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Established 1888. PUBLISHED EVERY MONDAY AND THURSDAY. BY TIIE TRIBUNE PRINTING COMPANY. Lililoi OFFICE: MAIS STBEET ABOVE CENTRE. FREELAND, PA. SUBSCRIPTION KATES: On© Year $1.50 Six Months 75 Four Nlomhs 50 Two Mouths '^s The date which the subscription is paid to Is on tne address label of each paper, the change of which to a subsequent date be comes a receipt for remittance. Keep thl figures in advunce of the present date. Re port promptly to this ofllue whenever paper (s not received. Arrearages must be pui( When subscription is discontinued. Make all monty orders, cheeks, etc,, pay able to the Tribune Printing Company, Limited. The oldest poem in the world has recently been found, and the critics will now be busy for a while trying to decide who was plagiarized by its au thor. Michigan's supreme court lias de cided that womeu cannot hold elective offices. Never miud; they cau at least hold the baby that subsequently gets into the office. For laughing in a Chicago court room the other day, during a criminal trial, a young woman was sentenced to imprisonment in jail for two hours. The judge who imposed that penalty must be awfully overstocked with ju dicial dignity. Emperor William the other day made a brief, but pithy address to the crew and officers of the German war ship Falke, recently in Samoau waters, in which he praised their devotion to duty, and added: "Let us hope that the day may not be distant when Ger many will have larger, more powerful ships and more of them to send out on the far seas for the protection of her interests, aiid that all other nations will respect her just wishes and rights." In calling attention to the large de crease in the per capita consumption of liquors the president of the Womnu's Christian Temperance union calls at tention to the vast influence for so briety which machinery has ha 1 upon tho American people. The man who handles machinery or has any control over machinery must be a sober man. Thus while the number of users of alcoholic liquors has greatly increased, the amount whi h they use per eupita has enormously decreased. It is one hundred years ago since Festalozzi started at tttauz, by the Lake of Lucerne, the first public in stitution of which the modern kinder garten schools sire the successors. Pestalozzi had made a previous ven ture in the same dire tion by teaching a number of poor children at his own house; but that effort failed from causes which had nothing to do with the merits of this method, and it was in 179'.) that he started the idea suc cessfully. Some years later he was visited by Froebel, whose name has become associated with tho system, which is founded upon the basic laws of the great school of nature. The sanitary value of trees is a mat ter which bus been too little regarded. All forms of vegetatiou play a more or less important part in tempering the extremes of climate, but the service performed by trees is by far the most efficient. Their leaves present a vast area of surface to the air, while the tree itself occupies little ground space. With the destruction of forests have come marked changes in climate. The winte s have grown colder, the sum mers hotter. Streams which once flowed evenly are now transformed iu u few hours from trickling rills to raging torrents. The springs which feed them have gone dry. Tho earth not sheltered by trees is more deeply frozen iu winter and more parched in Hummer. With the extremes of cli mate new and dangerous diseases have appeared iu localities heretofore noted for their healthfnlness. The lost trees cannot, of course, be recalled, but by planting others in their places and by preserving those which have so far es caped destruction, a real and impor tant service may be rendered to tho public health ami tho public welfare. An Absent-Minded Boy. Hicks—That's a pretty good boy in your office. Wicks —First rate. Not a lazy bone in his body. The only trou ble with him is that he is a little ab sent minded. When I tell him to polish my shoes it almost always hap pens that he shines his own instead.— Boston Transcript. TIM **</ Mno Didn't Count. Mrs. Tlndler —Why, Johnny, what la the matter with you? You've been fighting! And I told you to count ten when you were angry. Johnny—l did, but Tommy Tinker played roots on me. He didn't count his ten until after he'd plunked me in the eye.