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THE HOLLAND SUBMARINE BOAT.
One of the Most Wonderful
At the present time engines of war
re exciting unusual interest in the
United Btates, and among those which
imdi to have great possibilities is the
latest example of the Holland submar
ine torpedo boats, which was lately
launched and has been put through a
OnX P. HOLLAND, TflE IXTESTOB.
tries of trials in the waters near Now
York. This boat is the sixth one invent
ed and bnilt by John P. Holland, of N ew
Tork, since 1877. The first of these
vessels was only 14 feet long; the sec
end, bnilt in 1871), was 81 feet long
nd 0 foot in dinmetor; the third was a
working model, 16 feet long by BO
' inches in diameter; the fourth was the
Zalinski boat, built at Fort Lafayette,
and 40 feet long by eight feet in di
ameter; the fifth is now under con
struction for the Government at Bal
timore, Md. , and is 85 feet long by
11) feet in diamoter, and has 108 tons
displacement; and the sixth is the one
here illustrated. This last boat is 03
feet long, 10 feet 8 inches in diameter,
and baa a displacement of 75 tons.
The hull, as will be seen from the
illustration, is cigar-shaped and is
made of i-inoh to f -inch steel plates
riveted to steel frames. The top is
flat, with two hatches and a central
telescopio conning tower 2 feet in di
ameter and three feet high. Hteering
is done by two sets of rudders, one
vertical for steering on the surface and
the other horizontal for regulating
the depth of submersion. There are
three sources of power for propelling
the boat above and below the water,
expelling water, discharging torpedoes
and dynamite guns, and lighting the
ship internally and externally, name
ly: compressed air, gasoline and elec
tricity. The most important agent is
compressed air, without which it would
be impossible to operate the boat un
der the sea.
The most important use of the com
pressed air is for the respiration of
the crew. The boat is quickly sub
merged by admitting sea water to a
aeries of steel tanks connected with
the compressed air system. To bring
the boat to the surface air is forced
into the water tanks under high pres
sure, and as the water is expelled the
boat rises swiftly to the surface. The
air tanks have been tested to stand a
pressure of 8000 pounds per square
inch, and are calculated to hold 'out
for a submergence lasting ten hours,
, ut if the supply should fail after nine
or ten hours, the tanks can be
replenished by means of a tube pro
jected to the surface as a suction pipe.
The armament of the boat consists
first of an aerial torpedo ejector, at
the bow, capable of throwing to a
distance of one mile, a projectile
weighing 180 pounds and carrying 100
pounds of a high explosive. Iinmedia-
. tety under this is an expulsive tube
for a Whitehead torpedo, with the
uanal charge of 200 pounds of gun
cotton; and pointing to the rear is a
dynamite gun capable of throwing 100
' pounds of a high explosive 100 yards
. or more through the water. When
equipped for service the "Holland"
would carry three Whitehead tor-
a pedoes, six shots for the forward gun
' and five for the after gun.
The most important test the boat
, lias undergone was when she made
four dives of a mile each, went through
a series of surfaoe evolutions, tried
' her aerial dynamite gun and expelled
a dummy torpedo from her submarine
. tube in Baritan Bay. .
The experiments were oonducted for
. the benefit of the board appointed by
i the Secretary of the Navy to witness
the Holland's trials and report upon
her efficiency. Lieutenant-Commander
C. S. Sperry, Chief of the Bureau of
Bwift, Chief of the Bureau of Ordi-
. nance, and Lieutenant Bock, Naval
Constructor, who comprise that board,
witnessed them from a tug provided
' by the Holland Company. Elihu B.
Frost, Treasurer of the Holland Com-
Shuj, ez-ABBintau oeoreisry oj me
levy McAdoo; General Murtwaygo,
' the special agent of the Czar in this
country; Lewis Nixon, who construct
ed the Holland at Elizabeth, and Cap
tain C. A. Morris, Superintendent of
the Holland Company, were on the
ame tug. General Murtwaygo came
irom Washington lor tne special pur
. -4 1. J 41. t " .
and after they were over he told Mr,
. Crll..1 4 V.. 4 1,1. 41.. 4
wonderful piece of naval architecture
The programme arranged before
hand was that the Holland should
nuke a two-mile run' under water,
Piece of Naval Arcbitect-
coming to the surface three times at
intervals of one minute eacn. The
Holland did more than that
Bhe started from the block Imov at
the eastern end of Baritan Bay, about
four miles southwest of the Old Or
chard light, ran westward toward the
Jersey shore for a mile,' showed her
conning tower on the surfaoe for about
thirty seconds, ran another mile under
water, came up again, turned around,
and wect back to the black buoy in
the same way.
