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I Important Features of
|e Chiet Executives' Ad- I dress to Congress. he Senate and House of Reprosenta- It gives me pleasure to extend ig to the "isth congress assemble d u!ar s' 'Vion at the seat of rovc ru with many of wiiose senators and entativ«s I have been assoc ated leglsi.i.i service. The nuetlng oc- Lirult r felicitous eond.tions, justily icere congratulation and cal.ing for fratt ful aeknowh dgnu nt to a be nt providence which has so signally d and pr. spered us as a nation. and pood w II with all the nations ► earth continue unbroken. latter of gi nulne satistaHon is tne up feeling of traternal regard and avion of all sections ot our country, icompleteness of wh.ch has t *>«.» long »tl naiizauon of the higm.-t bl swings 5 I'nion. l'he spirit or patriotism is rsal and is t v< r increasing in fervor, mblic questions which now most en us are lifted far a hove either par- Ihip, prejudice or former sectional ences. Tlu y affect every part of oinnion country alike and permit ot vision on ancient lines. (Questions ot •ji policy, of revenue, the soundness e currency, the inviolability of na- I obligations, the imi rovement of the ; service, appeal to the individual con te of every earnest citizen, to wh.it party he belongs, or in whatever s» c pf the country he may reside. I extra session of th;s congress which 3 during July last, enacted important ation, and, while its full effects have ben realized, what it has already ac lis lied assures us of its timeliness and >m. To test its permanent value er time will be required, and the peo- Batistted with its operation and re thus far, are in no mind to withhold it a fair trial. 'UK CI'ItItKXC Y ai BSTIOX. unity of l*iittiibht Our FlnanecM I !>on it Sonnil Iti«kim* iff legislation having been settled by xtra session of congress, the question pressing for consideration is that of currency. The work of putting our cee upon a sound basis, difficult as it seem, will appear when we recall Inancial operation of the government 18ti6. On the 30th day of June of year, we had outstanding demand itief in the sum of $728,565,447 41. On Ist day of July, IS7'J, these liabilities been reduced to $443,889,495 88. Of our est-bearing obligations, the figures even more striking. On July 1, 1866, jrincipal of the interest-bearing debt le government was $2,332,331,208. On Ist day of July, 1893, this sum had reduced to $55»,037.100, or an aggre reduction of $1,747,294,108. The inter earing debt of the United States on Ist day of Dect-mb r, 1897, was $817,- 0. The government money now out- Sing (December 1) consists of $;.'4»>,- 6 of United States notes; $107,793,280 •easury notes issued by authority of let of 1890; $384,963,504 of s.lver c rtifi \ and $G1,250,76l of standard silver rs. th the great resources of the govern ; and with the time-honored example le past before us, we should not hesi to enter upon a currency revision li will make our demand obligations onerous to the government and re our financial laws fiom ambiguity doubt. e brief review of what was accom erl from the close of the war until makes unreasonable and groundless distrust either of our tinancial abil r soundness; while the situation from o 1897 must admonish congress of tlie Hliate necessity lor so legislating as ake the return of the conditions then liling impossible. ere are many plans proposed as a dy for the evil. Before we can lind rue remedy we must appreciate the evil. It is not that our currency ot r kind is not good, for every dollar is good; good because the govern 's pledge is out to kei p it so, and pledge will not be broken. How the guaranty of our purpose to keep (ledge will be best shown by advanc oward ts fulfillment. Ivll of tlie I'rcMent System. i evil of the present system is found e great cost to the government of tainir.g the parity of our different s of mon.y; that is, keeping nil of at par with gold. We surely cannot nger heedless of the burden this im i upon the people, given under l'alrly serous conditions, while the past tour i have demonstrated that it is not an expensive charge upon the gov ern, but a dangerous menace to the nal credit. s manifest that we must devise some to protect the government against Issues for repeated redemptions. \\ e either curtail the opportunity for ilatlon, made easy by the multiplied nptlons of our demand obligations, or ase the gold reserve for their re gion. We have $900,000,000 of currency i the government, hy sol* mn enact , has undertaken to keep at par with Nobody is obliged to redeem in but the government. The banks are equired to redeem in gold. The gov ent is obliged to keep equal with all its outstanding currency and coin ations, while its receipts are not re d to be paid in gold. They are paid cry kind of money but gold, and tne means by which the government can, certainty, g»'t gold is by borrowing, n get it in no other way when it most I it. The government without any gold revenue in pledged to maintain redemption, which it has steadily and fully done, and which, under the au ty now given, it will continue to do. i law whicli requires the government, having redeemed its not s, to pay out again as current funds demands nstant replenishment of the gold re t. This is especially so in times of less panic and wh n the revenues are Relent to meet the expenses of the rnmerit. At such times the govern has no other way to supply its def ind mainta.n redemption but through ncrease of its bonded debt, as during administration of my predecessor, i $202,315,400 of 4*2 per cent bonds issued and sold and the proceeds to pay the expenses of tlie govern in excess of th<- revenues and sustain gold reserve. While it is true that greater part of the proceeds of these s were used to supply deficient reve , a considerable portion was required alntain the gold reserve. e|»leiii«lilnu the (iulil Reserve. th our revenues equal to our expenses, > would be no deficit requiring the is ce of bonds. Hut if the gold reserve below $100,000,000, how will it be re shed except by selling more bonds? ere any other way practicable under Ing law? The serious question then hall we continue the policy that has pursued in the past that is, when the reserve reaches the point of danger, i more bonds and supply the needed -or shall we provide other means event these recurring drains upon the reserve? If no further legislation id and the policy of selling bonds ia i continued, then congress should g:ve lecretary of the treasury authority to >onds at long or short periods, bearing is rate <>f interest than is now author by law. I