—Boston Tran script PICKLES, MUSTARD. Such a discussion as developed on the piazza at the home of the Ellisons, that summer afternoon, would have been of serious import had It not been for the personality of the disputants. But a wrangle involving only a half dozen pretty women gowned in the light, breezy, fluffliness appertaining to a perfect June day, becomes prettier in proportion to its earnestness. It came about through Emily Hast ings' proposal for a picnic on the Des plaines river. "No one of those formal, cut-and dried, lemon-pie affairs," she explain ed, "but just a rollicking, jolly party of us young folks, who want to have a good time in the woods." "And the young men?" queried someone, doubtfully. "This isn't leap year, you know!" "Leave that to me," returned Emily reassuringly. "If I can't make Herbert Winslow take up the idea and carry it out as his own, then I'm not up to enough snuff to make a baby sneeze!" "Oh, Emily, how can you?" came in a deprecating chorus. "I'm not going to him and bluntly ask him to hire a picnic wagon, pay for the provisions, and generally act as field manager for the party," insist ed the young lady. "You ought to give me more credit than that. I'm 6imply going into a little psychologi cal suggesting. He'll think he did it all himself. When the idea has taken, I expect him to invite your humble servant as his own particular side partner, after which I'll propose that we girls make up the luncheon." "What a pig!" exclaimed pretty May West, disconsolately; "you'd monopo lize the attentions of Mr. Winslow, and leave the rest of us to any Tom, Dick and Harry." "O, that comes of my being the pro moter, you know," laughed Miss Hastings, lightly; "as a simple stock holder, you'll have to wait for divi dends." "But how about a chaperon?" sug gested Blanche Fielding, the demure. "A chaperon!" exclaimed the pro moter tragically; "my kingdom for a chaperon! You, of all sobersides in Christendom, to suggest a chaperon!" she continued, argumentatively. "Goodness knows, you don't need one, and as for casting such an espersion on the rest of us—what shall we do with her, girls?" When the little bevy had gone Into individual pieces, the picnic was as sured, if only Emily Hastings' psycho logical equipment did not fail. And it did not—at least in part. Herbert Winslow took up the scheme like an original enthusiast. A railroad trip to IT WAS A GAY PARTY. Riverside, and a picnic wagon to take the party down the river, were fixed upon. The luncheon scheme was ex cellent. A list of the young ladies was made up and a corresponding number of escorts were considered. The day was set — But that night Herbert Winslow wrote an informal invitation, asking for the company of demure Blanche Fielding. If Emily Hastings was keenly disap pointed she did not 3how it. Her in terest in the picnic did not flag. Out of her inventive genius she even im proved on the original plans. "This is to be a novel picnic," she said, "nothing else will do. Now, as the designer of it I am going to be the chef. I'm going to write out a list of Just what each girl is to bring in a covered basket. These lists must be kept in secret, and not till we get to the woods, ready to spread the table, is any one but myself to know what we're to have for dinner. Everybody was pledged to the com pact of secrecy and when the bill of fare had been made out and distribut ed, preparations began for the outing. Saturday, July 1, was an ideal day. Gathered in the union station in the early morning, only Emily Hastings and her escort were missing. Five minutes before train time Edward Aus tin, breathless, came up to the anxious group with the news that Miss Hast ings was ill and could not go. "Nothing serious," he assured them. "Miss Hastings send% a thou sand regrets and asks that we fill the program without her." It was a gay party in spite of the disappointing fact that Mr. Austin was a bit of overplus, community prop erty. The swift, thundering train; the jaunty picnic wagon, trailing its cloud of dust; the silence of the wood ed banks of the Desplaines—nothing was lost to the senses of the group, left at last to themselves, while the wagon lumbered hack to Riverside, five miles away. "Don't forget to come for us In time for the 7 o'clock train," young Austin had Impressed on the driver, and with his disappearance hammocks were swung for the lazy oneß, while the naturalists, In pairs, wandered at will Basket opening at 1 o'clock was to be a feature of the outing. Under a spreading elm a grassy spot was cleared. "Who has the linen?" called Eva Best, who, in the absence of Emily Hastings, took the lead. "Here," and Anna Hunt opened the hamper in which a pile of snowy nap ery lay hanked. Nothing else was there. With the opening of the one, others turned to their baskets unsus pectingly. It was a surprise, in fact. One basket had only knives, forks, spoons, pepper, salt, and the etceteras of the ordinary table. Another had only dishes. On down the list the baskets were opened upon only table