Newspaper Page Text
THE CITIZEN, WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 15, 1913.
BATTLE OV CHAPIN'S FARM,
SEPTEMBER SO, 1801.
Our memorandum shows an ac
count of this battle aa the writer
Baw It, and took part In It. Just af
ter the second corps had returned
from some strong demonstration at
Deep Bottoms, we had orders on the
night of September 29th, 18G4, at
about ten o'clock, to be ready to
leave Immediately, then fall In line
to be ready to be served with hard
tack. Wo were given about twenty
rounds of extra cartridges and waited
orders to march, which came for
light marching. About twelve o'clock
we started to cross the James River
at Rlken's Landing. Thoro wo cross
ed the river on a muffled pontoon
bridge; we marched up tho bluff
about five miles from the Dutch Gap
canal. Here we saw tho enemy and
formed in lino of battle along and
across the Varlna road. As soon as
our lines were formed, we were or
dered to charge on the enemy, which
wo did with such great earnestness
that it caused them to vacate In so
great a hurry that they left every
thing behind them, but their arms,
equipments, etc. We picked up a
few things wo thought we might
need and pressed on after them
through a piece of woods, whence
to tho left we came in sight of one
of the most deadly combats, hand to
hand fighting for the possession of
Fort Harrison, we ever witnessed.
The combatants seemed to be so ex
cited and crazed with desperation
and determination to hold the fort,
that they were fighting on the para
pets, In tho ditches, on tho bridge
across tho sally port, surging back
ward and forward. General
Burnham who seemed to be In tho
thickest of the fight, was killed and
General Ard was so badly wounded
that he was carried from the field.
While In these woods, we were gath
ering up a few gum and rubber
blankets which we knew we would
need that night, if we were spared,
for our covering. While there
awaiting orders to move forward,
wo saw a wounded man sitting un
der a tree with his left leg gone,
except enough left to tie a hand
kerchief around to stop the blood
from flowing. He did not seem to
be In much pain, and said he was
As soon as Fort Harrison fell In
to our hands, we were ordered for
ward to charge on Fort Gilmore,
which -was said to be tho key to
Richmond. Colonel Fairchild took
charge of our Brigade composed of
the 89th N. Y. and tho 2nd Pa. Hy.
Art. We had three battalions, there
fore three Majors, Majors Ander
son, Sadler and Cap. Jones. Wo
passed to the right of Fort Harri
son, just a few feet 'from where
General Burnham was killed.
We, the 2nd Pa. Hy. Art., were
to advance as follows: Major An
derson leading the first battalion in
the center. Major Sadler, with our
battalion, the second on the right,
and Captain Jones with the third on
the left. Fairchild with the 89th
N. Y. intending to move up as a
When we reached the top of a
knoll, we saw we were exposed, so
Major Anderson, not waiting for
Fairchild, ordered all of tho battal
ions forward to the assault. With
a shout, "Follow me, my comrads,"
we rushed forward and wore soon
deployed to tho left, where wo got
into a very hot contest among trees
cut down to obstruct the way, and
they sent the grape and canister in
to us, as we were so confused, a
struggling mass of humanity, trying
to do something for tho country in
taking this fort, amid this carnage.
Tho enemy, a mangling many, we
could see fall and hear them groan
when torn by the shells. As a grape
shot raked across my hand, it left
a red mark. It was terrible the
way canister, grape and shells came
tearing through tho trees, knocking
off the limbs. There seemed on
escape. Blilo was close to me, much
excited, (although a very quiet boy
in camp.) He remarked, "Wells,
don't you think they are sending
more canned fruit than we can
stand?" "Blile," I said, "we will
have to take It whether we want to
or not." Then Blile looked despef
ate at me and said, "Now, do you
think we will ever get there to pay
them back? I think if we get out
of this alive wo will do well." Then
looking around wo saw Captain
Higgins, swinging his sword and
commanding us to fall back, saying
that this is nothing but slaughter.
All of the afllcers seemed to be
killed or wounded, so Captain Hig
gins was left to command. We
obeyed his command and fell back
to the road for future orders.
This now being after dinner In the
afternoon, and not partaking of food
since tho night before, and having
no time to eat, we were naturally
hungry", and very thirsty. Wo saw
a house a short distance from the
road and a well in front of it. I
took seven canteens and went to the
well for water. When a comrade
from Company B and myself had
filled our canteens full of water, wo
entered this house and saw that the
folks had not had time to take the
provisions they had provided with
them, so we helped ourselves, think
ing that they might spoil If they
were left much longer. When wo
returned to the road, wo told the
rest of our comrades of our fortun
ate And, and soon all was consumed.