Aided by her automatic steering
gear, she held her bourse perfectly be
neath the surface. The average depth
of water over her conning tower dur
ing her submerged trips was about fif
teen foot. In her surface experiments
after the diving trials were over she
obeyed her holm more quickly than
she ever did before. She did not have
to stop and fhke on more ballast as
she has in all her previous trials.
This difficulty was overcome by using
her compensating tanks. There was
no delay. Hhe went at her work
romptly and behaved as though she
were on dress parade.
Iter gun experiments were as suc
cessful as her evolutions in the water.
Hhe expelled a dummy torpedo from
her submarine tube without difficulty
and hurled a 76-pound wooden pro
jectile 400 yards through the air from
her forward dynamite gun, using com
pressed air in both instances.
Itoritan Bay was chosen by Mr.
Holland for the trials because" it was
BOW VIEW OF
(Toe mouth of the aortal torpedo gun,
comparatively free from the harbor
boats that pestered him so much in
hia experiments in Staten Island
Sound, and a depth of water sufficient
to develop the full diving powers of
the little whaleback oould be had.
The Holland behaved perfectly in the
seaway. She ploughed right through
the waves, which tumbled the two
tugs about and dashed clouds of spray
up to their pilot houses like a water
soaked log. The waves simply rolled
over her, alternately submerging her
completely and exposing her sides until
the lights in her broadside windows
could be seen. Her superstructure
and about twelve inches of her body
was out of water. Toe, Mars and
Stripes, on a four-foot sti T, floated
aft She had about 8000 t-ounds of
pig-lead ballast inside of her, and her
tanks fore and aft, whloh have capacity
for about nine and a half tons of
water, were full. Her trimming tank
amidships was empty. Her crew con-
anted of Mr. Holland, who was in the
conning tower; F. T. Cable, the elec-
AT HMH BPKBO W7TB OOXKIJTCJ TO WEB
abovb atrirvAOs yoa oimebvatiobt.
trioian; Henry Meyer, his assistant;
Nathaniel Addison, the engineer; W.
W. Scott, the draughtsman, and W,
F, O. Nindemann, the gunner. Mr.
Holland clamped down the lid of her
conning tower and filled her trimming
tank. The little whaleback settled
until her decks were awash aud uoth-
ing showed above the surfaoe except
her turret and her flag. A whistle an
nounced that she was ready Jo dive,
and the tugs backed away to give her
sea room, Before the dive Mr. Hol
land sent the little whalebock along
the surface for a 200-yard run. fine
developed a speed of eight knots. Her
nose was pointed out toward the
Band Hook light.
Assured that everything was in
WTERtOn OV TBI HOLLAND BOAT.
working order, Mr. Holland slowed
the little boat up and pointed her nose
in toward the Navesink Highland,
which loomed up smoky and indistinct
on the Jersey 'shore fonr miles to the
southward. Then, at right angles
with the course he told the naval offi
cer he would take, which lay from the
black buoy almost due westward to
the Great Bed Lights, at the head of
the dredged channel he sent the Hol
land forward at full speed and forced
her fin rudder down. The Holland
reluctantly .buried her blunt nose
and tilted up her tall until the blades
of her screw were visible as they
churned the water. She ran along in
this fashion for fifty yards, and then
suddenly swinging about and pointing
her nose toward the Great Beds light
she slipped out of sight There were
a few ripples aft and a little patch of
foam, but that was all. Two hundred
yards from where she disappeared the
Holland came up like a huge porpoise
and a most immediately vanished from
Every man on the two tugs took out
his watch and counted the minutes
she was under. Many of them had
never seen a submarine boat perform
before and were a little skeptical as to
the superstructure dock and conning
the Holland's ability to go down and
come up as she pleased. The nervous
onee w ere reassured after a wait of
twelve minutes by seeing her appear
again, but she disappeared instantly,
and for fifty long minutes not a glimpse
of her was caught by any one on either
tug. The most oonfldent of the spec
tators were discouraged long before
the fifty minutes was over.
