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Aberdeen herald. (Aberdeen, Chehalis County, W.T.) 1886-1917, December 09, 1897, Image 3

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87093220/1897-12-09/ed-1/seq-3/

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I Important Features of
|e Chiet Executives' Ad-
I dress to Congress.
he Senate and House of Reprosenta-
It gives me pleasure to extend
ig to the "isth congress assemble d
u!ar s' 'Vion at the seat of rovc ru
with many of wiiose senators and
entativ«s I have been assoc ated
leglsi.i.i service. The nuetlng oc-
Lirult r felicitous eond.tions, justily
icere congratulation and cal.ing for
fratt ful aeknowh dgnu nt to a be
nt providence which has so signally
d and pr. spered us as a nation.
and pood w II with all the nations
► earth continue unbroken.
latter of gi nulne satistaHon is tne
up feeling of traternal regard and
avion of all sections ot our country,
icompleteness of wh.ch has t *>«.» long
»tl naiizauon of the higm.-t bl swings
5 I'nion. l'he spirit or patriotism is
rsal and is t v< r increasing in fervor,
mblic questions which now most en
us are lifted far a hove either par-
Ihip, prejudice or former sectional
ences. Tlu y affect every part of
oinnion country alike and permit ot
vision on ancient lines. (Questions ot
•ji policy, of revenue, the soundness
e currency, the inviolability of na-
I obligations, the imi rovement of the
; service, appeal to the individual con
te of every earnest citizen, to wh.it
party he belongs, or in whatever s» c
pf the country he may reside.
I extra session of th;s congress which
3 during July last, enacted important
ation, and, while its full effects have
ben realized, what it has already ac
lis lied assures us of its timeliness and
>m. To test its permanent value
er time will be required, and the peo-
Batistted with its operation and re
thus far, are in no mind to withhold
it a fair trial.
unity of l*iittiibht Our FlnanecM
I !>on it Sonnil Iti«kim*
iff legislation having been settled by
xtra session of congress, the question
pressing for consideration is that of
currency. The work of putting our
cee upon a sound basis, difficult as it
seem, will appear when we recall
Inancial operation of the government
18ti6. On the 30th day of June of
year, we had outstanding demand
itief in the sum of $728,565,447 41. On
Ist day of July, IS7'J, these liabilities
been reduced to $443,889,495 88. Of our
est-bearing obligations, the figures
even more striking. On July 1, 1866,
jrincipal of the interest-bearing debt
le government was $2,332,331,208. On
Ist day of July, 1893, this sum had
reduced to $55»,037.100, or an aggre
reduction of $1,747,294,108. The inter
earing debt of the United States on
Ist day of Dect-mb r, 1897, was $817,-
0. The government money now out-
Sing (December 1) consists of $;.'4»>,-
6 of United States notes; $107,793,280
•easury notes issued by authority of
let of 1890; $384,963,504 of s.lver c rtifi
\ and $G1,250,76l of standard silver
th the great resources of the govern
; and with the time-honored example
le past before us, we should not hesi
to enter upon a currency revision
li will make our demand obligations
onerous to the government and re
our financial laws fiom ambiguity
e brief review of what was accom
erl from the close of the war until
makes unreasonable and groundless
distrust either of our tinancial abil
r soundness; while the situation from
o 1897 must admonish congress of tlie
Hliate necessity lor so legislating as
ake the return of the conditions then
liling impossible.
ere are many plans proposed as a
dy for the evil. Before we can lind
rue remedy we must appreciate the
evil. It is not that our currency ot
r kind is not good, for every dollar
is good; good because the govern
's pledge is out to kei p it so, and
pledge will not be broken. How
the guaranty of our purpose to keep
(ledge will be best shown by advanc
oward ts fulfillment.
Ivll of tlie I'rcMent System.
i evil of the present system is found
e great cost to the government of
tainir.g the parity of our different
s of mon.y; that is, keeping nil of
at par with gold. We surely cannot
nger heedless of the burden this im
i upon the people, given under l'alrly
serous conditions, while the past tour
i have demonstrated that it is not
an expensive charge upon the gov
ern, but a dangerous menace to the
nal credit.
s manifest that we must devise some
to protect the government against
Issues for repeated redemptions. \\ e
either curtail the opportunity for
ilatlon, made easy by the multiplied
nptlons of our demand obligations, or
ase the gold reserve for their re
gion. We have $900,000,000 of currency
i the government, hy sol* mn enact
, has undertaken to keep at par with
Nobody is obliged to redeem in
but the government. The banks are
equired to redeem in gold. The gov
ent is obliged to keep equal with
all its outstanding currency and coin
ations, while its receipts are not re
d to be paid in gold. They are paid
cry kind of money but gold, and tne
means by which the government can,
certainty, g»'t gold is by borrowing,
n get it in no other way when it most
I it. The government without any
gold revenue in pledged to maintain
redemption, which it has steadily and
fully done, and which, under the au
ty now given, it will continue to do.
i law whicli requires the government,
having redeemed its not s, to pay
out again as current funds demands
nstant replenishment of the gold re
t. This is especially so in times of
less panic and wh n the revenues are
Relent to meet the expenses of the
rnmerit. At such times the govern
has no other way to supply its def
ind mainta.n redemption but through
ncrease of its bonded debt, as during
administration of my predecessor,
i $202,315,400 of 4*2 per cent bonds
issued and sold and the proceeds
to pay the expenses of tlie govern
in excess of th<- revenues and sustain
gold reserve. While it is true that
greater part of the proceeds of these
s were used to supply deficient reve
, a considerable portion was required
alntain the gold reserve.
e|»leiii«lilnu the (iulil Reserve.