Thoro was severe fighting still on
our left, as two of our battalions
were engaged. While our position
kept them from being surrounded
by the confederates. Just at dark,
not having any support, wo were or
dered to break up the guns, etc.,
lying around, and fall back to tho
support of Fort Harrison, (now
called Fort Burnham, being named
after General Burnham who was
killed In taking It).
We were soon marching back and
supplying ourselves with everything
eatable wo could find, knowing our
rations could not connect for a few
days at least. Preparations for a
great demonstrations the next day's
work, was our orders; to prepare
works of defense to shield us, which
they did, and the greatest slaughter
to the Confederates they had yet re
ceived for so short a time, while
General Lee and Ewell looked on.
Official Records, serial 87, page
135, gives the last of our Regiment
2nd Pa. Hy. Art. In this battle, 227
men. S. T. WELLS.
HOW PARCEL POST
Years of Service Prove the
System a Great Success
AnEPORT by Harry J. Staley In
the New York Evening Post on
tho parcel post in England and
France is as follows:
The British and French postal au
thorities aro watching tho Installation
of parcel post In the United States with
great interest. With them it has been
n matter of slow growth, and they are
amazed at tho audacious undertaking
which contemplates tho establishment
of a parcel post on 200,000 miles of rail
way, not to mention rural routes, star
routes and steamship linos with only
Ave months of preparation and an In
significant Initial appropriation of only
For purposes of comparisons some
facts aud figures on the British parcel
post obtained through the courtesy of
W. C. C. Klrkwood, In charge of tho
railway mall service of Great Britain,
may bo of Interest to Americans.
It was in 1SS2 that England through
an act of parliament first began to re
ceive the boneflts of a parcel post sys
tem. This came about as the result of
a postal conference hold In Paris in
18S0. but It was not until 1SS3 that the
Inland and international parcel post
were linked together.
At this time an arrangement with
the "railway clearing house" of Eng
land was entered Into by the British
postofflce, under which the various rail
way companies were to receive eleven
twentieths of the postage collected
upon all parcels carried by the rail
ways. A maximum of seven pounds in
weight and three and a half feet in
length was allowed. Tho rates of post-nce-on
this class of mail were fixed at
1! cents for parcels not exceeding one
pound, ranging upward to 21 cents for
Was Instantly Successful.
The success of the British parcel
post wns instnntaneous. For the first
nine months of what was then an ex
periment In postal service a total of
14,000,000 parcels of various weights
were carried, and in tho year 1SS4-5 the
number reached nearly 215,000,000.
From 1SS5 England began extending
this service to her colonies and nt the
same time Increasing the number of
foreign countries with which parcel
post arrangements were made, the
rates of postage being governed by the
expense attending their conveyance
nnd the number of countries through
which they passed. This was the con
dition twenty-seven years ago.
Since then a process of gradual re
duction In postage rates ns well as an
Increase In the maximum weight al
lowed has gone on until today a parcel
weighing eleven pounds may be sent
by mall to any part of tho British Isles
for 22 cents.
The benefits of the parcel post may
bo gauged by its growth. From 23,000,
000 parcels In 18S-1-5, the average num
ber of parcels now passing through
tho Inland post of the United Kingdom
reaches KMMIIG.OOO. In addition, 1,514,
C00 foreign and colonial parcels were
delivered in the United Kingdom last
year, and a total of 2,731,000 foreign
and colonial packnges were dispatched
from the United Kingdom, making a
grand totnl of 113,0S1,000 pieces.
So great has been the growth of what
might be termed the suburban service
that in 1S98 the Euglish government
established n system of motor vans be
tween Loudon and all provincial towns
where a saving over the railway serv
ice could be effected.
Negotiate With United States.
For many years negotiations woro
conducted between Great Britain and
the United States looking toward the
establishment of a parcel post between
these countries, but It wns not until
1905 that an agreement was reached.
