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In Orchard and Field q Happenings of Moment to the Man Behind the Plow FERTILIZATION OF FRUIT blossoms by honey bees Every up-to-date fruitgrower is supposedly interested in whatever tends toward a bigger and better fruit crop, says a writer in Better Fruit. > luch attention 1S B iven to selection of the proper location, nature of the soil, nursery stock, cultivation, pruning and spraying. This is all well, °* course » but it seems to me that one of the most important details of the business is almost, in fact in some oases is en tirely, overlooked. This is the pol lution or fertilization of fruit blos soms. It has been demonstrated by actual experiments, that while a few varieties are self-fertile, that is capable of being fertilized by pollen from their own blossoms, the great majority require cross-pollenation for the best results. For this reason the fruitgrower is advised to plant different and suitable varieties in alternating rows or divisions of the orchard; but having done this, the average grower is content to leave the more important work of carry ing and distributing the pollen to the individual blossoms to the fickle winds and the few insects which are abroad at this season of the year. There are three methods of pollen distribution—artificial, by hand, by the means of winds and by insects. Artificial fertilization is, of course, impracticable except for scientific experiments; and it has been proven time and again that the wind is a very insufficient and unreliable agent at best. Every orchardist of experience has probably noticed that if fruit b}oom be accompanied by weather so cool and cloudy as to prevent the flight of bees and other insects a very small percentage of fruit will set, even though there be do actual damage from frost, while the reverse is true, provided condi tions are favorable to an abundant flight of honey, and pollen-gathering insects, by far the most important of which is the honey bee. This being true and weather conditions favorable, the fruitgrower may in sure the abundant setting of fruit by supplying plenty of bees at the proper time, just as readily as he can bring that same crop to a suc cessful maturity by spraying and cultivation, and I expect to see the day when every commercial fruit grower will consider his equipment incomplete without a few colonies of bees. As to just how many bees would be a sufficiency under all conditions would be very hard to M y. but rest assured of this fact, there is absolutely no danger of hav ing too many for this purpose. A Rreat deal depends on the variety of the bees, and still more on weather I conditions. If the days are bright a °d warm, twenty-five strong col onies of Italian bees will cover every thing in good shape for a distance of half a mile; but, on the other •and, if it should be cool, windy or cl oudy weather at this time they *31 not range nearly so far in suffi cient numbers to insure proper fer tilization of all blossoms. (This is specially true of the common black •) For this reason I would much Prefer a smaller number of hives at Coß er intervals—say five or six t Very garter of a mile, or on every ) Wenty or thirty-acre tract if the '•rees are large. It may be contended by some so many bees in a neighbor ed WDuld not be able to support themselves, but I will venture the v ;r > provided t° ° Ut r ° b t * lein their stores the & tlme W^en the y cannot replace hay 01 Ut su PP ()Se y°u should - C spend a dollar or two for vid^i maintenance ; what of it, pro foim i y ° U ° an ' )y 90 doing lay the crop a" f ° r a P rotit » ble Plan* ' len ' ocat i n £ the hives tr le ' n amon R the fruit tanc ' n< f t Morten the dis -5L . tlle be 6 's m * ht « <**>' r but also that the odor of they ° ney P°^ en » for which are alway s very ravenous at this season, will attract them from the hives when otherwise they would not stir from the warm swarm cluster. Now, Mister Fruitgrower, I have tried to show you the necessity of having plenty of bees for this most important work, and it is now up to you to get busy. It is not too early right now to make plans for the coming season by visiting some bee-keeper and contracting for the necessary number of colonies. I would not purchase outright, how ever, until the weather is warm enough to permit opening the hives for an examination of inside condi tions. Make sure that the bees are in movable frame hives, thus allow ing of a thorough examination at any time; also that the swarms are strong; that each colony has plenty of stores to last until settled warm weather, and last, but not least, re member that Italians are to be pre ferred to common blacks every time, even though they cost twice as much per colony, for this reason: Italians build up a strong swarm very much earlier in the spring, and being a hardier race of bees, fly freely when the weather is so dis agreeable that the blacks will not leave the hive. Pure blooded Italian bees are distinguished by three or more yellow bands about the ab domen. TREATMENT OF WINTER KILLED FRUIT TREES During the past winter the re ports have been received by the Hor ticultural Experiment Station of a great many young orchards that have been more or less injured by winter killing of the young trees. This has not been due in each case to excessive cold, but more frequent ly to the trees being permitted to grow rapidly until checked by frost. The wood was not properly matured and ripened before the trees went into winter quarters. In some cases the temperature in the winter has fluctuated rapidly from several de grees below freezing to above freez ing, and this condition, working in the combination with the fall weather, has produced the winter killing. The winter killing of young trees is usually indicated by dark colored splotches on the bark and sap wood. It is most common near the tips of the young shoots, but in many cases it is found in irregular splotches over the entire tree top and trunk. Trees that have been severely winter killed should be severely pruned, cutting away as much as possible of the injured wood and leaving only fresh, clean wood. Im prove the process of cultivation and tillage the following season and usual ly the plants will, to a large extent, overcome the injury within a year or so. If the trunk of the tree is severely injured it can be cut back and permitted to send up the sprout which can take the place of the or iginal top. In the case of a few iso lated trees in an orchard, the sprout renewing the top may come from below the union of the scion and stalk, and in this case it will be nec essary to bud or graft this stalk at the point where it is desired to have the framework developed. This is a successful method if carefully prac ticed and will produce results in less time than could be accomplished by digging out a three-year-old tree and re-planting. There is no treat ment in the form of a fertilizer, or special application that can be given that will l>e m<>re beneficial to the trees than simply good tillage with a good supply of water, in order that the trees may make full nor mal growth during the summer. We a } re often asked if any other fruit than the peach will pollenize the peach. Some forms of plum, some varieties of apricots, and some varieties of nectarines will. Cherry will not pollenize peach. Some say it will, but we have not been able to determine it experimentally. Most COURIER, KENNEWICK. WASHINGTON scientists say it will not. Others claim that pollenization takes place between pears and apples, cherries and plums, and cherries and peaches. We have serious doubts, however, as to the correctness of these de ductions. —Better Fruit. WHY THE DAIRY BUSINESS CONTINUES TO GROW Statistics are not necessary to show the expansion of the dairy business. That it is growing, every one in a position to observe, will ad mit. One of the chief reasons for its growth is the improvement in the demand for dairy products. The demand is larger because of the in creased proportion of urban popula tion to the rural population. This is also enlarged because dairy pro ducts are now being used in a greater variety of ways than formerly. We have but to note the extensive use of milk and cream for ice cream, which a few years ago was a luxury indulged in by few. Condensed milk and powdered milk also add to the demand made upon the dairy farmer. The wide demand is an important element in the growth of the dairy business, since it has not only maintained prices but pushed ] quotations to the extreme heights I attained in the past few years. Another element in the improve ment of the dairy business is the utilization of the by-products. But termilk is also becoming more popu lar as a drink where it can be se cured fresh, and whey is being rec ognized as an animal food that is worth too much to be thrown into the gutter. The use of these pro ducts is bringing an increased in come into the pockets of the dairy farmer. A third factor in raising the dairy business to the popular position which it now occupies is the higher intelligence which men are gaining of the variation in economic produc tion by different animals. Perhaps there is no division of farming where such a margin exists between the profits on a poorly conducted farm and a well conducted one. The gen eral recognition of the possibility of securing large profits through the selection of good cows has done much to place the business upon its pres ent high level in our agricultural economy. A good cow that