earnestly recommend, as as the receipts of the government juite sufficient to pay all the expenses t government, that when any of the States notes are presented for re lon In gold and areredeeemed in gold, totes shall be kept and only paid out (Old. Thin la an obvious " the United States note ec"°lv S ?r er r nl ' hu shollld Ited 4tAtf« » tho government ited States note without paying gold •ll'ihe mJ 1 ' Th# r,a »"" fork 's ent apparent when the S ov- Usuei an interest-bearing debt to provide gold for the redemption of United States notes—a noninten st-bearing debt. Surely it should not pay them out again .except on demand and for sold. If they are put out in any other way they may return again to be followed by an other bond issue to redeem them—another interest-bearing debt redeem a noti interecU-bearing debt. In my view, it is of the utmost Import ance that the government should be re lieved from tin* business of providing for all the gold required for exchange or ex port. This responsibility is alone borne by the government without any of the usual and necessary banking powers to help itself. The banks do not feel the strain of the gold redemption. The whole strain rests upon the government, and the size of the gold reserve in the treasury has come to be. with or with out reason, the signal e>f danger or of se curity. This ought to be stopped. If we are to have an era of prosperity in the country with sufficient receipts for t!ie expenses of the government, we may l.'el no immeeilato embarrassment from our present currency; but the danger still exists, and will be ever present, menacing us as long as the existing system con tinues. And. besides, it is in times of adequate revenues and business tran quillity that the government should pre pare for the worst. We cannot avoid, without serious consequences, the wise consideration and prompt solution of this question. I'liiii »f Secretary (inKc, The secretary of the treasury has out lined a plan in great lot .ill lor the pur pose of removing threatened recurrence of a depleted gold reserve and seeing us from future embarrassment on that ac count. To this plan 1 invite your care ful consideration. 1 concur with the sec retary of the treasury iu his recommenda tion that national banks be allowed to issue notes t* the face value of the bonds which they deposited lor circula tion, and that the tax on circulating notes, secured by the deposit of such bonds, be reduced to one-half of one per cent per annum. 1 also join him in recommending that authority be given for the establishment of national banks with a minimum capital of $25,000. This will enable the smaller villages and agricul tural regions of the country to be sup plied with currency to meet their de mands. 1 recommend that the Issue of national bank notes be restricted to the denomination of $10 and upwards. If the suggestions I have herein made shall have the approval of congress, then would recommend that national banks be required to redeem their notes in gold. CI IIA AMI SPAIN. Attitude of the* Administration In the I'roNent Rebellion. The most important problem with which this country is now called upon to deal, that pertaining to its foreign rela tions. concerns its duty toward Spain and the Cuban insurrection. Problems and conditions more or less in common with those now existing have confronted this government at various times in the past. The story of Cuba for many years has been one of unrest; growing discontent; an effort toward the larger enjoyment of liberty and self-control: of organized re sistance to the mother country; or oppres sion and warfare and of ineffectual set tlement to be followed by renewed re volt. For no enduring period since the enfranchisement of the continental pos sessions of Spain in the Western conti nent has the condition of Cuba or the policy of Spain toward Cuba not caused concern to the United States. The prospect from time to time that the weakness of Spain's hold upon tne island and the political vicissitudes and embarrassments of the home government might lead to the transfer of Cuba to a continental power called forth, between 1823 and 1860, various emphatic declara tions of the United States to permit no disturbance of Cuba's connection with Spain unless in the direction of Independ ence or acquisition by the United States through purchase, nor has there been any change of this declared policy since upon the part of this government. The revolution which began in 18H8 lasted for 10 years, despite the strenuous efforts of the successive peninsular gov ernments to suppress it. Then, as now, the government of the United States tes tified its grave concern and offer* d its aid to put an end i»> bloodshed in Cuba. The overtures made by General Grant were refused, and the war dragged on, entail ing great loss of life and treasure, and increased Injury to American interests, besides throwing enhanced burdens of neutrality upon this government. In IS7B, peace was brought about by the truce of Zanjon, obtained by negotiations be tween the Spanish commander. Martinez de Campos, and the insurgent leaders. Civilized Code of Wnr l)lsr»'un riled. The present insurrection broke out In February. 1895. It is not my purpose, at this time, to recall its remarkable increase or t«> characterize its tenacious resistance against the enormous forces massed against it by Spain. The revolt and the efforts to subdue it carried destruction to every quarter of the island, developing wide proportions and defying the efforts of Spain for its suppression. The civilized code of war has been disregarded, no less so by the Spaniards than by the Cubans. The existing conditions cannot but fill this government and the Ameri can people with the gravest apprehen sion.- There is no desire on the part of our people to profit by the misfortunes of Spain. We have only the desire to see the Cubans prosperous and contented, enjoying that measure of self-control which is the inalienable right of man. protected in their right to reap the bene fit of the exhaustless treasures of their country. The offer made by my predecessor, In April. 