th our revenues equal to our expenses,
> would be no deficit requiring the is
ce of bonds. Hut if the gold reserve
below $100,000,000, how will it be re
shed except by selling more bonds?
ere any other way practicable under
Ing law? The serious question then
hall we continue the policy that has
pursued in the past that is, when the
reserve reaches the point of danger,
i more bonds and supply the needed
-or shall we provide other means
event these recurring drains upon the
reserve? If no further legislation
id and the policy of selling bonds ia
i continued, then congress should g:ve
lecretary of the treasury authority to
>onds at long or short periods, bearing
is rate <>f interest than is now author
by law. I earnestly recommend, as
as the receipts of the government
juite sufficient to pay all the expenses
t government, that when any of the
States notes are presented for re
lon In gold and areredeeemed in gold,
totes shall be kept and only paid out
(Old. Thin la an obvious
" the United States note
ec"°lv S ?r er r nl ' hu shollld
Ited 4tAtf« » tho government
ited States note without paying gold
•ll'ihe mJ 1 ' Th# r,a »"" fork 's
ent apparent when the S ov-
Usuei an interest-bearing debt
to provide gold for the redemption of
United States notes—a noninten st-bearing
debt. Surely it should not pay them out
again .except on demand and for sold. If
they are put out in any other way they
may return again to be followed by an
other bond issue to redeem them—another
interest-bearing debt redeem a noti
interecU-bearing debt.
In my view, it is of the utmost Import
ance that the government should be re
lieved from tin* business of providing for
all the gold required for exchange or ex
port. This responsibility is alone borne
by the government without any of the
usual and necessary banking powers to
help itself. The banks do not feel the
strain of the gold redemption. The
whole strain rests upon the government,
and the size of the gold reserve in the
treasury has come to be. with or with
out reason, the signal e>f danger or of se
curity. This ought to be stopped.
If we are to have an era of prosperity
in the country with sufficient receipts for
t!ie expenses of the government, we may
l.'el no immeeilato embarrassment from
our present currency; but the danger still
exists, and will be ever present, menacing
us as long as the existing system con
tinues. And. besides, it is in times of
adequate revenues and business tran
quillity that the government should pre
pare for the worst. We cannot avoid,
without serious consequences, the wise
consideration and prompt solution of this
I'liiii »f Secretary (inKc,
The secretary of the treasury has out
lined a plan in great lot .ill lor the pur
pose of removing threatened recurrence
of a depleted gold reserve and seeing us
from future embarrassment on that ac
count. To this plan 1 invite your care
ful consideration. 1 concur with the sec
retary of the treasury iu his recommenda
tion that national banks be allowed to
issue notes t* the face value of the
bonds which they deposited lor circula
tion, and that the tax on circulating
notes, secured by the deposit of such
bonds, be reduced to one-half of one per
cent per annum. 1 also join him in
recommending that authority be given for
the establishment of national banks with
a minimum capital of $25,000. This will
enable the smaller villages and agricul
tural regions of the country to be sup
plied with currency to meet their de
mands. 1 recommend that the Issue of
national bank notes be restricted to the
denomination of $10 and upwards. If the
suggestions I have herein made shall
have the approval of congress, then
would recommend that national banks be
required to redeem their notes in gold.
Attitude of the* Administration In
the I'roNent Rebellion.
The most important problem with which
this country is now called upon to deal,
that pertaining to its foreign rela
tions. concerns its duty toward Spain and
the Cuban insurrection. Problems and
conditions more or less in common with
those now existing have confronted this
government at various times in the past.
The story of Cuba for many years has
been one of unrest; growing discontent;
an effort toward the larger enjoyment of
liberty and self-control: of organized re
sistance to the mother country; or oppres
sion and warfare and of ineffectual set
tlement to be followed by renewed re
volt. For no enduring period since the
enfranchisement of the continental pos
sessions of Spain in the Western conti
nent has the condition of Cuba or the
policy of Spain toward Cuba not caused
concern to the United States.
The prospect from time to time that
the weakness of Spain's hold upon tne
island and the political vicissitudes and
embarrassments of the home government
might lead to the transfer of Cuba to a
continental power called forth, between
1823 and 1860, various emphatic declara
tions of the United States to permit no
disturbance of Cuba's connection with
Spain unless in the direction of Independ
ence or acquisition by the United States
through purchase, nor has there been any
change of this declared policy since upon
the part of this government.
The revolution which began in 18H8
lasted for 10 years, despite the strenuous
efforts of the successive peninsular gov
ernments to suppress it. Then, as now,
the government of the United States tes
tified its grave concern and offer* d its aid
to put an end i»> bloodshed in Cuba. The
overtures made by General Grant were
refused, and the war dragged on, entail
ing great loss of life and treasure, and
increased Injury to American interests,
besides throwing enhanced burdens of
neutrality upon this government. In IS7B,
peace was brought about by the truce
of Zanjon, obtained by negotiations be
tween the Spanish commander. Martinez
de Campos, and the insurgent leaders.
Civilized Code of Wnr l)lsr»'un riled.
The present insurrection broke out In
February. 1895. It is not my purpose, at
this time, to recall its remarkable increase
or t«> characterize its tenacious resistance
against the enormous forces massed
against it by Spain. The revolt and the
efforts to subdue it carried destruction to
every quarter of the island, developing
wide proportions and defying the efforts
of Spain for its suppression. The civilized
code of war has been disregarded, no
less so by the Spaniards than by the
Cubans. The existing conditions cannot
but fill this government and the Ameri
can people with the gravest apprehen
sion.- There is no desire on the part of
our people to profit by the misfortunes
of Spain. We have only the desire to
see the Cubans prosperous and contented,
enjoying that measure of self-control
which is the inalienable right of man.
protected in their right to reap the bene
fit of the exhaustless treasures of their
The offer made by my predecessor, In
April. 1596, tendering the friendly offices
of this government, failed, and media
tion on our part was not accepted. In
brief, the answer read: There is no ef
fectual way to pacify Cuba, unless it be
gins with the actual submission of the
rebels to the mother country. Then only
can Spain act in the promised direction
of her own motion and after her own
Conceit t rutin n In Kxtcrniliintlon.