will yield around 300 pounds of butter per year produces from the food she consumes about $75 worth of pro ducts when butter is figured at 25 cents as the farm price. In addi tion to this she also produces 6000 pounds of skim-milk which, at 20 cents per cwt., is worth $12, and a calf that is valued at $10, making in all a total income of about $97. The average cost of feed for such a cow will run between $45 and $50 per year. At the highest figure there would remain a net profit of $47 per cow. This calculation is only tentative in that under condi tions where the milk can be sold directly to a retail trade the net pro fit can at least be doubled. This, however, shows the possibilities of an attractive income for the man who applies intelligence to the work. - But possibly the chief source of encouragement and enthusiasm in the dairy business arises from the indirect benefit accruing to the land itself. Dairying has rehabiliated many acres of land that otherwise would have had to be abandoned. The business increases the capacity of the farm, not by adding more acres, but by increasing the num ber of blades of grass that will grow upon the area. This, in turn, en hances the labor put upon the fields. Corn, oats and any crop can be grown cheaper upon rich soil than upon land poorly provided with plant food. Thus the dairy busi ness enables the farmer to increase his profits in a sort of geometrical ratio and it is this feature, combined with others including those men tioned above, that is bringing dairy fanning to the front in our north western states. And certain lines of practices, such as the increasing use of the silo, and the production of alfalfa, seem to prophesy a larger future for this agricultural specialty. Washington hens will engage in an egg-laying contest this year at the state fair grounds, North Yakima. Harry Collier, expert will umpire the game. The contest will begin July 26 and end September 26. It will close the week of the state fair. Forty pens are being constructed for contestants and already there is a lively interest. The molting season is usually in July and August, and eggs are scarce at that time in this state. It is hoped that the contest will bring forth valuable informa tion on how to induce hens to lay during the molting season. NOTICE TO VOTERS There will be a Republican caucus of the voters of the Kennewick Val ley precinct at R. A. Oliver's in Section Seven, on Saturday, April 27th. The meeting will be called to order at 1:30 sharp. The purpose of the caucus is to elect four dele gates and four alternates to the Re publican county control committee. G. A. Stuart, Precinct Committeeman. NOTICE Special meeting of the Kenne wick Valley Water Users' Association atFinley Saturday evening, April 27th, at eight o'clock. All water users, whether members of the As sociation or not, are requested to be present. Hal. H. Cole, Secretary. NOTICE Mr. W. H. McClintock is not in the employ nor connected with this Company. Our business will be cared for by Mr. J. B. Frem whose whereabouts can be learned by call ing phone Main 228 at the store of Mr. John Sawbridge, North Yaki ma. Fairbanks, Morse & Company, By James Gillespie, Audit Dept. 21-24 Kennewick Harness Shop Light and Heavy Harness. Robes—Blankets—Gloves Poultry Supplies Gall Cure Collars EXPERT SHOE REPAIRS F. P. BESTE, Prop. PHONE 711 Blood Weapons! I have cut everything in the &ore, but my throat—YES? NOW—I am going to give away $1.50 Knives FREE to every purchaser Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday. Just the knife for ladies or gentlemen BOYS!!! You can have a pocket knife free. All sizes boy's best overalls, 49c Bellows Toggery There will be a joint meeting of S. G. Cosgrove Post and Women's Relief Corps, Saturday at 2:30, May 4th, at Masonic Hall, for the pur- BATHS Haydon's Barber Shop *£ Low Round pQfAC East from Kennewick Boston $110.00 Montreal $105.00 Buffalo 91.50 New York 108.50 Chicago 72.50 Pittsburg 91.50 Detroit 82.50 St. Louis 70.00 Denver 55.00 St. Paul 60.00 Kansas City 60.00 Washington 107.50 And many other Eastern points. Dates of sale, May 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 18, 24, 29 June 1, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 25, 27, 28, 59. July 2, 3, 6, 7, 11, 12, 15, 16, 20, 22, 23, 26, 29, 30, 31. August 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 12, 15, 16, 22, 23, 29, 30, 31. September 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 30. Return Limit Oct. 31—Liberal Stop-Over Privileges Permitted—Choice of Routes For further particulars, call on or address J. B. Thomas, Agent, Kennewick. PAGE THREE pose of arranging for Memorial Day. All members and as many citizenn as feel interested are cordially in vited to attend.