The service was at first subjected to
serious limitations, as parcels could
not exceed four pounds six ounces In
The United States being unable to
agree to the system of accounting and
Insurance In effect with other countries,
England found It necessary to main
tain a semiofficial service through tho
American Express company, which pro
vided facilities for the dispatch of par
cels up to eleven pounds. Notwith
standing Its limitations, the official par
eel post worked smoothly from the out
set. The postage, fixed nt 48 cents per
parcel, compared favorably with the
charges by tho semiofficial service,
which were (Including 48 cents per par
cel for nonpostnl charges):
On parcels for New York city, Jersey
City, Brooklyn and nobokeu three
pounds for 72 cents up to eleven pounds
for $1.20, for all other parts of the
United States 00 cents and $1.14 respec
tively. Parenthetically it might bo said
that tho small charge by tho express
company In this case furnished the ad
vocates of lower express rates, as well
us of an American parcel post, much
ammunition during the last session of
congress, and It is probable that when
tho American parcel post Is established
this business will be diverted to it from
the express company,
Through the competition of tho offi
cial service the American Express com
pany reduced its charges in 1907 from
2 shillings to 1 shilling nonpostal
IS CONDUCTED "
AND II FRANCE
Public of Two Nations Get
Low Rates and Fast
charges. In 1908 the limit of weight
was raised from four pounds six ounces
to eleven pounds in both directions, and
the rate of postage (official) was fixed
For all parts of the United States:
Up to three pounds, Is. Cd.
Three to seven pounds, 2s. Cd.
Seven to nine pounds, 3s. Gd.
Nino to eleven pounds, 4s. Od.
After this change In tho arrangement
the parcel post business increased about
40 per cent, and there aro now about
150,000 parcels received from the Unit
ed States and about tho samo number
sent there annually.
Parcel Post In France.
While on the subject of parcel post 1
may say that the situation in Franco Is
quite different. Only u maximum of
500 grams (about one pound) Is carried
through the postal department Pack
ages of greater weight, up to twenty
pounds, are handled entirely by the
railroads and do not pass through tho
hands of the postal officials at all, even
the collections and deliveries being per
formed by the railroad employees. A
tax of 10 centimes (2 cents) is put on
all such matter by the postofflce.
Tho volume of mall matter handled
by the French postal department,
while much smaller than that In the
United States. Is yet enormous. In
1011 It amounted to a total of 3.412,
050,000 pieces, classified as follows:
Letters, 1,503,500,000; newspapers and
other printed matter, 838,500,000; par
cels not exceeding 500 grams, 71,150.
000. The last investigation of the French
railway mall service by an American
was in 1S9S by V. J. Bmdley, then su
perintendent of the United States rail
way mall service of New York city. 1
found Mr. Bradley well nnd pleasantly
remembered by both the British and
French oflicials. who took pleasure In
pointing out the growth of their serv
ices since his visit.
M. Ferriere, chief of tho bureau of
transportation, minlstro des posts and
telegraphs, pointed out that there are
now 170 traveling postofllces against
100 in 1S9S, arranged in eight divi
sions. Ills bureau now employs 3,390
railway postal clerks nnd 2,995 mes
sengers; total, 0,391, as compared with
2,039 clerks and 813 messengers; total.
2,852, in 1S9S.
In that year there were but two
types of postal cars, one twenty-two
feet nnd the other twenty-three feet
six inches; total number of cars, 40S.
Today there are sixteen types of pos
tal carriages, varying in length from
(1.1 meters (ubout twenty feet) to eight
een meters (about sixty feet), and
there are in dally use CS1 carriages,
an increnso of 213. I am informed
that there aro now in construction cars
.soventy-flvo feet in length, but those
will probably not bo placed in service
for a year or more.
These cars will exceed nnything in
the mail service in tho United States.
A total of about 103,178 kilometers
(about 70,000 miles) Is covered by the
French railway mall service dally. It
Is true these figures are comparatively
lnsigniflcaut in comparison with the
5,283 postal cars in use in the United
States, but It must be remembered
that tho longest 'mall run in Franco
and England Is only 400 miles nnd
that either could bo tucked away in a
corner of the United Stntes.
SAYS ONIONS PREVENT ILLS.
Dr. Mary Walker Declares Odorous
Vegetable Chases Disease.
The use of plenty of onions will drive,
among other things, contagious disease
out of any city, Dr. Mary Walker, tho
noted woman physician, recently de
clared. Here nro Dr. Walker's direc
tions for the use of onions:
i "Eat plenty of them stewed, boiled.
. fried or raw.
I "Keep the fumes of onions continual
ly permeating tho atmosphere.
1 "Spread onions in tho alleys, on the
lawn and any other place where it
I might appear they would do good."
Dr. Walker said onions were partic
ularly effective against smallpox. Tho
use of tho vegetable in two cities at
least lias proved her contention to be
correct, she asserted.
"Madrid wns ono of the affected
ilties," she said. "Some even had
mudo this statement before tho onions
were used that tho city would bo de
populated by smallpox. Tho minister
plenipotentiary assured mo that tho
spread of tho disease had been halted
by the use of onions. They nlso were
used iu other cities."