paraphernalia—on until Blanche Field ing's hamper yielded the first edible things in the party—pickles, mustard, Worcestershire sauce, end one full quart of vinegar. "Bat there are lots of pickles," said Blanche, breaking the long, breathless silence that fell on tho party. Some body burst Into a shriek of laughter, tiia keynote of the spirit In which all day long the members of the party fasted, save as their teeth were put on edge by pickles. "Never speak of it to Miss Hastings, mind," was Blanch Fielding's parting injunction, as, tired and hungry, they separated at the Union station that night. "And really, we have had a lovely time." Not every one assented to this, but it was noticeable that Herbert Wins low did so emphatically. Less thah a week ago this emphasis had a new meaning for the members of the group who marked it. It was brought about from the results of a tete-a-tete in the Fielding's front parlor, during which Herbert Winslow had turned nervously back and forth on the piano stool. "Did you know," he said huskily, "I've been thinking a good deal of that picnic of late." "I hope you don't let that bother you," she replied evenly, as if she did not know what was ccftning. "Worry me!" he repeated. "You don't understand—that was the happi est day of my life. I've been wonder ing ever since why—as we could be so happy for one day on a pickle and mus tard diet—why we couldn't be happy always in a home that had a better and more varied bill of fare?" She was thrusting the golden.point of a scarf pin into the brocaded sur face of a settee, regardless of the dam age that she was doing. "Blanche," he said, appealingly. She looked up and let him read the answer in her eyes. QUICKSANDS OF ARIZONA. Masked Pitfalls Are Frequently Found In tho DoHort. Curious but dangerous freaks of na ture frequently found in the desert of Arizona are called sumideros by the Mexicans and Indians. They are masked pitfalls of quicksand that occur in the dry plains and are covered with a treacherous crust of clay that has been spread over them in fine particles by the wind and baked dry by the sun. The peculiar properties of the soil re tain all the moisture drained into them after the infrequent rains, and allow it to be filtered to unknown depths, so that a man or a horse or a cow or a sheep that once steps upon that de ceptive crust instantly sinks out of sight beyond hope of rescue. The sumideros are on a level with the sur face of tho desert. There is no danger signal to mark them, and their surface cannot be distinguished by the or dinary eye from the hard clay that sur rounds them. They occur most fre quently in the alkali-covered flats, and are often fifteen or twenty feet in di ameter. .Sometimes they are only lit tle pockets or wells that a man can leap across, hut the longest pole has never found their bottom. A stone thrown through the crust sinks to un known depths, and no man who ever fell into one of them was rescued. They account for the mysterious dis appearance of many men and cattle. Small PraUe. A young man who had disapointed his grandfather by displaying no fond ness for New England farm life made his way through college, and the law school, and in time became a judge. His grandfather watched his progress with a sort of unwilling pride, but never by word or look gave young John the least encouragement or praise. When the appointment to the judge's bench at last came, the grand sou took heart and asked fjr the old man's congratulations. "Aren't you glad for me, grandfather?" he asked, almost wistfully, glancing at the stub born old face beside him. "Well, yes, I am glad for ye, John," admitted the octogenarian in a grudging tone. "I am glad for ye, but I don't want you should feel set tip and imagine you amount to any great shakes Jest on account of being made jedgc. I want you should always recall when any thing like this comes to ye that there's plenty of folks that when they're in need of a stopper and haven't got any cork, they'll make shift with a corn cob! You jest bear that in mind." Itca*onahle. The reasons for orthography are among the things which pass man's understanding. Some explanations, however, have a plausible sound. A minister was recently called upon to marry a couple in private, and had oc casion to ask how the name of one of the witnesses was spelled. "M-c- H-u-g-h," replied the man. "Haven't you a sister Margaret?" inquired the clergyman. "Yes, sir." "Well," said the minister, 'she spells her name, 'M-c-C-u-e.' " "That," said the wit ness, "is because my sister and me, ws wtnt to different schools/* IMPROVISED BIRD HOUSES. m / LVW J1 uifljj <*f*> One of the most delightful and suggestive of the teachers' leaflets issued by the