1596, tendering the friendly offices of this government, failed, and media tion on our part was not accepted. In brief, the answer read: There is no ef fectual way to pacify Cuba, unless it be gins with the actual submission of the rebels to the mother country. Then only can Spain act in the promised direction of her own motion and after her own plans. Conceit t rutin n In Kxtcrniliintlon. The cruel policy of concentration was initiated February 1»J, 1896. The produc tive districts controlled by the Spanish armies were depopulated and the agri cultural inhabitants were herded in and about the garrison towns, their lands laid waste and their dwellings destroyed. This policy the late cabinet of Spain justified as a necessary measure of war and as a means of cutting off supplies from the insurgents. It has utterly failed as a war measure. It was not civilized warfare. It was ex termination. Against this abuse of the rights of war I have felt constrained, on repeated oc casions. to enter the firm and earnest pro test of this government. There was much of public condemnation of the treatment of American citizens by alleged illegal ar rests and long Imprisonment awaiting trial of pending protracted judicial pro cedures. I felt it my first duty to make instant demand for the release or speedy trial of all American citizens under ar rest. Before the change of the Spanish cabinet, in October, 22 prisoners, citizens of the United States, had been given their freedom For the relief of our own citizens suf fering because of the conflict, the aid ol congress was sought in a special mes sage. and under the appropriation of April 4, 1897, effective aid has been given to American citizens in Cuba, and many of them, at their own request, have been returned to the United States. I n»t met loiin to Minister \Voo«llord. The instructions given to our new min ister to Spain, before his departure for his post, directed him to impress upon that government the sincere wish of the United States to lend its aid toward end ing the war in Cuba, by reaching a peace ful and lasting result, just and honor able alike to Spain and the Cuban people These instructions recited the character and duration of the contest, the wide spread losses it entails, the burdens and restraint it Imposes upon us, with con stant disturbance of national interests and the injury resulting from an indefinite continuance of this state of things. It was stated that at this juncture our gov ernment was constrained to seriously in quire if the time was not ripe when Spain, of her own volition, moved by her own In terests and every sentiment of humanity, should put a stop to this destructive war and make proposals of settlement honor able to herself and just to her Cuban colony. It was urged that, as a neigh boring nation with large Interests In Cuba, we could be required to wait only a reasonable time for the mother coun try to establish its authority and restore peace and order within the borders of the island; that we could not contemplate an indefinite period for the accomplishment of these resuits. No solution was proposed to which the slightest idea of humiliation to Spain could attach. All that was asked or ex pected was that some safe way might be speedily provided and permanent peace restored. It so chanced that the consid eration of this offer, addressed to the Spanish administration, which had de clined the tenders of my predecessor and w. i h for more than two years had poured more treasure into Cuba in the fruitless effort to suppress the revolt, fell to oth ers. lit tween the departure of General Woodford, the new envoy, and Ills arrival in Spain, the statesman who had shaped the policy of his country fell by the hand of an assassin, and although the cabinet of the late premier still held oflice and re e« ived from our envoy the proposals he bore, that cabinet gave place, within a few days thereaftc r. to a new administra tion under the leadership of Sagasta. Spaiu'M Friendly Heply. The reply to our note was received on the 23d clay of October. It is in the direc tion of a better understanding. It appre ciates the friendly proposals of this gov ernment. It admits that our country Is deeply affected by the war In Cuba and that our desires for peace arc just. It de clares that the present Spanish govern ment is bound by every consideration to a change of policy that should satisfy the Unlt'cd States and pacify Cuba within a reasonable time. To this end, Spain has decided to put Into effect the political re forms heretofore advocate d by the pres ent premier, without halting for any con sideration in the path which, in Its judg ment, leads to peace. The military operations, it is said, will continue, but will be humane and con ducted with all regard for private rights, bring accompanied by political action leading to the autonomy of Cuba, while guarding Spanish sovereignty. This, it is claimed, will rem?!'. Cuba with a dist'* s v personality, the Island t«» be governed by an executive and by a local council or chamber, reserving to Spain the control of the foreign relations, the army and navy and the judicial adminis trations. To accomplish this, the present govern ment proposes to modify existing legis lation by decree, leaving the Spanish cortcs. with the aid of Cuban senators and deputies, to solve the economic prob lems and properly distribute the existing debt. t«l vo Spill it n Chance. In the absence of a declaration of the measures that this government proposes to take in carrying out its proffer of good offices, it suggests that Spain be left free to conduct military operations and grant political reforms, wftlie the United States, for its part, shall enforce its neutral obli gations. and cut off the assistance which, it is asserted, the Insurgents receive from this country. The supposition of an in definite prolongation of the war is de nied. It is asserted th.at the Western provinces are already well-nigh re claimed; that the panting of cane an 1 tobacco therein has been resumed, and that by force of arms and new and ample reforms very early and complete pacifi cation is hoped for. The Immediate amelioration of existing conditions under the new administration of Cuban affairs is predicted, and there withal the disturbance and all occasion for any change of attitude on the part of the United States. Discussion of the question of interna tional duties and responsibilities of the United States as Spain understands them. Is presented with an apparent disposition to charge us with failure in this regard. This charge is without any basis in fact. It could not have been made if Spain had b »en cognizant of the constant effort this government has made, at the cost of mil lions and by the employment of the ad ministrative machinery at the national command, to perform its full duty accord ing to the law of nations. That it has successfully prevented the departure of a single military expedition or armed vessel from our shores in violation of our laws would set m to be a sufficient answer. But on this aspect of the Spanish note it