The cruel policy of concentration was
initiated February 1»J, 1896. The produc
tive districts controlled by the Spanish
armies were depopulated and the agri
cultural inhabitants were herded in and
about the garrison towns, their lands laid
waste and their dwellings destroyed. This
policy the late cabinet of Spain justified
as a necessary measure of war and as a
means of cutting off supplies from the
It has utterly failed as a war measure.
It was not civilized warfare. It was ex
Against this abuse of the rights of war
I have felt constrained, on repeated oc
casions. to enter the firm and earnest pro
test of this government. There was much
of public condemnation of the treatment
of American citizens by alleged illegal ar
rests and long Imprisonment awaiting
trial of pending protracted judicial pro
cedures. I felt it my first duty to make
instant demand for the release or speedy
trial of all American citizens under ar
rest. Before the change of the Spanish
cabinet, in October, 22 prisoners, citizens
of the United States, had been given
their freedom
For the relief of our own citizens suf
fering because of the conflict, the aid ol
congress was sought in a special mes
sage. and under the appropriation of April
4, 1897, effective aid has been given to
American citizens in Cuba, and many of
them, at their own request, have been
returned to the United States.
I n»t met loiin to Minister \Voo«llord.
The instructions given to our new min
ister to Spain, before his departure for
his post, directed him to impress upon
that government the sincere wish of the
United States to lend its aid toward end
ing the war in Cuba, by reaching a peace
ful and lasting result, just and honor
able alike to Spain and the Cuban people
These instructions recited the character
and duration of the contest, the wide
spread losses it entails, the burdens and
restraint it Imposes upon us, with con
stant disturbance of national interests
and the injury resulting from an indefinite
continuance of this state of things. It
was stated that at this juncture our gov
ernment was constrained to seriously in
quire if the time was not ripe when Spain,
of her own volition, moved by her own In
terests and every sentiment of humanity,
should put a stop to this destructive war
and make proposals of settlement honor
able to herself and just to her Cuban
colony. It was urged that, as a neigh
boring nation with large Interests In
Cuba, we could be required to wait only
a reasonable time for the mother coun
try to establish its authority and restore
peace and order within the borders of the
island; that we could not contemplate an
indefinite period for the accomplishment
of these resuits.
No solution was proposed to which the
slightest idea of humiliation to Spain
could attach. All that was asked or ex
pected was that some safe way might be
speedily provided and permanent peace
restored. It so chanced that the consid
eration of this offer, addressed to the
Spanish administration, which had de
clined the tenders of my predecessor and
w. i h for more than two years had poured
more treasure into Cuba in the fruitless
effort to suppress the revolt, fell to oth
ers. lit tween the departure of General
Woodford, the new envoy, and Ills arrival
in Spain, the statesman who had shaped
the policy of his country fell by the hand
of an assassin, and although the cabinet
of the late premier still held oflice and re
e« ived from our envoy the proposals he
bore, that cabinet gave place, within a
few days thereaftc r. to a new administra
tion under the leadership of Sagasta.
Spaiu'M Friendly Heply.
The reply to our note was received on
the 23d clay of October. It is in the direc
tion of a better understanding. It appre
ciates the friendly proposals of this gov
ernment. It admits that our country Is
deeply affected by the war In Cuba and
that our desires for peace arc just. It de
clares that the present Spanish govern
ment is bound by every consideration to a
change of policy that should satisfy the
Unlt'cd States and pacify Cuba within a
reasonable time. To this end, Spain has
decided to put Into effect the political re
forms heretofore advocate d by the pres
ent premier, without halting for any con
sideration in the path which, in Its judg
ment, leads to peace.
The military operations, it is said, will
continue, but will be humane and con
ducted with all regard for private rights,
bring accompanied by political action
leading to the autonomy of Cuba, while
guarding Spanish sovereignty. This, it is
claimed, will rem?!'. Cuba with
a dist'* s v personality, the Island t«» be
governed by an executive and by a local
council or chamber, reserving to Spain
the control of the foreign relations, the
army and navy and the judicial adminis
To accomplish this, the present govern
ment proposes to modify existing legis
lation by decree, leaving the Spanish
cortcs. with the aid of Cuban senators
and deputies, to solve the economic prob
lems and properly distribute the existing
t«l vo Spill it n Chance.
In the absence of a declaration of the
measures that this government proposes
to take in carrying out its proffer of good
offices, it suggests that Spain be left free
to conduct military operations and grant
political reforms, wftlie the United States,
for its part, shall enforce its neutral obli
gations. and cut off the assistance which,
it is asserted, the Insurgents receive from
this country. The supposition of an in
definite prolongation of the war is de
nied. It is asserted th.at the Western
provinces are already well-nigh re
claimed; that the panting of cane an 1
tobacco therein has been resumed, and
that by force of arms and new and ample
reforms very early and complete pacifi
cation is hoped for.
The Immediate amelioration of existing
conditions under the new administration
of Cuban affairs is predicted, and there
withal the disturbance and all occasion
for any change of attitude on the part of
the United States.
Discussion of the question of interna
tional duties and responsibilities of the
United States as Spain understands them.
Is presented with an apparent disposition
to charge us with failure in this regard.
This charge is without any basis in fact.