College of Agriculture, Cornell University, for use in the public schools, is one entitled "The Birds and I," by L. H. Bailey. This is illus trated by a number of suggestions for bird houses, which may be copied by all the boys and girls who are always wanting to use hammer and nails and make something useful." Some of the many forms which can be used arc shown in the picture. Any ingenious boy can suggest a dozen other patterns. The floor space in each compartment should not be less than 5x6 inches, and 6x6 inches or 6xß inches may be better. By cutting the boards in multiples of these numbers, one can easily make a house with several compartments; for there arc some birds, as martins, tree swallows and pigeons, that like to live in families or colonies. The size of the doorway is important. It should be just large enough to admit the bird. A larger opening not only looks bad, but it exposes the iuhabitants to dangers of cats and other enemies. Birds which build in houses, aside from doves and pigeons, are bluebirds, wrens, tree swallows, martins, and sometimes the chickadee. For the wren and ohickadee the opening should be an inch and a half augur hole, and for the others it should be two inches. I The South's "All's Well." 1 By R. H. EDMONDS. Ten years ago the South fought its first skirmish in the endless battle that ever rages for the world's com mercial supremacy. Its pig-iron en tered the markets so long dominated by Pennsylvania furnaces, and, to the dismay of those who had affected to despise its rivalry, won a substantial victory. Alabama iron became a fac tor in every iron-consuming centre, and from this position it could not be dislodged. About the same time Southern cotton mills were forcing their product into successful competi tion with the output of New England mills. But as Pennsylvania iron and steel people took refuge in the claim that the South would never advance beyond the iron-making stage, that it could never become a factor in the higher forms of finished goods and in steel-making, so the New England mills lulled themselves into a sense of security on the claim that though Southern mills might make coarse goods, they could never acquire the skill and the capital needed for the finer goods. In the light of what has been accomplished within ten years, it seems very strange that such argu ments as these should have done duty in so many newspapers and in so many gatherings. A I'ropliecy. Judge Kelley—"Pig-Iron Ivelley," as lie was familiarly known—had been wiser than his people. Nearly twenty WAGES PAID TO FACTORY HANDS. 1880. 1899. #75,900,000. .#350,000,000. years ago he proclaimed the coming power of the South in all industrial pursuits, and heralded it not as a dis aster to Pennsylvania and to New England, but as an added strength to the industrial power of the country. "The development of the South," said he, "means the enrichment of the na tion." In this light the progress of the South should be watched, for while its industrial upbuilding may mean the chauging of some forms of industry in other sections, there is versatility enough in our people and in our country to find a new avenue for the employment of brains and energy and capital for every one that may be closed by changing business conditions. New England may yield the sceptre of cotton-manufacturing to the South, to the vast enrichment of the South, but New England will find new openings for its tireless energy and its accumulated capital. GRAIN PRODUCED—BUSHELS. 1880. 1898-99. 431,000,000. 736,600,000. | The South will become enormously wealthy through the change, but New I England will not be made the poorer. The First Skirmishes. [ Just about the time when the South was winning these first skirmishes, and when its people were dazzled by the new opportunities of employment and wealth creation which were open- RAILROAD MILEAGE. 1880. 1899. 20,600. 50,000. ing before them after the darkness of thirty years of war and reconstruction trials, there came the world-wide financial panic following the Baring failure. The South, suddenly brought down from its dizzy speculative height, had to face new conditions. The business world recognized that the supreme test of the South's in herent advantages and possibilities had come. It faced the situation—its iron-masters steadily reduced the cost of iron-making until furnaces which had been turning out and $9 iron COTTON CONSUMPTION IN SOUTHERN MILLS—BALES. 1880. 1898-99. 233,886. 