is not neccssary to speak further now. Finn in the conviction of a wholly per formed obligation, due response to this charge has been made in diplomatic is sues. Throughout all these horrors and dangers To our own peace, this govern in' nt has never in any way abrogated its sovereign prerogative of reserving to it self the determination of its policy and course, according to its own high sense of right and in consonance with the dearest interests and convictions of our own peo ple. should the prolongation of the strife so demand. Of the untried measures there remain only: "Recognition of the insurgents as bellig erents; recognition of the independence of Cuba; neutral Intervention to end the war by imposing a rational compromise be tween the contestants, and intervention in favor of one or the other party." Not u Question of Annexation. I speak not of forcible annexation, for that cannot be thought of. That, by our code of morality, would be criminal ag gression. Recognition of the belllgert ncy of the Cuban Insurgents has often been canvassed as a possible if not inevitable step, both in regard to the previous 10 years' struggle and during the present war. I am not unmindful that the two houses of congress, in the spring of 189G, expressed the opinion, by concurrent reso lution. that a condition of public war ex isted requiring or justifying the recogni tion of a state of belligerency in Cuba, and during the extra session the senate voted a joint resolution of like import, which, however, was not brought to a vote in the house. In the presence of these significant expressions of the senti ment of the legislative branch, it behooves tlie executive soberly to consider the con ditions under which so important a measure must needs rest for justification. It is to be seriously considered whether the Cuban insurrection possesses, beyond dispute, the attributes of statehood which alone can demand the recognition of bel ligerency in its favor. Possession short of the essential qualifications of sover eignty by the insurgents, and the conduct of the war by them according to the rec ognized code of war, are no less important factors toward the determination of tlie problem of belligerency than are the in fluences and consequences of the struggle upon the internal policy of the recogniz ing nation. The utterances of President Grant in his memorable message of 1875 are signally relevant to the present situa ticn In Cuba, and it may be wholesome now to recall them. At that time a serious conflict had for seven years wasted the neighboring island. During all those years an utter disregard of the laws of civilized warfare and of the just demands of humanity, which called forth expres sions of condemnation from the nations of Christendom, continued unabated. Desolation and ruin pervaded that pro ductive region, enormously affecting the commerce of all commercial nations, but that of the United States more than any other, by reason of proximity and larger trade and intercourse. Sot n Time for Itecoßiiltlon. Turning to the practical aspects of a recognition of belligerency and reviewing its inconveniences and possible danger, further pertinent considerations appear. In the code of nations, there is no such thing as a naked recognition of belliger ency unaccompanied by the assumption of national neutrality. Such recognition without neutrality will not confer upon either party to a domestic conflict a status not therefore actually possessed, or af fect the relation of either party to other states. The act of recognition usually takes the form of a solemn proclamation of neutrality which recites the de facto condition of belligerency as its motive. It announces a domestic law of neutrality in the deelaring state. It assumes the ln ternational obligation of a neutral in the presenee of a public state of war. It warns all citizens and others within the jurisdiction of the claimant that they vio late those rigorous obligations at their own peril and cannot expect Uo be shield ed from the consequence. The right of visit and search and seizure of vessels and cargoes and contraband of war un der admiralty law must under Interna tional law be admitted as a legitimate consequcr; «.-f t proclamation of belliger ency. \\ hi!e according equal belligerent rights, defined by public law. to each par ty in our poits. disfavor would be impos sible to both, which, while nominally equal, would weigh heavily in behalf of Spain herself. Possessing a navy and claiming the ports of Cuba, her maritime rights could be avscried. not only for the military Investment of the island, but up to the margin of our own terri torial waters, and a condition of thincs would exist for which the Cubans could tot hope to create a parallel; while aid from within our domain would be even more impossible than now, with the additional obligation of international neutrality which we would perforce assume. Will Intervene Wlion Neeennnry. Sure of the right, keeping free from all off« nse ourselves, actuated only by up right and patriotic considerations, moved neither by passion nor selfishness, the government will continue its watchful care over the rights and property of American citizens and will abate none of its efforts to bring about by peaceful agencies a peace which shall be honorable and enduring. If It shall hereafter be a duty imposed by our obligations to our selves. to civilization and humanity to intervene with force, It shall be without fault on our part, and only because the necessity for such action will be so clear as to command the support and approval of the civilized world. ANNEXATION OF HAWAII. OffCM (lie Senate to Accomplish the I nfoii. Tty a special message dated the 16th day of June last, I laid before the senate of the I'nited States a treaty, signed that day by the plenipotentiaries of the United States and of the republic of Hawaii, hav ing for Its purpose the incorporation of the Hawaiian islands as an integral part of the United States and under its sov ereignty. The senate having removed the injunction of secrecy, although the treaty is still pending before that body, the subject may be properly referred to in this message, as the necessary action of congress is required determine by many details of the eventual union, should the fact of annexation be accomplished, as I believe it should be. While consistently disavowing from a very early period any aggrtsslve policy of absorption In r gard to the Hawaiian group, a l».?i«r sere s of discussion through three-quarters uC * century has pro claimed the vital inter*-..; «f the United States in the