It could not have been made if Spain had
b »en cognizant of the constant effort this
government has made, at the cost of mil
lions and by the employment of the ad
ministrative machinery at the national
command, to perform its full duty accord
ing to the law of nations. That it has
successfully prevented the departure of a
single military expedition or armed vessel
from our shores in violation of our laws
would set m to be a sufficient answer.
But on this aspect of the Spanish note it
is not neccssary to speak further now.
Finn in the conviction of a wholly per
formed obligation, due response to this
charge has been made in diplomatic is
sues. Throughout all these horrors and
dangers To our own peace, this govern
in' nt has never in any way abrogated its
sovereign prerogative of reserving to it
self the determination of its policy and
course, according to its own high sense of
right and in consonance with the dearest
interests and convictions of our own peo
ple. should the prolongation of the strife
so demand.
Of the untried measures there remain
"Recognition of the insurgents as bellig
erents; recognition of the independence of
Cuba; neutral Intervention to end the war
by imposing a rational compromise be
tween the contestants, and intervention
in favor of one or the other party."
Not u Question of Annexation.
I speak not of forcible annexation, for
that cannot be thought of. That, by our
code of morality, would be criminal ag
gression. Recognition of the belllgert ncy
of the Cuban Insurgents has often been
canvassed as a possible if not inevitable
step, both in regard to the previous 10
years' struggle and during the present
war. I am not unmindful that the two
houses of congress, in the spring of 189G,
expressed the opinion, by concurrent reso
lution. that a condition of public war ex
isted requiring or justifying the recogni
tion of a state of belligerency in Cuba,
and during the extra session the senate
voted a joint resolution of like import,
which, however, was not brought to a
vote in the house. In the presence of
these significant expressions of the senti
ment of the legislative branch, it behooves
tlie executive soberly to consider the con
ditions under which so important a
measure must needs rest for justification.
It is to be seriously considered whether
the Cuban insurrection possesses, beyond
dispute, the attributes of statehood which
alone can demand the recognition of bel
ligerency in its favor. Possession short
of the essential qualifications of sover
eignty by the insurgents, and the conduct
of the war by them according to the rec
ognized code of war, are no less important
factors toward the determination of tlie
problem of belligerency than are the in
fluences and consequences of the struggle
upon the internal policy of the recogniz
ing nation. The utterances of President
Grant in his memorable message of 1875
are signally relevant to the present situa
ticn In Cuba, and it may be wholesome
now to recall them. At that time a
serious conflict had for seven years wasted
the neighboring island. During all those
years an utter disregard of the laws of
civilized warfare and of the just demands
of humanity, which called forth expres
sions of condemnation from the nations
of Christendom, continued unabated.
Desolation and ruin pervaded that pro
ductive region, enormously affecting the
commerce of all commercial nations, but
that of the United States more than any
other, by reason of proximity and larger
trade and intercourse.
Sot n Time for Itecoßiiltlon.
Turning to the practical aspects of a
recognition of belligerency and reviewing
its inconveniences and possible danger,
further pertinent considerations appear.
In the code of nations, there is no such
thing as a naked recognition of belliger
ency unaccompanied by the assumption
of national neutrality. Such recognition
without neutrality will not confer upon
either party to a domestic conflict a status
not therefore actually possessed, or af
fect the relation of either party to other
states. The act of recognition usually
takes the form of a solemn proclamation
of neutrality which recites the de facto
condition of belligerency as its motive. It
announces a domestic law of neutrality
in the deelaring state. It assumes the ln
ternational obligation of a neutral in the
presenee of a public state of war. It
warns all citizens and others within the
jurisdiction of the claimant that they vio
late those rigorous obligations at their
own peril and cannot expect Uo be shield
ed from the consequence. The right of
visit and search and seizure of vessels
and cargoes and contraband of war un
der admiralty law must under Interna
tional law be admitted as a legitimate
consequcr; «.-f t proclamation of belliger
ency. \\ hi!e according equal belligerent
rights, defined by public law. to each par
ty in our poits. disfavor would be impos
sible to both, which, while nominally
equal, would weigh heavily in behalf of
Spain herself. Possessing a navy and
claiming the ports of Cuba, her maritime
rights could be avscried. not only for
the military Investment of the island,
but up to the margin of our own terri
torial waters, and a condition of thincs
would exist for which the Cubans could tot
hope to create a parallel; while aid from
within our domain would be even more
impossible than now, with the additional
obligation of international neutrality
which we would perforce assume.
Will Intervene Wlion Neeennnry.
Sure of the right, keeping free from all
off« nse ourselves, actuated only by up
right and patriotic considerations, moved
neither by passion nor selfishness, the
government will continue its watchful
care over the rights and property of
American citizens and will abate none of
its efforts to bring about by peaceful
agencies a peace which shall be honorable
and enduring. If It shall hereafter be a
duty imposed by our obligations to our
selves. to civilization and humanity to
intervene with force, It shall be without
fault on our part, and only because the
necessity for such action will be so clear
as to command the support and approval
of the civilized world.
OffCM (lie Senate to Accomplish the
I nfoii.
Tty a special message dated the 16th day
of June last, I laid before the senate of
the I'nited States a treaty, signed that day
by the plenipotentiaries of the United
States and of the republic of Hawaii, hav
ing for Its purpose the incorporation of
the Hawaiian islands as an integral part
of the United States and under its sov
ereignty. The senate having removed
the injunction of secrecy, although the
treaty is still pending before that body,
the subject may be properly referred to
in this message, as the necessary action
of congress is required determine by
many details of the eventual
union, should the fact of annexation be
accomplished, as I believe it should be.