1,399,000. were able to produce $0 iron; its cot ton-mill owners wisely abandoned old machinery, and, equippiug their mills with every modern improvement, drove them to their lftmost capacity night and day, in order to double the output on their invested capital aud propor tionately reduce the cost of goods; its cotton-planters, who had kept their corn-crib? aud smoke-houses in the West, buying in the aggregate about $100,000,000 worth a year of Western corn aud bacon, commenced to raise their own food supplies, aud in this way, returning to the old ante-bellum system, reduced the cost of raising cotton. While these changes, all revolutionary in their character, were in progress, the small bankrupt rail road lines were brought into compact systems, new and heavier rails laid, rolling-stock increased aud necessary extensions made. Iron and Coal. Thus the South passed through the long period of depression, standing the great test, which came so unex pectedly, in away that strengthened the world's confidence. It not only SPINDLES IN COTTON-MILLS. 1880. 1899. •f'7,000. 5,000,000. held its own during this period, but its iron-milkers entered foreign mar kets, and demonstrated that the South eould dictate the price of irou for tho world. Alabama iron set the price in England and on the Continent, as woll as in Japan, aud even from Jerusalem came an order for it. This marked a revolution in the world's iron and steel interests. Henceforth the world was the market for Southern iron. When this point had been reached, the next step was to build steel-works commensurate with what has been ac complished in iron-making; and to-day ; two gigantic plants—one to make steel billets, and the other t a make finished steel products—are Hearing com pletion at Birmingham. They have cost about $2,500,000. They have PHOSPHATE MINED—TONS. 1880. 1899. 760,000. 2,000,000, 'already booked heavy orders for steel billets for shipment to Pittsburg. A number of furnaces built during the boom of 1889-90, and which have been idle ever since, have lately been bought by strong companies, and are now being put into blast. With every furnace crowded to its utmost capac- OAPITAL INVESTED IN MANUFACTURING. 1880. 1890. $257,000,000. $1,000,000,000. ity, which will soon be the case, the output of Southern iron iu 1900 prom ises to be nearly fifty per cent, larger than ever before. The demand for coal exceeds the production, though that is now at the rate of -40,000,000 tons a year. There is almost feverish activity in enlarging the output of oid mines, in opening new ones, and <5 CAriTAL IN COTTON-SHED-OIL MANUFAC TURE. 1880. J899. $3,500,000. $40,000,000. in building coke-ovens; for a ready demand meets every ton produced, with a profit that makes glau the stockholders. The Plioftphate Industry. Turning from iron and coal, with the almost fabulous profits which they are yielding, to other industries, phosphate-miuing looms into promi nence. Up to ten yeurs ago South Carolina was the only American source of phosphate rock, and our fertilizer factories, as well as those of Europe, had to depend upon the few hundred thousand tons which that State an nually produced. Then it was dis covered that Florida had vast phos phate beds, and soon that State sur passed Sonth Carolina in this indus try. Two or three years later similar discoveries were made in Tennessee, and tho mining activity which has fol lowed reminds one of the tales of de- COAL MINED—TONS. 1880. 1899. 6,000,000. 40,000,000. velopment in new gold regions. Ten years ago the South's output of phos phate rock was not more than 750,000 tons; this year it will be 2,000,000 tons. Wbat this means in the diver sification and improvement of agricul tural conditions is too broad a subject for treatment here. Th Korentp. Possessing one-baif of the standing timber of the United States, the Sontb is building up immense lumber and wood-working interests, and through out the entire lumber region business is as prosperous as in the iron dis tricts. Cotton Ih Still Kinj-. Though the value of tho grain now raised in that section exceeds on the farm the value of the cotton crop, cot ton is still the dominant power in the business life of the South. No other country has such a monoply of any agricultural staple of such world-wide influence as the South has of cotton. Cotton and cotton-seed bring to South ern farmers an average of $300,000,- 000 a year. The comparatively new industry of cotton-seed oil making now employs over $40,000,000 of capital, and yields an annual product of upwards of $50,000,000. From Galveston alone the foreign exports of cotton oil and cotton-seed meal are averaging nearly 1000 tons a day. Of this industry the South has almost as much of a monopoly as it has of cot ton-growing, but in the manufacture of oottou goods this section, though making marvelous progress, is still only getting well started. There are about 100,000,000 cotton-spindles in the world. The South furnishes the cotton for abont three-fourths of these, or 75,000,000 spindles, but has only 5,000,000 spindles. To consume iu its own mills its crop of 10,000,000 to 11,000,000 bales would require the investment of over $1,500,000 in new mills, and long before that point could be reached, even at the present rapid growth, the world will annually re guire of this section from 25,000,000 COTTON CROP— BALES. 