independent life of the islands and their intimate commercial de pendency upon this country. At the same time it has been repeatedly asserted that in no event could the entity of Hawaiian statehood cease by the passage of the is lands under the domination or influence ot another power than the United States, t'nihr these circumstances the logic of events required that annexation, before offered but declined, should, in the ripe ness of time, come about as the natural result of strength'ning the tics that bind us to those islands and be released by the free will of tile Hawaiian state. That treaty was unanimously ratified without amendment by the senate and pr fcident of the republic of Hawaii on the 10th of September last, and only awaits the favorable action of the American sen ate to effect the complete absorption of the islands into the domains of the I'nited States. What the conditions of such, a union shall be, the political relation thereof to the United States, the character of the local administration, the quality anil de gree of the elective franchise of the in habitants, the extension of the federal laws to the territory or the enactment of special laws to tit the peculiar condition thereof, the regulation and needs of labor therein, the treaty has wisely relegated to congress. If the treaty Is confirmed, as every con sideration of dignity and honor requires, the wisdom of congn ss will see to it that, avoiding abrupt assimilation of dements perhaps hardly yet fitted to share in the highest franchises of citizenship, and hav ing due regard to the geographical con ditions. the just provisions for self-rule In lo -ai matters with the largest political lil»< rtl s as an integral part of our nation will he accorded to the Hawaiians. So less i« due to a people who after nearly five years of demonstrated capacity to fulfill the obligations of self-govern ing x:atehood, come of th ir free will to merge their destinies in our body politic. CKVrit Ali ICAN STATES. ReprcMcn tntinn <»f Onr (iovorniuent In the Greater Hcpulilie. As to the representative of this govern ment to Nicaragua, Salvador and Costa Rica, 1 have concluded that Mr. William Merry, confirmed as minister ol the United States to the states of Nicaragua, Salvador and Cos:a Kica, shall proceed to San Jose, Costa Kica, and there tempo rarily establish the h< adquarters of the I'nited States to those three states. 1 took this action for what 1 regarded as the paramount interests of this country, it was developed, upon an investigation by the secretary of state, that the government of Nicaragua, while not unwilling to re ceive Mr. Merry in his diplomatic capac ity, was unable to do so on account of tne compact concluded June 20, 1895, whereby that republic and those of Salvador and Honduras, forming what is known as the Greater Republic of Central America, had surrenderee! to the representative diet thereof their right to receive and send diplomatic agents. The diet wa? not will ing to accept him because he was not ac credited to that body. I could not ac credit him to that body because the appro priation law of congress did not permit. Mr. Maker, the present minister at Man agua, has been directed to present his letters of recall. Mr. Godfrey Hunter has likewise been accredited to the governments of Gaute mala and Honduras, the same as his pred ecessor. Guatemala is not a member of the Greater Republic of Central America, but Honduras is. Should this latter gov ernment decline to receive him, he has been instructed to report this fact to his government and await its further instruc tions. The MciiriimiA ('mini. A subject of large importance to our country and increasing appreciation on the part of the people is the completion of the great highway of trade between the At lantic and Pacific known as the Nicara gua canal. Jts value to American com merce is universally admitted. The com mission appointed under date of July 21 last "to continue the surveys and exam inations authorized by the act approved March 2, 1885, in regard to the proper route, feasibility and cost of construc tion of the Nicaragua canal, with a view of making complete plans for the entire work of construction of such canal," is now employed in the undertaking. In the future I shall take occasion to transmit to congress the report of this commission, making at the same time such further suggestions as may then seem advisable. TUB HI MKT A M«H' COMMISSION. Failure of (lie Mlmmloii of the Speelnl Silver Kiavoyn, Under the provisions of the act of con gress approved March 3, 1597, for the pro motion of an international agreement re specting bimetalism, f appointed, on April 14, 1597, Hon. Edward O. Wolcott, of Colorado; Hon. Adlai E. Stevenson, of Illinois, and lion. Charles J. Payne, of Massachusetts, as special envoys to represent the United States. They have been diligent in their effort to secure the concurrence and co-operation of Euro pean countries in the international set tlement of the question, but up to this time have not been able to secure an agreement contemplated by their mission. The gratifying action of our great sis ter republic of France in joining this country in the attempt to bring about the agreement between the principal com mercial nations of Europe, whereby a lixed and relative value between gold and silver shall be secured, furnishes assur ance that we are not alone among the larger nations of the world in realizing the international character of the prob lem and in the desire of reaching some wise and practical solution of It. The British government has published a resume of the steps taken Jointly by the French ambassador In London and the special envoys of the United States, with whom our ambassador In London actively co-operated in the presentation of this subject to her majesty's government. This will be laid before congress. Our special envoys have not made their final report. as further negotiations between the rep resentatives of this government and the governments of other countries are pend ing and in contemplation. Tiny believe that the doubts which have been raised In certain quarters respecting the possi bility of maintaining the stability of the parity between the metals and kindred questions may yet be solved by further negotiations. Meanwhile, it gives me satisfaction to state that the special envoys have al ready demonstrated their ability and fit ness to deal with the subject, and it is to be earnestly hoped that their labors may r suit in an international agreement which will bring about recognition of both gold and silver as money upon