' Skipped Jail to Lick Enemy.
Dan Brlggs, whose escape from tho
haln gang at Ashevlllo, N. C, put the
slierliT's forco to hunting him, walked
Into pollco headquarters and surrender
ed. Brlggs had not removed the
shackles from his legs, and when asked
why he returned ho said ho wanted to
serve ills sentence and had simply tak
en leave of absence to whip a man who
had been talking about blm. Tho man
who was fblpped could not be located
by tho pollco, but Brlggs assured them
that the Job bad been done well.
UNCLE SAM'S POSTCARDS.
There Aro 3,500,000 of Them Printed
Eaoh Working Day.
Few persons rcallzo that tho United
States government annually soils al
most 1,000,000,000 postal cards, weigh
ing approximately 4,000,000 pounds,
nor is It generally known that there
nro four different kinds of cards in use.
They aro the "McKlnloy card" tho
ono best known printed in red; tho
Goorcrc and Martha Washington reply
cards, with the head of Martha Wash-,
ington on tho reply section; the two
cent "International card," which bears
Grant's head, and the "Lincoln," which
is inado slightly smaller than tho Mc
Kinley card so as to fit any standard
To till the country's enormous de
mand for these various cards tho
postal card printing plant in Washing
ton turns out an average of 3,500,
000 cards each working day. The
daily output Is regulated by tho dally
consumption, aud at times the com
paratively small force in this office baa
to turn out 5.000,000 cards in one day.
This, howeror, does not happen often.
If the total yearly output of govern
ment postal cards were to be stored In
one hugro building 230,000 cubic feet
would be required and if laid end to
end In a line the billion cards would
stretch around the earth more than
In spite of the huge output only
twenty persons aro needed In tho
printing office. So small a force would
not be possible If tho machines were
not two highly developed automatic
mechanisms. They print the cards, cut
them, count them out in bundles of
fifty and deposit them near experts
who bind the bundles and mako them
ready for shipment If tho cards nro
to bo shipped by water they aro boxed
in lots of 10,000, but when the ship
ment Is to trnvol b7 rail ordinary
etrawboard enrtons are used. Busi
ness postal cards are printed in largo
sheets for the convenience of Arms,
which, after purchasing them, send tho
cards to printers nnd have addresses,
forms or circular letters printed upon
them. New York Sun.
A LESSON IN GEOGRAPHY.
Somo Curious Facts About Our Cities
That May Surprise You.
Somo little known facts about Amer
ican cities have been collected by Pro
fessor It. II. Whltbeck of tho geology
department of the University of Wis
consin in an nrtlcle in the Journal of
That Massachusetts, ono of tho
smallest stntes, has more largo cities
than any other stato In the Union is
ono of the odd facts brought out. It
has twenty-five cities with a popula
tion of 25,000 or over. The state of
Now York has twenty-one cities of this
size, whllo Pennsylvania has twenly.
Texas, the largest state iu tho Union,
has no city of 100,000 or over. Thero
Is only ono city in Arkansas, Little
Itock, that has over 25,000, while New
Jersey, only a fraction of its size, has
fourteen cities of 25.000.
The peculiar fact that four states
have ono very large city, while the
city of second size Is nlmost unknown,
is also pointed out For instance,
every ono knows that Chicago is the
first city of Illinois and has n popu
lation of over 2,000,000, but few know
that tho second city in Illinois Is Pe
oria, only one-thlrtleth tho size of Chi
cago. While Baltimore has 500,000
population, Cumberland, tho next city
of Maryland, has only 22,000 inhabit
ants. Now Orleans is twelve times tho
size of Shroveport, tho next city of
Louisiana. Milwaukee Is nearly ten
times tho sizo of Superior, the second
city of Wisconsin.
There nre now nineteen cities in tho
United States with a population of
250,000 each. Only ono of these. Now
Orleans, is in tho south.
A Queen Without Worries.
Queen Itanavalona of Madagascar 13
like tho little girl who, asked what she
would do if she wero a queen, replied,
"I would sit on my gold throne." This
nbsoluto nnd dusky ruler of nearly
4,000,000 people takes her sovereignty
very lazily. She has no children to
caro for, nothing to worry her nnd
spends her time wearing Paris gowns,
munching betol (a Madagascar confec
tion), gossiping with the ladles of her
court and playing cards. She Is said to
be an intelligent woman, but seems to
be sadly in need of a mission.
Pay For Their Papers With Fish.