While consistently disavowing from a
very early period any aggrtsslve policy
of absorption In r gard to the Hawaiian
group, a l».?i«r sere s of discussion through
three-quarters uC * century has pro
claimed the vital inter*-..; «f the United
States in the independent life of the
islands and their intimate commercial de
pendency upon this country. At the same
time it has been repeatedly asserted that
in no event could the entity of Hawaiian
statehood cease by the passage of the is
lands under the domination or influence ot
another power than the United States,
t'nihr these circumstances the logic of
events required that annexation, before
offered but declined, should, in the ripe
ness of time, come about as the natural
result of strength'ning the tics that bind
us to those islands and be released by the
free will of tile Hawaiian state.
That treaty was unanimously ratified
without amendment by the senate and
pr fcident of the republic of Hawaii on the
10th of September last, and only awaits
the favorable action of the American sen
ate to effect the complete absorption of the
islands into the domains of the I'nited
States. What the conditions of such, a
union shall be, the political relation thereof
to the United States, the character of the
local administration, the quality anil de
gree of the elective franchise of the in
habitants, the extension of the federal
laws to the territory or the enactment of
special laws to tit the peculiar condition
thereof, the regulation and needs of labor
therein, the treaty has wisely relegated to
If the treaty Is confirmed, as every con
sideration of dignity and honor requires,
the wisdom of congn ss will see to it that,
avoiding abrupt assimilation of dements
perhaps hardly yet fitted to share in the
highest franchises of citizenship, and hav
ing due regard to the geographical con
ditions. the just provisions for self-rule
In lo -ai matters with the largest political
lil»< rtl s as an integral part of our nation
will he accorded to the Hawaiians.
So less i« due to a people who after
nearly five years of demonstrated capacity
to fulfill the obligations of self-govern
ing x:atehood, come of th ir free will to
merge their destinies in our body politic.
ReprcMcn tntinn <»f Onr (iovorniuent
In the Greater Hcpulilie.
As to the representative of this govern
ment to Nicaragua, Salvador and Costa
Rica, 1 have concluded that Mr. William
Merry, confirmed as minister ol the
United States to the states of Nicaragua,
Salvador and Cos:a Kica, shall proceed
to San Jose, Costa Kica, and there tempo
rarily establish the h< adquarters of the
I'nited States to those three states. 1
took this action for what 1 regarded as the
paramount interests of this country, it
was developed, upon an investigation by
the secretary of state, that the government
of Nicaragua, while not unwilling to re
ceive Mr. Merry in his diplomatic capac
ity, was unable to do so on account of tne
compact concluded June 20, 1895, whereby
that republic and those of Salvador and
Honduras, forming what is known as the
Greater Republic of Central America, had
surrenderee! to the representative diet
thereof their right to receive and send
diplomatic agents. The diet wa? not will
ing to accept him because he was not ac
credited to that body. I could not ac
credit him to that body because the appro
priation law of congress did not permit.
Mr. Maker, the present minister at Man
agua, has been directed to present his
letters of recall.
Mr. Godfrey Hunter has likewise been
accredited to the governments of Gaute
mala and Honduras, the same as his pred
ecessor. Guatemala is not a member of
the Greater Republic of Central America,
but Honduras is. Should this latter gov
ernment decline to receive him, he has
been instructed to report this fact to his
government and await its further instruc
The MciiriimiA ('mini.
A subject of large importance to our
country and increasing appreciation on the
part of the people is the completion of the
great highway of trade between the At
lantic and Pacific known as the Nicara
gua canal. Jts value to American com
merce is universally admitted. The com
mission appointed under date of July 21
last "to continue the surveys and exam
inations authorized by the act approved
March 2, 1885, in regard to the proper
route, feasibility and cost of construc
tion of the Nicaragua canal, with a view
of making complete plans for the entire
work of construction of such canal," is
now employed in the undertaking. In the
future I shall take occasion to transmit
to congress the report of this commission,
making at the same time such further
suggestions as may then seem advisable.
Failure of (lie Mlmmloii of the Speelnl
Silver Kiavoyn,
Under the provisions of the act of con
gress approved March 3, 1597, for the pro
motion of an international agreement re
specting bimetalism, f appointed, on
April 14, 1597, Hon. Edward O. Wolcott,
of Colorado; Hon. Adlai E. Stevenson, of
Illinois, and lion. Charles J. Payne,
of Massachusetts, as special envoys to
represent the United States. They have
been diligent in their effort to secure the
concurrence and co-operation of Euro
pean countries in the international set
tlement of the question, but up to this
time have not been able to secure an
agreement contemplated by their mission.
The gratifying action of our great sis
ter republic of France in joining this
country in the attempt to bring about the
agreement between the principal com
mercial nations of Europe, whereby a
lixed and relative value between gold and
silver shall be secured, furnishes assur
ance that we are not alone among the
larger nations of the world in realizing
the international character of the prob
lem and in the desire of reaching some
wise and practical solution of It.
The British government has published a
resume of the steps taken Jointly by the
French ambassador In London and the
special envoys of the United States, with
whom our ambassador In London actively
co-operated in the presentation of this
subject to her majesty's government. This
will be laid before congress. Our special
envoys have not made their final report.
as further negotiations between the rep
resentatives of this government and the
governments of other countries are pend
ing and in contemplation. Tiny believe
that the doubts which have been raised
In certain quarters respecting the possi
bility of maintaining the stability of the
parity between the metals and kindred
questions may yet be solved by further
Meanwhile, it gives me satisfaction to
state that the special envoys have al
ready demonstrated their ability and fit
ness to deal with the subject, and it is to
be earnestly hoped that their labors may
r suit in an international agreement
which will bring about recognition of
both gold and silver as money upon such
terms and with such safeguards as will
secure the use of both metals upon a
basis which shall work no injuries to
any class of citizens.