Exactly one hour and two minutes
after she had made her first dive and
about fifty minutes after her second
appearanoe above the water the Hol
land was discovered three-quarters
of a mile away from the tugs. Her
nag was gone, and all that could be
seen of her was her conning tower
which looked like an oyster can as it
bobbed up and down in the dis tanoe.
The crowds on the tugs gave a veil
of delight and the tugs' whistles
joined in the chorus. The boat grow
ing bigger and bigger, ploughed
through the water in the direction of
the black buoy at eight knot speed.
She made several quiok turns to the
right aud to the left on the way, which
indioated that her steering gear was in
perfect working order. Finally she
stopped and summoned the tugs along
side by three shrill, whistlee. It was
too rough to open the lid of the con
ning tower, so Mr. Holland blew his
whistle twioe more to let the men on
the tugs know that he was reedy to
try his dynamite gun and his torpedo
tube. The aerial dynamite gun was.
tried first A wooden projectile eight
inches in diameter, half an inch smaller
than the bore of tbo gun, was fitted
into the breech and expelled from the
gnn by a compressed air oharge of
C00 pounds pressure to the square
inch. The projeotile was hurled
through the air for 400 yards at an
angle of about sixteen degrees, Its
flight was rapid, but it oould be seen.
A powder oharge sufficient to increase
the pressure - at the muzzle of
the gun to 2000 pounds to the square
inoh would have been used if
the breech of the gun had not been
defeotive. The projectile was of the
same shape as the dynamite shell
which will be used in the gnn in actual
service, but its weight was about 100
pounds less. Immediately after this
trial the submarine torpedo tube was
Mr. Holland was taken aboard the
tug which carried the naval experts
and was questioned by Lieutenant
Commander Sperry and his associates.
He explained to them that the reason
the Holland could not be seen when
she rose to the surface was that she
poked only her nose and conning tower
op, and the sea was so rongh that So
small a part of her wan. not distin
guishable two miles awny.
"If you managed to keep out of onr
sight when we were scanning the whole
surface of the bay for yon, I don't
know what a hostile battleship that
did not suspect yon were after her
would do," one of the men remarked.
The water in which Mr. Holland
dived had an average depth of thirty
feet The last time she was under she
bumped along the bottom for half a
mile, and her crew oould hear the oys
ter shells scraping against her iron
When the Holland is equipped for
war it will not be necessary for her to
take any metal ballast on board at all.
The weight of her projectiles will
make her heavy enough, and she will
be operated solely by her ballast tanks.
FLAG OF THE PRESIDENT.
The New Design Which Mr. McKlnle?
By direction of the Secretary of War,
paragraphs descriptive of the flag of
the President have been added to the
Army regulations. The President's
THE PRESIDENT'S FLAO,
flag shall be of scarlet bunting, measur
ing thirteen feet fly and eight feet
hoist. In each of the fonr oorners
shall be a five-pointed white star, with
one point upward. In the center of
the flag shall be a large fifth star, also
of five points, which lie in the circum
ference of an imaginary cirole of two
feet nine inches radius. Inside of the
star thus outlined is a parallel star,
separated from it by a band of white
two inohes wide. This inner star forms
a blue field, upon which is the official
ooat of arms of the United States as
determined by the State Department,
the devioe being located by placing
themiddle point of the line dividing
the chief from the palewise of the
escutcheon upon the point of intersec
tion of the diagonals of the flag and
thus coinciding with the corner of the
large center star. On this scarlet
field around the large star are other
white stars, one for each State, oqnally
scattered in the re-entering angles,
and all inoludod within the oironmfer
ence of a cirole three feet three inohes
radius, whose conter is the conter of
the large star. The oolors of the Pies
ident shall be of scarlet silk, six feet
six inohes fly and four feet on the pike,
which shall be ten feet long, including
ferrule and head. The head shall con
sist of a globe three inohes in diame
ter, surmounted by an American eagle,
alert, four inohes high. In eaoh of
the fonr oorners shall be a five-pointed
white star. Tha design letters, figures
and stars are to le embroidered in silk,
the same on both sides of the color.
The edges of the color are to be
trimmed with knotted fringe of silver
and gold three inches wide, and one
cord (having two tassels) eight feet six
inches long, and made of red, white
and blue silk intermixed.