Tho first uewspaper on record as hav
ing most of its subscriptions .paid for
in fish flourishes in northern Russia,
This publication, which also enjoys tho
distinction of being tho most northerly
newspaper In tho world,' is printed in
the village of nammersteln in a small
wood cabin thatched with turf. It Is a
weekly journal, called Nord Kap, and
most of its readers receive tho nowa
about a fortnight after tho events havo
taken place-. New York Post.
The Culinary Conquest of Tripoli.
Tho Arabs in Tripoli havo learned
the macaroul habit from their Italian
enemies nnd have acquired tho art of
eating it in the orthodox national man.
ner. Macaroni nnd kettles havo be
come coveted things, nnd tho raiding
of Italian stores has given a new zest
to tho Arab resistance. War is gener
ally such a profitless thing that it Is
well to note when any benefit arises
from it. Westminster Gazette.
Somo Comfort Left.
A food expert says that a raw onion
sandwich contains moro nourishment
than a porterhouso steak. Wo can't
eat the one and can't afford tho other.
Fortunately, potatoes aro still In the
market, and starvation is somo days
off. Philadelphia Inquirer,
NOT SO WITH AVAYNE COUNTY
Tho Now York Sun bewails tho
fact that apples do not tasto as they
once did, in tho following words:
"Apples! How many city folks
know save In memory what apples
are? How many, mealy, julceless,
tasteless, decrepit things aro bought
and sold as 'apples.' The very
name '.Baldwin' has a pleasant tart,
bite and tang, yot any sweet apple
will pass for It among somo humor
ous or Ignorant grocers and fruiter
ers and their clients."
Nothing tastes to an old man as
It did when ho was a boy, for
tastes change, or at least, lose their
peculiar discernment of flavor. But
there may be another explanation
why apples do not tasto tho samo
now as they did forty years ago. In
grafting scions upon other stock It is
said that fruit is modified somewhat
by the nature of tho parent stock
becoming more sour or more sweet
according to the tree Into which it
is grafted. If this Is so, several
successions of grafting might make
tho change dlscernable to tho pal
ate. CHANGE IN FOOT BAIjL RULES.
A proposed change in foot ball
rules, it Is believed, will be benefi
cial and is favored by a number of
coaches. After a touchdown has
been scored instead of tho team
making a touchdown being permitted
to take a free kick on try for goal,
It is suggested the ball be taken out
to the ten-yard line and the ball put
Into scrimmage, the team having
scored the touchdown attempting to
score another point on goal from the
field, and the defenders of the goal
having an opportunity to block tho
That proposed new game of
"union" ball ought to take here with
the school boys. Or why not succor?
It is a fast game and is popular In
Start The P3ew Year1 Right
Provide the protection you should against
loss hy FIRE and DEATH
INSURE TO-DAY WITH "
m stance ared Bonding
LIBERTY HALL BLPG., HONESDALE.
Consolidated Phono l-D-L.
Ladiies5 Long Coafs5 Fwr3 Astra
khan. Plush and Cloth.
Jacket Suits., Junior EVSisses
and Ladles9 separate Sklrts9
Silk and Chiffon Shirt Waists.
Fur Muffs and Scarfs-Genuine Pelts.
Brofarsts5 Bear Cloth Coats.
MENNER & CO.
ry Closing Out Sale of Winter
"New Way M-Cooled Gasoline
No Water to freeze. No pipes to burst.
No weather too cold.
No weather too hot.
Less Gasoline, Wlore Power.
Have you seen our Reo delivery truck?
It's a dandy. Better look it over.
REO OVERLAND and FORD AUTOMOBILES.
No bettor cars inado for anywhere near tho price. Plnco your
order right now.
Better times coming; help it along.
For sale nt bargain prices: Auto Car Hunnbout, Liberty Brush
Ilunnbout and Maxwell Runabout.
Get In tho swim and own h car.
Eb W. Gammeli
Advertise in THE CITIZEN
TRY i A CENT-A-WORD
HERE IS A BARGAIN
Located in Berlin township about
Z'Vt miles from Honesdale is ono
of tho best farms in that locality.
It consists of 108 acres, which is all
improved. The soli is sand loam and
red shale. It is well watered by
springs; orchard. Twelve-room'
house, barn 37x47 feet with shed
22x90 feet. Fart cash, balance on
easy terms. Seo
Buy-U-A-Homo Realty Co.
Jndwln Building, Box 52, Honesdale.
BLOODINE OINTMENT curea
Piles, Eczema, halt Rheum, Old
Sores, Fever Sores, Itch and all skin
Irritation, COc a box, mailed by The
Bloodine Corporation, 'Boston, Mass.
Designer and Man
Office and Works
1036 MAIN ST.