such terms and with such safeguards as will secure the use of both metals upon a basis which shall work no injuries to any class of citizens. NEEDH OF ALASKA. KxlMtliit? Condition* Demand n (liniige In the* Lmwm. The territory oi Alaska requires the prompt and early attention of congress. The conditions now existing demand a material change in the laws relating to the territory. The great influx of popula tion during the past summer and fall and the prospect of a still larger immigra tion in the spring will not permit us to longer neglect the extension of cJvil au thority within the territory or postpone the establishment of a more thorough government. A general system of public surveys has not yet been extended to Alaska, and all entries thus far made In that district are upon special surveys. The act of congress extending to Alaska the mining laws of the United States con tained the reservation that It should not be construed to put in force the general land laws of the country. By an act approved March 3, 1891. au thority was given for entry of lands for townsile purpose.**, and also for the pur chase of not exceeding l'» 0 acres then or thereafter occupied for purposes of trade and manufacture. The pur pose of congress. as thus far expressed, has been that only such rights should apply to the territory as should be specifically named. It will be seen how much remains to be done for that vast, remote, and yet promising por tion of our country. Special authority was glvt'n to the pres ident by the act approved July 114 1N97. to divide that territory into two land dis tricts, and to designate the boundaries thereof, and to appoint registers and re ceivers of said land offices, and the presi dent was also authorized to appoint a surveyor-general for the entire district. Pursuant to this authority, a surveyor general and receiver have been appoint ed. with offices at Sitka. If in the ensu ing year the conditions Justify it. the addi tional land district authorized by law will be established with an office at some point In the Yukon valley. No appropria tion. however, was made for this pur pose, and that Is now necessary to be Tlio Military Pout. 1 concur with the secretary of war In Ills suggestions as to the necessity for a military force in the territory of Alaska for the protection of persons ami prop erty. Already a sinaU force consisting of 25 men and two officers, under com mand of Lieutenant-Colonel Randall, of the Kighth infantry, has l>«»en sent to St. Michaels to establish a military post. As it is to the interest of the government t<» encourage the development of the coun try and Its duty to follow up its citizens there with the benefits of legal machin ery. f earnestly urge upon congress the establishment of a system of government of such flexibility as will enable it to ad just itself in the future to the needs at tendant upon a greater population. Itclief lor Stnrvinir K loudikern. The startling though possibly exag gerated reports from the Yukon river country of the probable shortage of food for the large number of people who are wintering there without the means of leav ing the country, are confirmed in such measure as to justify bringing the matter to the attention of congress. Access to that country this winter can be had only by the passes from J)yea and vicinity, which is a most difficult and perhaps im possible task. However, should these re ports of the suffering of our fellow-citi zens be further verified, every effort at any cost should be made to carry them relief. IMMAN AFFAIRS. Xfw IteuulnlioiiN for Five Civilised Trihew Are Imperii live. For a number of years it has been ap parent that the condition of the live clvil iz» d tribes in the Indian territory under treaty provisions with the United States, with the right of self-government and the exclusion of all white persons from within their horde rs, have undergone so complete a change as to render the contin uance ejf the system thus inaugurated piacticaily impossible. The total number of the- five civilized tribes, as shown by the last census, is 45,484, and this number has not materially increased, while the white population is estimated at from 200,0iH) ie» 250,000, which, by permission of the Indian government, has settled In the territory. The present area of the Indian territory is 25,564,546 acres, much of which is very fertile land. The United States citizens residing in the territory, most of whom have gone there by invitation or with the consent of the tribal authorities, have made permanent homes for them selves. Numerous towns have been built, in which from luuo to 5000 white people now reside. THE CIVIL SKIIVICK. It (mi iii for Further Improvement, Which Will He Made, The Important branch of our govern ment known as the civil service, the prac tical improvement of which has long b en a subject of earnest discussion, has of late years received increased legislative and executive approval. During the past few months, the service has been placed on a still firmi r basis of business meth ods and personal merit. While the right e»f our veteran soldiers to reinstatement in deserving cases has been asserted, dis missals for merely political reasons have been carefully guarded against, the exam inations for admittance to the service enlarged and at the same time rendered less technical and more practical, and a distinct advance has been made by giving a hearing before dismissal upon all cases where Incompetency is charged or a de mand is made for removal of officials ill any of the departments. This order has been made to give the ac cused his right to be heard without in any way impairing tlie power of removal, which should always be exercised in cases of inefficiency or incompetency, and which is one of the safeguards of the civil ser vice reform system, preventing stagna tion and deadwood and keeping every employe keenly alive to the fact that se curity of tenure depends not on favor, but on his own tested and carefully watched record of service. Much, of course, still remains to be accomplished before the system can be made reasonably perfect for our needs. There are places now in the classitied service which ought to be exempted and others unclassified may properly be included. I shall not hes itate to exempt cases which 1 think have been improperly included in the classified service or include those which, in my judg ment, will best promote the public ser vice. The system has the approval of the people and it will be my endeavor to up hold and extend it. I am forced by -the length of this mes sage to omit many Important references to affairs of the government with which congress will have to deal at the pres lit session. They are fully discussed in the departmental reports, to all of which I invite your earnest attention. The estimates of the expenses of the government by the several departments should have your careful scrutiny. While congress may tlnd it an easy task to re duce the expenses of the government, it should not encourage their increase. These expenses will, in my Judgment, ad mit of a decrease in many branches of thegovernment without injury to the pub lic service. It is a commanding duty to keep the appropriations within the re ceipts of the government and thus prevent a deficit. WILLIAM McKINLEY. Executive Mansion, Dec. 4. 