When tho Bora U VhWh.
Besidents of New Tork City are
likely to look upon cab and carriage
horses as curiosities one of these days,
for the horsekvss carriage bids fair to
make the animals unnecessary. Re
cently a company made a practical
test with a horseless cab, and found it
so successful that the company has, it
is said, determined to put 1000 of the
cabs into service in New York. The
vehioles are operated by electricity,
the power being furnished from a
storage battery that is under the body
of the oo b, Chicago Record.
The Dollar Ink In th Jangle.
' Tlert Dairy Utensils.
Other things being equal, tue mora
accessible the inside surfaoe of an ar
ticle for dairy use, the more valuable.
All dairy utensils should be of hard
material and have -smooth surfaces.
Wooden pails should never be used for
holding milk. New England Home
Ilorse Radish For Home re.
All of the horse radish should be cot
ent of the ground so soon ai the frost
is fairly ont That for home use is
best preserved by prating flnelv while
fresh, putting the pnlp in bottles with clothing, camp and garrison provisions
wliln tnniitlis unit nnrbtnn i.-i- , and all requirements for soldiers la the
I ? . Li. g vm ,T . ' fl0"1' '"eluding tents, which are much
keep out air. It is very difficult to needed. On arrival at Chlckamauga of
keep the roots in warm weather. Those he troops, with those of other Sta tes,
kept dry will beoome dry and worth- ! iney wl" f equipped and moved to the
Inns Tfinsn nnt In ,!tk i front This was found to be better
l'. , -in ?4-.. JL J 4?y i than "lulPP'ng regiments at State ren
moistnre will start to growing, and the dezvous. Ordnance Quartermaster and
root win oecome acrid and 01 poor
Improved Dandelions For, flnrden. v
The dandelion is so popular an herb
for greens that it is well worth while
to cultivate it in the garden for that
use. There are special varieties which
have much larger and thioker leaves,
and these are sometimes planted in
greenhouses in winter so as to have!
greens earlier for use in spring. At
this season something fresh from the
garden or greenhouse is liked by all.
n. 4i. -,i.,,4. .., , ' ,
One of the advantages of the dande-
lion greens is that they have a tome .
effect on the stomach, and are vnrv
highly regarded by many old-fashioned
Dennla as a medininnl f.n(7
people as a medicinal lood. .
The unproductiveness of some or
chards is caused by the attacks of in
sects and fnngi. Such orchards may
be greatly improved by spraying with
a combination of Bordeaux mixture
and Taris green. The Bordeaux stops
the growth of the fungi (especially the
apple soab) and the" Paris green kills
the larvio of the bud-moth and codling
The first spraying should be done
when the fruit buds have begun to
show their color, but before the flow
ers expand. A second application
should be made just as the last blos
soms fall. In some years when insects
and fungi are particularly abundant,
a third and even fourth application
may be necessary.
To insure success the spraying must
be done thoroughly. Every limb and
every leaf must be wet with the mixt
ure. Insects do not hunt around for
the poison it must be put where they
will be sure to get it
Composting Fertilizing Material.
There is always a vast amount of
good fertilizing material on the farm,
material of but little value in itself,
but when combined with other mater
ial furnishes an enriching element one
cannot afford to lose. Taking the
autumn leaves as a basis, adding to
them barn ashes and then a layer of
barnyard manure, and we have a
foundation for a compost heap on to
wbioh can be thrown old lime or plas
ter, soil from road ditches, muck, the
greasy water from the kitchens and
other refuse from the house which
cannot be disposed of in any other
way. i,ven weeds will add to the
value of the compost heap. Add to it
at every opportunity anything which
in combination with the other mater
ial will make plant food, using lime
in sufficient quantities to keep in sub
jection any odor arising from a sur
plus of greasy materials.
There is enough material whioh
may be gathered from time to time on
the farm to start several compost
heaps, each of which may be forked
over in the late fall and the material
applied to the soil then, or if not suffi
ciently well rotted, the following
spring. It will cost but little to
gather them but will add many dollars
to the crops, to say nothing of added
cleanliness about the farm. If far
mers wero as careful about their waste
produots as are' manufacturers, they
would soon find a way of making
money by thoir use surprisingly easy.