KxlMtliit? Condition* Demand n
(liniige In the* Lmwm.
The territory oi Alaska requires the
prompt and early attention of congress.
The conditions now existing demand a
material change in the laws relating to
the territory. The great influx of popula
tion during the past summer and fall and
the prospect of a still larger immigra
tion in the spring will not permit us to
longer neglect the extension of cJvil au
thority within the territory or postpone
the establishment of a more thorough
government. A general system of public
surveys has not yet been extended to
Alaska, and all entries thus far made In
that district are upon special surveys.
The act of congress extending to Alaska
the mining laws of the United States con
tained the reservation that It should not
be construed to put in force the general
land laws of the country.
By an act approved March 3, 1891. au
thority was given for entry of lands for
townsile purpose.**, and also for the pur
chase of not exceeding l'» 0 acres then or
thereafter occupied for purposes of
trade and manufacture. The pur
pose of congress. as thus far
expressed, has been that only
such rights should apply to the territory
as should be specifically named. It will
be seen how much remains to be done for
that vast, remote, and yet promising por
tion of our country.
Special authority was glvt'n to the pres
ident by the act approved July 114 1N97. to
divide that territory into two land dis
tricts, and to designate the boundaries
thereof, and to appoint registers and re
ceivers of said land offices, and the presi
dent was also authorized to appoint a
surveyor-general for the entire district.
Pursuant to this authority, a surveyor
general and receiver have been appoint
ed. with offices at Sitka. If in the ensu
ing year the conditions Justify it. the addi
tional land district authorized by law
will be established with an office at some
point In the Yukon valley. No appropria
tion. however, was made for this pur
pose, and that Is now necessary to be
Tlio Military Pout.
1 concur with the secretary of war In
Ills suggestions as to the necessity for a
military force in the territory of Alaska
for the protection of persons ami prop
erty. Already a sinaU force consisting
of 25 men and two officers, under com
mand of Lieutenant-Colonel Randall, of
the Kighth infantry, has l>«»en sent to
St. Michaels to establish a military post.
As it is to the interest of the government
t<» encourage the development of the coun
try and Its duty to follow up its citizens
there with the benefits of legal machin
ery. f earnestly urge upon congress the
establishment of a system of government
of such flexibility as will enable it to ad
just itself in the future to the needs at
tendant upon a greater population.
Itclief lor Stnrvinir K loudikern.
The startling though possibly exag
gerated reports from the Yukon river
country of the probable shortage of food
for the large number of people who are
wintering there without the means of leav
ing the country, are confirmed in such
measure as to justify bringing the matter
to the attention of congress. Access to
that country this winter can be had only
by the passes from J)yea and vicinity,
which is a most difficult and perhaps im
possible task. However, should these re
ports of the suffering of our fellow-citi
zens be further verified, every effort at
any cost should be made to carry them
Xfw IteuulnlioiiN for Five Civilised
Trihew Are Imperii live.
For a number of years it has been ap
parent that the condition of the live clvil
iz» d tribes in the Indian territory under
treaty provisions with the United States,
with the right of self-government and
the exclusion of all white persons from
within their horde rs, have undergone so
complete a change as to render the contin
uance ejf the system thus inaugurated
piacticaily impossible. The total number
of the- five civilized tribes, as shown by
the last census, is 45,484, and this number
has not materially increased, while the
white population is estimated at from
200,0iH) ie» 250,000, which, by permission of
the Indian government, has settled In the
territory. The present area of the Indian
territory is 25,564,546 acres, much of which
is very fertile land. The United States
citizens residing in the territory, most of
whom have gone there by invitation or
with the consent of the tribal authorities,
have made permanent homes for them
selves. Numerous towns have been built,
in which from luuo to 5000 white people
now reside.
It (mi iii for Further Improvement,
Which Will He Made,
The Important branch of our govern
ment known as the civil service, the prac
tical improvement of which has long b en
a subject of earnest discussion, has of
late years received increased legislative
and executive approval. During the past
few months, the service has been placed
on a still firmi r basis of business meth
ods and personal merit. While the right
e»f our veteran soldiers to reinstatement
in deserving cases has been asserted, dis
missals for merely political reasons have
been carefully guarded against, the exam
inations for admittance to the service
enlarged and at the same time rendered
less technical and more practical, and a
distinct advance has been made by giving
a hearing before dismissal upon all cases
where Incompetency is charged or a de
mand is made for removal of officials ill
any of the departments.
This order has been made to give the ac
cused his right to be heard without in
any way impairing tlie power of removal,
which should always be exercised in cases
of inefficiency or incompetency, and which
is one of the safeguards of the civil ser
vice reform system, preventing stagna
tion and deadwood and keeping every
employe keenly alive to the fact that se
curity of tenure depends not on favor,
but on his own tested and carefully
watched record of service. Much, of
course, still remains to be accomplished
before the system can be made reasonably
perfect for our needs. There are places
now in the classitied service which ought
to be exempted and others unclassified
may properly be included. I shall not hes
itate to exempt cases which 1 think have
been improperly included in the classified
service or include those which, in my judg
ment, will best promote the public ser
vice. The system has the approval of the
people and it will be my endeavor to up
hold and extend it.
I am forced by -the length of this mes
sage to omit many Important references
to affairs of the government with which
congress will have to deal at the pres lit
session. They are fully discussed in the
departmental reports, to all of which I
invite your earnest attention.
The estimates of the expenses of the
government by the several departments
should have your careful scrutiny. While
congress may tlnd it an easy task to re
duce the expenses of the government, it
should not encourage their increase.
