yield was only a few busheds lower than last year, pet haps one-fifth, whllo the decrease in tho yield of oats was about one-hall less than tho yield of last year. Cora, of course, is not yet harvested, but the prospects aro that the yield will be from one-third to cne-half less. These facts seem to bo important ones foi farmers to consider. It would seem ad visnblo that every farmer of tho state should have a good field of alfalfa and a field of soybeans to meet just suet an emergency as tho ono of thi3 year. Raising Calves. The way we do Is to feed milk until the calf is threo or four weeks old, then give porridge made of oil meal and wheat shorts; commence with about one spoonful of oil meal and a handful of shorts, increase the quan tlty as he calf gets used to it, and ii addition, wo feed wholo oats anii wheat bran dry, says Hoard's Dairy man. Wo send our milk to tho cheest factory, so have to feed something besides milk. We raised one calf in this way thai gave us, when a cow, 5,180 pounds milk in 105 days, and made 4 pounds 12 ounces butter in two days; and we havo ono this year 5 years old, thai ,jaio C7 pounds 13 ounces milk in one day, and others doing nearly as well Better Winter Feed Needed. If farmers would give as much at tention to improving their wlntoi treatment of cattle as they havo to improving tho quality a correspond ingly large increase in profits would bo realized, says a writer in an ex change. Good breeding domands good feeding. Much of tho feed is al lowed to become over-ripe before it is cut Tho meadows being mown so long without plowing tho hny consists of wild grasses afid weeds. On ac count of tho deficiency' of both limo and phosphorous the hay has but lit tle clovor in it, and it la Impossible to maintain flesh with such feed. I was told that tho average gain is about 300 pounds per head. Mint Growing In the West. If a farmer has good land suitable for poppermint ho will probably, with roducod forces, continuo tho cultiva tion. On tho other hand those who rent land and. glvo a share of tho crop for rent and those who aro on .gaged in other matters, such as capi talists in town hiring all the work dono, will drop out of tho crop for tho present. t Most Profitable Feed, With hogs especially tho feeding that produces steady, speedy -growth, is tho most profitable. A pig that la stunted in the early days of its Ufa should nover havo a placo la tag breeding hard, r-r-rrrairiTMiMWMrawmwMrtfifwniMniMW-wtiiMiiiBMMiBWiW1 Snow Pemtentes, Ctumhorazo One of the remarkable features of Chlmborazo, a magnificent peak of tho Andes In Ecuador, are the jagged frozen-snow forms of fantastic shapes known as the "Snow Penltentes" which accumulate In the Ecuador summer through the combined effects of sun, wind, and melting snow. These "Penltentes" are one of the greatest obstacles to the explorer as they become closer and closer together In tho higher altitudes till the approaches to the summit fairly bristle with them to an extent that makes further ascent Impossible. WOMAN SUBMARINE DIVER Miss Millie M. Marnier of Now Brighton is tho only woman marine diver in tho world. Although Miss Marnier is a fully qualified diver she has not yot taken her art beyond tho exhibition stago, and that she does in tho causo of charity, at aquatic galas and elsewhere. 'The accompanying Illustration shows Misj Marnier rigged out in her diving dress. STRANGE WEDDING COSTUMES When It comes to originality in the matter of wedding clothes, Mr. and Mm, Harold H. Deeming of New York havo everybody beaten. The couple were married in tho studio of tho bride's parents nnd tho keynote of the ceremony was unconventlonallty. The bridegroom wore a smoking jacket of white vicuna, finished with white satin, Strang The Ingenuity of the natives of Papua Is well shown by this photograph of a otraiiQO brldfjQ made of bamboo nnd wooden posts, built across a stream at Sumnl. and his trousers wero trimmed with broad strips of white satin at the slde3. The bride, who was Miss Katherlno Burritt, was gowned in a long-tailed, sleeveless mediaeval costume of whlto charmeuse, elaborately trimmed with ropes of pearls. Upon her hair was a cap of woven strands of pearls, but sho carried no bouquet, nor did sho havo a wedding veil. This robo concealed her figure when sho stood still, but revealed It at every movement, and was declared by the 500 fashionable gnetts to be superbly beautiful. 