Growing Potatoes rrofitubly.
One of the most suocestiful potato
growers in tne country is an Ultio
man who recently gave his methods
publicity before a meeting of horti
culturists, lie claimed that by turn
ing under two or three clover sods and
thus seouring a large amount of humus
in the soil, he could grow a crop of
potatoes without the aid of a drop of
rain from' planting to harvest. He
grows only medium early sorts, thus
enabling him to sow tho land to wheat
after taking off a crop of potatoes,
riantings are made four inches deep,
in drills thirty-two inches apart and
from twelve to twenty inches between
the pieoes, using from ' six to eight
bushels of seed per acre. It might
be well to say just here that this quan
tity of seed would be much too little
unless the soil was rich and well pre
pared such as is the Ohio man's. Be
fore the potatoes are up the soil
should be worked twioe with a smooth
ing harrow to loosen the surface soil
and kill any starting weeds. As soon
as the rows can be mode out a culti
vator should be used, the teeth being
run four inobes, but later when the
tops are fonr to six inohes high the
cultivation should bo shallow, not
more than two inohes deep. At least
onoe a week, and as soon ns the ground
is in condition after a rain, a shallow
cultivation should be given up to the
time the vines cover the ground.
Much of the cultivation may be done
with tho weeder, thus keeping the
weeds down as well as giving the ne
cessary cultivation. If the soil is rich
in humus and a proper amount o(
plant food furnished, the frequent
stirring of the surfaoe soil will result
in a good crop even in a dry season.
It is suggested thut blackboards be
abandoned for schools, that a light
colored board be substituted therefor,
and that colored chalk be used instead
I el the usual wbjte crayoas.
IDiE SUIt KEkYS CnflEBB
TO THE FRONT.
evsa ftnniylvania Begimmti Ordered te
Ohlokamaogs Last Week.
The following; order reached Camp
Hastings at Mt. Gretna last Friday:
"To the Governor of Pennsylvania:
"Seven regiments of Infantry of your
State having been mustered and or
dered to proceed to Chlrkamauga, It Is
desired that the Stat authorities fur-
1 nlh all supplies possible In the way of
commissary omcers will report at
Chattanooga. Supplies to meet the
situation. R. A. ALGER,
Secretary of War."
This means that these regiments will
move In the order named Fourth, Six
teenth, Third, Fifteenth, Fifth and
Nli.Th. Major Thompson says It Is
lust possible that the order will be
changed to the extent that the Fourth
and Sixteenth regiments will go forth
The following pensions were Issued
last week: Morris Hess, Claysvllle, IS;
Joseph It. Ross, Waynesburg, $6; John
? J?em!ne;.lle,I,te-, ,fl;.0Bl"Jamln
1. Morrell, McKees Rocks. $S; Thomas
Ornham, Pittsburg. $9; John T. Jamison,
Indiana, 18 t u; John C. Harkom,
Malrsvllle. 6 to 19: John Heech.
with to rampa.
I L0,rw0Rieri,,1 toilV' Joseph B. Gohen,
Soldiers' Home, Erie, 16; Luclnda J.
pan winkle, Rome, Bradford, 8; Hen-
rletta Matson. Canton, Bradford, 18;
Michael Clark, Orbisonla, Huntingdon,
8; Eliza M. Fleeson, mother, Alle
gheny, 12; Edward J. Humphreys',
Kbensburg, $6; William J. Warden,
Pittsburg, J6; Benjamin Strobie, Irwin,
8; William H. Reardon, Shlppenvllle,
$; Samuel Morrow, Allegheny, 16;
George Simons. Brush Valley, $8; Alex
ander F. Hartford, Crafton, 110; Oliver
P. Wilson. Hubersburg, $10; Emma
Edlnger, St. Petersburg, $12; Mary J.
Smith, Troy Center, 9; Emma Nlchol
ron, Allegheny, $8; William W. Head
ley, father, Perrysvlllo, $12; Martha J.
Wyman. SHbo. 112; Riohnrvl r H.nra
McDonald, $8; John H. Ixuderbaugh,
Library, Allegheny. $8: Jamea Corman,
ntuiTsourj, center, ; John Hook,
Hoalsburg, Center. $; Milton Hartley,
Polk, $6; Thomas J. Frow, Lowlstown,
jii; Iemon Seruder, Penn Furnace,
Huntington. $8 to tlfV Stnivai-t rt,rhin
Connellsville. $12 to $17; J. A. Small,
4i"urasKa, .f orest, J to $8; Jacob W.