These expenses will, in my Judgment, ad
mit of a decrease in many branches of
thegovernment without injury to the pub
lic service. It is a commanding duty to
keep the appropriations within the re
ceipts of the government and thus prevent
a deficit. WILLIAM McKINLEY.
Executive Mansion, Dec. 4. 1887,
ritere Are Many KoiHpb Spoken of, lint
:ia Yet Only Two Are A<l vitmble for
the <>ol«l HtH'ker to Attempt—Some
of tlie I>ifit«*llllies to lie Overcome.
[Special Correspondence.!
How many will go to the Klondike
next year, how will they be transport
ed, are questions now being asked by
transportation companies and the
thousands interested in one way or an
other in the great movement about to
take place. Kven the man going
thither to seek his fortune is vitally in
terested in these matters. If there is
too big a crowd lie may not bo able to
secure a passage, or to get a proper
outfit, or be suecessful in transporting
it into the interior. Ho would better
not trust too much to luck nor depend
too much upon being able to travel in
the regular way. Certainly, so far as
the regular steamers are concerned,
tiieir berths will all be engaged weeks
in advance, and the man who neglects
to secure passage early may have to
wait a long time for his turn to come
around. Kven on the overland trains
there is promise of inconvenience, if not
delay. Ho great a rush, all in one di
rection, will tax the rolling stock of
the railroads to its utmost, since cars
will have to go back empty.
The lowest estimate of the number of
people who will start for Alaska next
spring is 50,000, while some who have
given the subject much attention place
the figure as high as 200,000. At an
average of iioo to each vessel, it would
require 170 steamers to convey the min
imum number, while OHO would be
necessary to accommodate the maxi
mum. To send 170 steamer* in the
months of February, Jlarch and ".pri
would make it necessary for twi.
tail each day. There is now advertise/
not ono quatrer the steamers neceasan
The others will no doubt be provided,
for there are numerous transportation
projects on foot, but nothing definite
about them can yet be said. This is
sufficient to show that the man who
intends to join the first great rush by
the way of the passes and lakes would
do well to make sure of his passage to
Dyea or Skaguay. As to the route by
the way of St. Michaels and the river,
that will not be open till June, and
extensive transportation projects now
under way will be sufficiently developed
long before that time to make it well
to postpone any estimates until later.
There are but two well known and
undeniably practical routes to the Yu
kon mines One is by the mountain
passes from Dyea and Skaguay to the
lakes and thence by boat down the lakes
and rivers, and the other is by ocean
steamer to St. Michaels and thence up
the liver by light draft steamer. All
other routes are yet to be proved, and
all who try them must expeot to meet
with the tribulations and uncertainties
that la}* in the path of the pioneer.
Undoubtedly the great majority of Yu
koners will try the passes, since the
mines can be reached in this way two
or three months earlier than by steam
er, and, of these the greater number
will go over the regular Yukon trail by
the way of Chilkoot pass, the next
greater number going from Skuguay over
the White pass.
It is well thoroughly to understand
this ryute and its variation ns to the
two passes. Linn canal, about 100
miles north of Juneau, penetrates a
number of miles northerly into the
coast mountains, the very head of it be
ing divided into two arms by a rooky
promontory. Into the easterly arm
flows Skuguay river and into the west
erly arm the Dyea river. Both are
rapid, ice-cold mountain streams, nav
igable for canoes only for several miles.
At the head of these arms are located
the new towns of Skaguay and Dyea.
From these points it is necessary to
cross the high mountain divide to
Lakes Lindonnann and Bennett, where
boats are constructed for the journey
down the river. Until the past season
the Yukoners have used the Cliilkoot
puss, ironi Dyea, exclusively, the Cliil
kat Indians packing all the supplies at
the usual rate of 15 cents a pound.
The route is 27 miles long, and the
summit of the pass is 8,200 feet high.
Tin) Indians have always refused to
pack by any other route, declaring this
to be the best one. Last Bummer, ow
ing to the great rush und the eager
ness of all to get over at any cost, the
Indians raised their price for packing,
until often as high as a dollar a pound
was paid them.. This, and the crowded
condition of the trail, led many to try
the Skaguay trail, which, though 41
miles long, was asserted to be better,
because the summit of the pass was
some 500 feet lower. It was found,
however, that the trail was not so good,
that the river had to be crossed several
times, and that, though the pass was
somewhat lower, the trail led up and
down hill so much that the actual
climbing done was greater than by the
Ciiilkoot pass, where the ascent was
gradual to the foot of the summit di
vide, when one very steep climb was
necessary. The practical result was
that a very much laiger percentage of
those who tried the Cliilkoot pass suc
ceeded in reaching the lakes, than of
those whoattempted th?Skaguay route.
Nevertheless, improvements are now
being made on both trails, and both
will be extensively used in the spring,
it being much easier to go in over the
snow, when the rocks and mud which
made the trails so difficult last fall are
covered up.
Tlieio are projected improvements
for both of those trails, in the nature
of railroads and tramways, but as yet
only Chilkoot pass shows anything tan
gible. A combined railroad and tram
way is under construction and is prom-
Bed to be completed by the first of Feb
ruary, for the taking of freight from
Dyo.i through to Lake Lindermann. The
probabilities are that this convenience
will be provided by that time, or
shortly thereafter. The company oper
ating it purposes to contract to carry
freight from Dyea to the lake at a price
much below what it would cost to pack
it over, and to handle it so promptly
that by the time the owner can walk
over the trail hli freight will get
through. With this tramway in opera
tion, and nothing similar on the Skag
uay trail, the Chilkoot pass would get
all the travel. There are, however,
(till other tramways and railroad pro
jects on both trails, but when they will
be ready for use is uncertain. At the
present time it would Mta u though
T" 1 th#
date the lir-t ' i! B '' t0 accoramo-
M-.reh , " 8h in February and
' , Ln t'l that time, there is aD-
C winl 'I 1 C ! ,oice "rail*
' ' xu ", t , er travel, and those who no in
kon i *"° m ° Ver the BIIOW a Yu ~
skeleton It T Q T Ty ' Thifi is a «rong
anv rwni and may he purchased at
any regular outfitting point. Manv
tCI hel P ( ' ra w sleds, but ail
,0t (1 ° thl » Kit is done, special
r,.N s„m must h 0 madu f or food for
tlie; animals.