1880. 1898-99. 6,750, 000 11,274,840. to 30,000,000 bales. In 1880 ths South started on its cotton-mill de velopment with a basis of 667,000 spindles, representing a capital of $21,000,000. By 1890 it had $61,- 000,000 capital in this industry and L 700,000 spindles. To-day it has 5,000,000 spindles and abont $125,- 00t>,000 of capital invested in cotton mills, while mills under construction represent abont $25,000,000 more. The most significant sign of the times in this indnstiy is lhat New England mill-owners, recoj nizing that the South is bound to v in, are transfer ring large capital to Southern mills. A M ggP J p? VALUE OF MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS. 1880. 1899. $457,400,000. $1,500,000,000. number of the leading mill companies of tho former section have, during tho last few years, built branch mills, costing from $500,000 to $1,000,000 each, in the Sonth; and now one of New England's greatest corporations is spending $2,500,000 in building in Alabama what will be the largest cotton-mill ever constructed as a sin gle enterprise. The recent advance in the price of cotton is bringing pros perity to the farmers, and if it holds for tho balance of the season, will PIO-IRON PRODUCED—TONS. 1880. 1899. __897,000. 2,500,000. mean $75,000,000 more to tbem than they received for last year's orop. In diversified interests the same story of progress and prosperity runs. The Newport News Ship Yard, with over $10,000,000 of work under con tract, including two steamers of about 12,000 tons each for the Pacific trade, the largest ever built in America, is said to be employing more hands than eveu the Cramps; the Richmond Lo comotive Works are competing with the Baldwins in exporting locomo tives; the Maryland Steel Company has been furnishing steel rails for Russia's Siberian Railroad, for Aus tralia and other distant regions; Ala- CAPITAL INVESTED IN COTTON MILLS. 1880. 1899. $21,91)0,000. $125,000,000. bama coke has gone to Japan, and the export of both coke and iron is oniy limited by the fact that the home de mand now exceeds the supply. The South'. Story in Stutl.tlo. Statistics are often uninteresting, but the story of tho South's progress cannot be told more clearly than in the comparative illustrations scattercj through this article, in whioh reliable estimates are given where exact fig ures are not obtainable. Surveying the whole Southern situ ation, what has been done and what is under way, it can be truly said that "all's well."—Harper's Weekly. CaosavH, the New Crop. The Spanish war seems to have given promise of benefit in A direction entirely unexpected in stimulating the study of tropical products. A plaut has been "discovered" that promises to become to tho Gulf states what wheat is to the North. For years this plant, which resembles a gigantic beet, has been a staple product of SEVEN CASSAVA-ROOTS. Brazil and other South Americau countries, aud has recently beeu grown in Jamaica with remarkable re sults. In Eastern tropical countries it is known as "manioc," iu Brazil it is called "mandioca," in Colombia it is known as "yucca," and in the West Indies the name "cassava" or "cas sada" prevails. The gigantic roots produce a flour that rivals the best ot wheat. They give a juice that makes an excellent table preserve. They yield an abundance of starch of a su perior quality. They also make a re markable showing in fattening cattle. If one-half of what is claimed by the United States Department of Agricul ture and the Jamaica Agriculture So ciety be realized, the problem of what to do with the vast areas of almost arid lands of the Gulf states is to be solved by "cassava." Had It in Varioim Assortments. It was in one of the big department stores. "What do yon wish to-day, madam?" asked the courteous floor walker. "Nothing. I " "Sixteenth floor. Take the ele vator. We have nothing there in large and varied assoitmeuts. James, ring the bell for the lady."—Harper's Bazar. Komuinn of an Old-Tinier. The skeleton of a prehistoric set monster resembling a shark was un earthed recently at the quarry of J. H. Davis, who lives ten miles south of Bonham, Texas. Its jaws were abont four feet in length, and, tbougfc buried several feet in solid limestone, were in a good state of preservation, the enamel being plainly visible on the teeth.