'The studio was Illuminated with thousands of candles instead of elec tric lights, and the walls were draped with Oriental hangings. The conven tional orchestra, playing the familiar wedding march from "Lohengrin," was superseded by eight girls in Greek cos tume, who sang a Swedish wedding march and selections from Grlgg and others. Thero wero no bridesmaids. C0REAN PEDDLER IS STRONG The Corean Is of a sturdier physical structure than either the Chinese or the Japanese. Ho can bear much greater burdens. Tho muscles of the heels and back tom nover to tire. Many Corean coolies can vio with a donkey in burden-bearing. On a rack made of two forked sticks fastened to gether in the crudo resemblance of an artist's easel, a Corean porter can car ry 300 to 350 pounds, and rosietimes 400. With a load of deer hides, or of pottery, weighing 200 to 250 pounds, he can go steadily up a precipitous mountain path. Yot, generally, the Corean Is an idler when It comes to steady work. Ho will He for houso in the sun, fiat on his back and sucklns away on a long-stemmed pipe. And ho can drop to sleep nnywhere and almost In a twinkling. With his head down and his mouth wide open ho can slumber for hc-urs In tho broiling rays of a sun an American could not endure for a quarter of an hour. e encage m rapa ODD SEA OF WHITE SAND In tho midst of tho Southwostorn1 desert, near Alamogordo, N. M ther Is a Bhlnlng sea of whlto sand that( has proved a puz?lo to many noted scl-i enti3ts who havo visited it Tho country in which tho sands aro! located is known as tho Tularosa des-', ort. As tho traveler approaches thoi desert ho gets no preliminary hints asi to tho chnraetor of tho country ho Is ontoring upon. Suddonly ono comes) upon a distinctly marked bod of whltoi sand, glittering and sparkling In thoi sun llko nothing so much as granula ted sugar. Tho puro whiteness of tho sand Is astounding. As far as the eyo can reach, thero Is a glaro of whlto, relieved only by tho greno of the yucca plants on somo of tho dunes. Theso dunes nre composed of Irreg ular hepps and ridges of gypsum Somo of tho dunes rise to n holght of! GO feet, but most of them strotch awayi in regular billows of 15 or 20 feet in) height. Tho effect of water is height ened by tho ripples which are carved! on tho surfaco of tho sand by tho. winds. Theso ripples look like wnve letB carved on a marblo representa tion of tho ocean, when viewed from a distance. Tho whlto sands aro In an irregular body, 10 by 90 miles in extent Thoy aro composed of gypsum, and are in perfect granules. When moist tho sands aro yellowish, but when dry aro puro whitu. Thoy aro firm and unyield ing, llko a wet beach on tho seashoro,. and ono can walk across them almost without leaving footprints. Taken in, tho hand, tho grains of sand aro dull,! but when vlowed from a distance they; sparkle with an uncanny brightness.! If ono walks a little way across thoi whlto sands, in tho middlo of ono ot tho hot, sunBhlny days common In, Now Mexico, tho glaro proves almosti blinding, whllo the heat radiated fromi this sea of sand is terrific. A peculi-i nrlty about tho sand is its perfect sol-' ubility. Taken in tho hands, grains of the whlto sand can bo rubbed Into powder with little effort. Oldtimors in Now Mexico, who havo, known of the whlto sands for many years, assert that the whlto sands are constantly moving. Tho Indians tell! all kinds of uncanny stories concern ing the whlto sands, which aro sup posed to bo "bad medicine," and tho red men aro careful to keep away from the placo. It is estimated by careful observers that in about twenty years 'the white sands havo advanced east ward one-half mile, and that a steady movement in that direction is going oa. In fact, a wagon road leading around tho edge of tho sands haa been changed several times, because tho shifting sea of sand has obliterated parts of it. Nobody has over mado tho trip across the white sands, to the knowl edge of white men in tho southwest It would be easy for a "tenderfoot" to become loBt in tho sand dunes half a mllo from the edge of the Tularosa, desert proper. Tho dunes look much' alike, and, unless ono had a compass ho might wander for days in tho maze of glaring white sand hills and never find his way out It would require but, a few hours In such a blazo of heat,, however, for a man to succumb, un less ho had taken tho precaution to- provide himself with an ample supply of -water. SERVED IN THE REVOLUTION During tho revolution colonial sym pathizers knocked from its pedestal In Howling Green, Now York, a leaden statue of King Georgo of England and It was secretly carted to Litch field, Conn., and there melted in conti nental bullets by loyal women of tho town In tho orchard back of tho Phelp3 home. Recently tho old houso was taken over by the village Improve ment aocloty for preservation as tho flucst uxamplo of colonial architecture now standing and tho old copper ladlo used by tho women was found with lead still sticking to it MAKING ARTIFICIAL SNAILS Snails, tho only genuine part of Which aro tho shells, aro now being sold In Paris, nnd it is said that tho imitation of the real article Is so close that many epicures have a high opin ion of tho sham product. Snail shells, it seems, aro bought from tho dustmon and rag pickers, and after being cleansed aro filled with "lights" or cats' meat, tho soft flesh being cut Into corkscrew form, so as to fit tho shell, by a skillfully designed machine. The receptacle Is then sealed br means of liquid fat, and tho escargot is ready for the consumer. Tho artK flcaU snails find a ready market . ay'.''.'-jM4C"arrjgx Ljr? i'.'jje';gygHtr'it"