Ottlnger. Soldiers' Ifnm to
$10; Elleabeth Clements. New 'conti.
$12: Catharine Nearhnrwi Cn. u.n
$8; Mary E. Jackson. Girard. ErlA in'
Paul Meshok. a Slav miner. nnt,
an attack from three others and dealt
Joe Tenakl a deadly blow on the head
with a club at California a few days
ago. The Injured man died. Meshok,
his wife and two children were walk
ing on the railroad near Roscoe late
Saturday night, and the ruffians fell
upon him, knocking him down ami us
ing him up badly. He got a oluh nnd
Joseph Habltskv. who ah r,t and lM1w
his brother Michael, at Alverton, last
January, was acquitted of the charge of
murder. The defense was that the
shooting was accidental. John Hath
azl, convicted of criminal assault, was
sent to the penitentiary for two years
and five months.
Joshua W. Landls. a Are Insurants
aftent of Berlin, fell from a buggy In
which he was returning from Meyers
dale to his home the other mornlnar
and broke hia neck. Landls was 50
years of age and leaves a wife and a
number of children.
The Washington county commission.
ers awarded to William Miller & Sons.
or Pittsburg, for $379,900 tho contract
to erect the new court house and jail.
Sandstone is to be used. An amended
contract calls for granite for the court
house only at $346,300.
William Werti. aged 18. hl
back broken by a stune blasted from
the. Juniata stone quarry and died
Thursday In the Altoona hospital.
With companions he was playing:
poker near tho quarry when hurt
David Ramsey, member of Comnanv
I. One Hundred and Third Pennsyl
vania Volunteers in the civil war. fall
dead In his garden at New Castle re
cently while planting potatoes. Ho
was 73 years old.
William E. Lloyd of West Middlesex.
Is back from the Klondike. He has
paying claims and will return. He
reached uniiKoot pass after the aval.
anche and found 67 dead bodies there.
Centre County grangers hava set tha
date for the mid-summer encampment
at centre nan on September 12-17.
Leonard Rhone Is chairman of tha
Committee of Arrangements.
Mrs. Elizabeth Arnold, who was shot
by her son-in-law, Albert Daub, on
April 27, at Lebanon, died Monday, and
the wife of Daub, who was also wound
ed, Is not expecteu to live.
John W. Irwin, a traveling salesman,
was found dead In his room at tha
Commercial hotel In Franklin 'a few
days ago. He was 65 years of age, and
resided at Slippery Rock.
Governor Hastings gTanted a re.
spite to Walter E. Goodwin, of Wells
buro, to have been hanged Wednesda
for the murder of his wife, until June
MrB. Michael Tott and a 6-year-old
daughter of John Pollish burned to
death in a fire that destroyed threa
dwellings at Minersvllle, near Potts
vlllo laut week.
After dressing In his best clothes.
William Gruver went to the barn on
hia farm, near Allentown, the other
day and hanged himself from a rafter.
Herbert Qrlfflth, engineer of the steel
mills, of Bristol, scaled the big smoke
stack, 130 feet nign, ana nung to the
breeze an American flag.
While walking on tha Bellefonte
Central railroad, near State College.
Crawford Swltzer wae killed by a train
the other day.
Cyrus Zeeger, a veteran of the civil
war, met death under the wheels of a
Shamokln & Mount Carmel trolley oar
Four prisoners got out of Sunburv .
jail recently by means of a rope ladder.
Daniel McKlnley, a traveling sales
man for a Philadelphia drug bouse,
was found dead In his chair at hia
room In a Lima hotel a few days ago.
His son Is a Catholic priest In Ger
The mansion of Mnnr E. Stein
bacher, at Akron, wa damaged by
lire and the loss will rel eh s,uw), fully
covered by Insurance.
Mm. Christina Fisher, the oldest
renident of Steubenvilia, celebrated hur
10;J birthday anniversary last tveuk.
While out Hailing John Meyer, awed
43 years, fell Into the water 'and was
drowned at Akron a few days ago.
Frei Mosely, convicted of killing
James Silon of irondalu, got two.
years to the penitentiary.