After the lakes have been reached,
he remainder of the route is the same
foii both passes, consisting of about 550
nn.es o lake and river navigation to
Daw hoi. City, at the mouth of the
Klondike It is 50 miles further to
rorty-Mile, and Circle City is 800
miles down the river from Dawson.
J lie new town of Rampart City is still
about 000 miles further down the Yn-
_ at tlie mouth of Munook creek,
not far above the point where the
iannanah flows into the great river.
lliis entire lako and river journey is
made in strong boats, usually built out
of timber whipsawed by the Yukoners
on the banks of Lakes Linderinann or
Bennett. There is a small saw mill
there, but it is unable to cut enough
timber to till tlie demand. Doubtless
other mi 11a will be taken in as soon as
the tramway is completed, but miners
should not rely upon this, but should
take an outfit of tools and material for
building a boat, as well as oars and
rowlocks. Efforts to take in boats over
the pass last fall were unsuccessful,
even in sections. Though it might he
easier to do so over the enow, it is
doubtful if it would not consume as
much extra time and labor as the
building of a boat would require.
When the tramway is at work, special
ly constructed boats could no doubt he
taken in to advantage, and valuable
tin <«
— •••» >.i.'o»gli Lake Linder-
Wrtim, IJ nules, a '•"Vw Hen
ii.jlo: .'owe -hp lake, 34 miles;
tlirougn v... ' . t*» Lake Tag
isli, a miles; down the lake lu miles;
by river to Lake Marsh, « miles;
across the lake passing Windy Arm,
19 miles. Those who go in the win
ter and early spring can proceed to this
point by drawing their boats on sleds,
but there they must wait for the ice to
break up before proceeding down the
river in their boats, unless they intend
to go through light, dragging a sled
over the snow and ice. Twenty-five
miles below Lake Marsh is the dreaded
Miles canyon, and just below this
place are White Horse rapids. Both
of these places may be safely run in
the boat if the utmost care is exer
cised. Many boats have been wrecked
here and their contents lost, while sev
eral unfortunate men have been
drowned. No one should attempt these
difficult passages without first having
carefully studied the situation. Thirty
miles further down the river is Lake
Le Barge, !i0 miles long. Five Finger
rapids are 1(18 miles below this lake,
and Kink rapids are 3 miles further.
These are the last of the specially dan
gerous places, though care must ho ex
ercised during the entire journey.
As to other routes from the coast,
there are but three that have any
prominence, and none of them is as yet
sufficiently known to make it advisa
ble for the ordinary gold seeker to at
tempt them. One of them is the Dal
ton trail, leading noitherly over the
mountains just west of the Chilkoot
pass, and paralleling the lake and
river route for about UOO miles, finally
striking the Yukon below the most
dangerous rapids. It is claimed that
this is the best route for a railroad, but
it is yet to be shown how practicable
it is for general use. The government
will probably attempt to semi in a re
lief expedition by this route early in
the spring.
The Taku and the Stickeen routes,
one starting from Taku inlet, near Ju
neau, ami the other from the Stickeen
liver, near Wrangel, converge at Lake
Teslin. Small river steamers can nav
igate this lake and pass down the
llootalinqua river to the Yukon below
the rapids, and thus to Dawson and be
yond. It is claimed that such steam
ers will be built on the lake in the
spring, and that trails will bo opened
up to the lake and pack trains put on,
to be followed soon by railroads; but
until this is actually done the gold
seeker would do well not to intrust
himself to the uncertainties of those
Undoubtedly the most comfortable
and easy way to reach the Yukon mines
is bv steamer from one of the Pacilic
coast ports to the mouth of the Yukon,
at St. Michaels, and thence by light
river steamers up the stream, the dis
tance up the river being 1,422 miles to
Circle City, and 1,772 to Dawson City.
The trouble with this route is that the
river is navigable only three months in
the year, and then only by small river
steamers, because of frequent bars. The
ice breaks up about the 20th of June
and tonus again about the same time
in September. There are now several
steamers on the river belonging to the
Alaska Commercial Company and the
North American Transportation and
Trading Company, both of which have
trading posts on "the river, with head
quarters at St. Michaels, both com
panies are building several new vessels
tor next year's traffic.
The outlook for this route next sum
mer is that the number of steamers on
the river will be utterly inadequate to
accommodate the persons who will be
landed by thousands at St. Michaels by
steamers and sailing vessels, though
there are numerous projects on foot for
building steamers on the river in the
spring or towing them thither. As
every vessel on the river will probably
run in connection with some regular
an line, and as the pobabilities are
that the ocean liners will carry more
passengers and freight than the river
steamers can handle, it would seem as
though the only persons who will stand
any show of getting through to Dawson
by this route will be those who pur
chase through passage from the starting
point to their destination for them
selves and supplies. Those who pay
passage onlv to St. Michaels, or who
roach that point by independent steam
ers or vessels, will probably be unable
to proceed any further. Notwithstand
ing this promises to be the condition
of affairs next summer, there will
doubtless thousands of men take pass
age in all kinds of craft for St. Mich
aels, without providing means for get
ting beyond that point. Much disap
pointment Is in store for many on this

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