1887, THE YUKON RUSH I HOW THE THOUSANDS WILL REACH ALASKA. ritere Are Many KoiHpb Spoken of, lint :ia Yet Only Two Are A<l vitmble for the <>ol«l HtH'ker to Attempt—Some of tlie I>ifit«*llllies to lie Overcome. [Special Correspondence.! How many will go to the Klondike next year, how will they be transport ed, are questions now being asked by transportation companies and the thousands interested in one way or an other in the great movement about to take place. Kven the man going thither to seek his fortune is vitally in terested in these matters. If there is too big a crowd lie may not bo able to secure a passage, or to get a proper outfit, or be suecessful in transporting it into the interior. Ho would better not trust too much to luck nor depend too much upon being able to travel in the regular way. Certainly, so far as the regular steamers are concerned, tiieir berths will all be engaged weeks in advance, and the man who neglects to secure passage early may have to wait a long time for his turn to come around. Kven on the overland trains there is promise of inconvenience, if not delay. Ho great a rush, all in one di rection, will tax the rolling stock of the railroads to its utmost, since cars will have to go back empty. The lowest estimate of the number of people who will start for Alaska next spring is 50,000, while some who have given the subject much attention place the figure as high as 200,000. At an average of iioo to each vessel, it would require 170 steamers to convey the min imum number, while OHO would be necessary to accommodate the maxi mum. To send 170 steamer* in the months of February, Jlarch and ".pri would make it necessary for twi. tail each day. There is now advertise/ not ono quatrer the steamers neceasan The others will no doubt be provided, for there are numerous transportation projects on foot, but nothing definite about them can yet be said. This is sufficient to show that the man who intends to join the first great rush by the way of the passes and lakes would do well to make sure of his passage to Dyea or Skaguay. As to the route by the way of St. Michaels and the river, that will not be open till June, and extensive transportation projects now under way will be sufficiently developed long before that time to make it well to postpone any estimates until later. There are but two well known and undeniably practical routes to the Yu kon mines One is by the mountain passes from Dyea and Skaguay to the lakes and thence by boat down the lakes and rivers, and the other is by ocean steamer to St. Michaels and thence up the liver by light draft steamer. All other routes are yet to be proved, and all who try them must expeot to meet with the tribulations and uncertainties that la}* in the path of the pioneer. Undoubtedly the great majority of Yu koners will try the passes, since the mines can be reached in this way two or three months earlier than by steam er, and, of these the greater number will go over the regular Yukon trail by the way of Chilkoot pass, the next greater number going from Skuguay over the White pass. It is well thoroughly to understand this ryute and its variation ns to the two passes. Linn canal, about 100 miles north of Juneau, penetrates a number of miles northerly into the coast mountains, the very head of it be ing divided into two arms by a rooky promontory. Into the easterly arm flows Skuguay river and into the west erly arm the Dyea river. Both are rapid, ice-cold mountain streams, nav igable for canoes only for several miles. At the head of these arms are located the new towns of Skaguay and Dyea. From these points it is necessary to cross the high mountain divide to Lakes Lindonnann and Bennett, where boats are constructed for the journey down the river. Until the past season the Yukoners have used the Cliilkoot puss, ironi Dyea, exclusively, the Cliil kat Indians packing all the supplies at the usual rate of 15 cents a pound. The route is 27 miles long, and the summit of the pass is 8,200 feet high. Tin) Indians have always refused to pack by any other route, declaring this to be the best one. Last Bummer, ow ing to the great rush und the eager ness of all to get over at any cost, the Indians raised their price for packing, until often as high as a dollar a pound was paid them.. This, and the crowded condition of the trail, led many to try the Skaguay trail, which, though 41 miles long, was asserted to be better, because the summit of the pass was some 500 feet lower. It was found, however, that the trail was not so good, that the river had to be crossed several times, and that, though the pass was somewhat lower, the trail led up and down hill so much that the actual climbing done was greater than by the Ciiilkoot pass, where the ascent was gradual to the foot of the summit di vide, when one very steep climb was necessary. The practical result was that a very much laiger percentage of those who tried the Cliilkoot pass suc ceeded in reaching the lakes, than of those whoattempted th?Skaguay route. Nevertheless, improvements are now being made on both trails, and both will be extensively used in the spring, it being much easier to go in over the snow, when the rocks and mud which made the trails so difficult last fall are covered up. Tlieio are projected improvements for both of those trails, in the nature of railroads and tramways, but as yet only Chilkoot pass shows anything tan gible. A combined railroad and tram way is under construction and is prom- Bed to be completed by the first of Feb ruary, for the taking of freight from Dyo.i through to Lake Lindermann. The probabilities are that this convenience will be provided by that time, or shortly thereafter. The company oper ating it purposes to contract to carry freight from Dyea to the lake at a price much below what it would cost to pack it over, and to handle it so promptly that by the time the owner can walk over the trail hli freight will get through. With this tramway in opera tion, and nothing similar on the Skag uay trail, the Chilkoot pass would get all the travel. There are, however, (till other tramways and railroad pro jects on both trails, but when they will be ready for use is uncertain. At the present time it would Mta u though T" 1 th# date the lir-t ' i! B '' t0 accoramo- M-.reh , " 8h in February and ' , Ln t'l that time, there is aD- C winl 'I 1 C ! ,oice "rail* ' ' xu ", t , er travel, and those who no in kon i *"° m ° Ver the BIIOW a Yu ~ skeleton It T Q T Ty ' Thifi is a «rong anv rwni and may he purchased at any regular outfitting point. Manv tCI hel P ( ' ra w sleds, but ail ,0t (1 ° thl » Kit is done, special r,.N s„m must h 0 madu f or food for tlie; animals. After the lakes have been reached, he remainder of the route is the same foii both passes, consisting of about 550 nn.es o lake and river navigation to Daw hoi. City, at the mouth of the Klondike It is 50 miles further to rorty-Mile, and Circle City is 800 miles down the river from Dawson. J lie new town of Rampart City is still about 000 miles further down the Yn- _ at tlie mouth of Munook creek, not far above the point where the iannanah flows into the great river. lliis entire lako and river journey is made in strong boats, usually built out of timber whipsawed by the Yukoners on the banks of Lakes Linderinann or Bennett. There is a small saw mill there, but it is unable to cut enough timber to till tlie demand. Doubtless other mi 11a will be taken in as soon as the tramway is completed, but miners should not rely upon this, but should take an outfit of tools and material for building a boat, as well as oars and rowlocks. Efforts to take in boats over the pass last fall were unsuccessful, even in sections. Though it might he easier to do so over the enow, it is doubtful if it would not consume as much extra time and labor as the building of a boat would require. When the tramway is at work, special ly constructed boats could no doubt he taken in to advantage, and valuable tin <« — •••» >.i.'o»gli Lake Linder- Wrtim, IJ nules, a '•"Vw Hen ii.jlo: .'owe -hp lake, 34 miles; tlirougn v... ' . t*» Lake Tag isli, a miles; down the lake lu miles; by river to Lake Marsh, « miles; across the lake passing Windy Arm, 19 miles. Those who go in the win ter and early spring can proceed to this point by drawing their boats on sleds, but there they must wait for the ice to break up before proceeding down the river in their boats, unless they intend to go through light, dragging a sled over the snow and ice. Twenty-five miles below Lake Marsh is the dreaded Miles canyon, and just below this place are White Horse rapids. Both of these places may be safely run in the boat if the utmost care is exer cised. Many boats have been wrecked here and their contents lost, while sev eral unfortunate men have been drowned. No one should attempt these difficult passages without first having carefully studied the situation. Thirty miles further down the river is Lake Le Barge, !i0 miles long. Five Finger rapids are 1(18 miles below this lake, and Kink rapids are 3 miles further. These are the last of the specially dan gerous places, though care must ho ex ercised during the entire journey. As to other routes from the coast, there are but three that have any prominence, and none of them is as yet sufficiently known to make it advisa ble for the ordinary gold seeker to at tempt them. One of them is the Dal ton trail, leading noitherly over the mountains just west of the Chilkoot pass, and paralleling the lake and river route for about UOO miles, finally striking the Yukon below the most dangerous rapids. It is claimed that this is the best route for a railroad, but it is yet to be shown how practicable it is for general use. The government will probably attempt to semi in a re lief expedition by this route early in the spring. The Taku and the Stickeen routes, one starting from Taku inlet, near Ju neau, ami the other from the Stickeen liver, near Wrangel, converge at Lake Teslin. Small river steamers can nav igate this lake and pass down the llootalinqua river to the Yukon below the rapids, and thus to Dawson and be yond. It is claimed that such steam ers will be built on the lake in the spring, and that trails will bo opened up to the lake and pack trains put on, to be followed soon by railroads; but until this is actually done the gold seeker would do well not to intrust himself to the uncertainties of those routes. Undoubtedly the most comfortable and easy way to reach the Yukon mines is bv steamer from one of the Pacilic coast ports to the mouth of the Yukon, at St. Michaels, and thence by light river steamers up the stream, the dis tance up the river being 1,422 miles to Circle City, and 1,772 to Dawson City. The trouble with this route is that the river is navigable only three months in the year, and then only by small river steamers, because of frequent bars. The ice breaks up about the 20th of June and tonus again about the same time in September. There are now several steamers on the river belonging to the Alaska Commercial Company and the North American Transportation and Trading Company, both of which have trading posts on "the river, with head quarters at St. Michaels, both com panies are building several new vessels tor next year's traffic. The outlook for this route next sum mer is that the number of steamers on the river will be utterly inadequate to accommodate the persons who will be landed by thousands at St. Michaels by steamers and sailing vessels, though there are numerous projects on foot for building steamers on the river in the spring or towing them thither. As every vessel on the river will probably run in connection with some regular an line, and as the pobabilities are that the ocean liners will carry more passengers and freight than the river steamers can handle, it would seem as though the only persons who will stand any show of getting through to Dawson by this route will be those who pur chase through passage from the starting point to their destination for them selves and supplies. Those who pay passage onlv to St. Michaels, or who roach that point by independent steam ers or vessels, will probably be unable to proceed any further. Notwithstand ing this promises to be the condition of affairs next summer, there will doubtless thousands of men take pass age in all kinds of craft for St. Mich aels, without providing means for get ting beyond that point. Much disap pointment Is in store for many on this ■oore.