Newspaper Page Text
WHAT CHANCE HAS KAISER TO RULE ANEW? LITTLE, DEAR WORLD-BE NOT AFRAID WITH THE GERMAN REPUBLIC overthrown ** with monarchists leaders again in control backed bv many sympathizers and troops, is it likely that William Hohenzollern will step across from Hol land and again assume tho throne from which he skedaddled blithely little more than a year ago? Briefly, it is not. Should he attempt it, it is prob able the allies would impress upon his mind that the treaty of Versailles is something more meaningful to the world than the "mere scrap of paper" which bt made famous some years baek. But to say the German people are unwilling to see another kaiser on the job would be quite another thing. Looking baek into the history of Germany since the war ended are indications, plenty of them and strong, that Germany hankers for a king to kneel before. FIRST FEELERS FOR PEACE LOOKED UPON WITH SUSPICION It was with considerable suspicion that the allied world looked upon Germany's first feelers for peace s When Prince Max announced that the central powers were ready to pow #ow over President Wilson's 14 points not everybody was without surprise. Germany's sudden willingness to throw down the mon archy and become a democratic republic was. it was felt, a b* too sudden. But, despite suspicion, the republic came. Ebert became president and Noske minister of defense. And then there settled down upon Germany a reign of terror. Here and there bobbed up Sparticist uprisings. Blood flowed in the streets of many cities. Madness seemed 'to have taken hold. Murder, arson, plunder, robbery, black mail and assassination was the rule. MORE DETAILS OF THE GERMAN REVOLUTION as a violent reactionary and has opposed the Ebert govern ment since its inception. As head of the powerful Father land party, he wad considered an advocate for restoration «f the monarchy. NEW PRESIDENT IN CLOSE TOUCH WITH PAN-GERMANISTS Kapp has been reported as closely in touch with the activi ty of the pan-Germanist groups who have been backing Field Marshal Von JHindenburg for the presidency. Von Hindenburg was last reported as accepting the offer to become a candidate. Fall of the Et>ert government may be fraught with the most far-reaching consequences. Allied leaders have made •very effort to insure its security, publicly declaring that any change of government in Germany would be sure to —danger the treaty of Versailles. Ebert depended for support largely on the troop# of Goatave Noske, his minister of defense, who crushed the Spartacan and other radical outbreaks. While Noske had fall control over the reichswehr and volunteer troops, his Kold on the regular army was weak. OFFICERS OF KAISER HEAD REVOLT AGAINST EBERT The disaffection of this element, headed by officers who ntained, secretly at least, their allegiance to the former kaiser, probably forced Noske to give up his post without fighting. • Reports that the revolution was brewing have been cur rent for months. Pan-Germanists and monarchists recently have been gaining power. Revelations in the Erzberger-llelfferich trial weakened the confidence of the people in the Ebert government, and gave, the reactionaries an opportunity they did not miss to crystallize opinion against the government. Ebert always had been considered an interloper by the aristocrats of the old kaiserist regime. His lowly birth and Unconvincing personality have l>een held up to scorn time kand again by the military clique. hMIES FACE GRAVE PROBLEMS AS RESULT OF REVOLUTION The revolution will bring the allies face to face with these problems: Forcing the new government to adhere to the treaty of Versailles. B«curing stronger guarantees from Holland that the for mer kaiser, now interned in the Dutch nation, will be so guarded that there will be no opportunity for his return to Germany. Forcing the new government to adhere to the allied de cision to make Germany punish her own war guilty by trial before a German tribunal at Leipzig. Gen. Von Luttwitz, who was commander of the first reichswehr group and a lieutenant of Noske, apparently was guilty of complete deception of his chief. He was accused by De Freiheit yesterday of being implicated in the plot When It was first discovered by the government. Noske never has been accused of disloyalty to the Ebert gov ernment. Today's successful roup was the result of careful prepara tion both by propaganda among the masses and careful worfc among army officers by the reactionaries. Radical and industrial outbreaks gave them their first chance. At the time of the Spartacan outbreaks, when grave fears were felt in allied circles for the safety of the govern ment, the panVlermanists and monarchists did everything in their power to embarrass President Ebert. Noske, however, succeeded in bolstering up the strength of the administration by ruthlessly repressing each disturbance. The reactionaries found their next opportunity when the aDied demands for punishment of the German war guilty,i and lists of accused, were forwarded to Berlin. These lists brought a storm of indignation from every circle of German j Siinion. The Ebert government, in a series of notes, warned e allies that it could not—dare not—turn the accused overi to the allies for trial before entente military tribunals. The government practically told the allies that surrender of the accused Teutons—including many powerful figures in the old kaiserist clique—meant its downfall. Allied inves tigations bore out this statement and the premiers finally agreed that the accused might be tried before a German tribunal at Liepzig as the government had suggested. The reactionaries thruout Germany, however, had seized the opportunity to hurl charges at the government. Rally ing around Von Hindenburg, they declared, the accused never would be surrendered. Army and navy officers joined in ALLIES DECIDE TO SEND TWO COMMISSIONS TO RUSSIA PAitlS. March 11.—The Council of Um League of Nation* In vsKlon bar* adopted a reaolutlon to *end two commission* to Ruuta to In* Veatlgate affair* there. [' The flrwt aonil—loß. rcpreaentlng k th* League of asclualveljr. (Starts on Page One) will Include 10 member*, two of which will be appointed by the In ternatlonal labor bureau. Thin body will atudy general condition* In Ku» •la. Tlx: second comml**lon, headed by ▲UMrt Thomaa of France, head of Red flair* waved. Sailors' and worker*' councils assumed control over night, here and there. Noske, with his troops, smote down uprising after uprising. Soviets came and went in a day. The minister of defense, tho successful in every combat, apparently foresaw eventual disaster when, in the spring of 1919, he said: "The government of Germany is but an empty shell." That spring was a season of wildest disorder. Strikes and bloodshed early in March followed proposals for socializa tion of industries. Industrial and soviet bodies had demand ed a government of Bolshevism. In time the soviet* collapsed, but the struggle had only begun. "PURE SOVIET GOVERNMENT* FORMED AND AS QUICKLY SMASHED On January 19 the Sparticists had attacked the govern ment and faded. Eisner was killed at Munich and it was here that the "mire soviet government" was declared and as quickly smashed. The climax came on March 1. A monster meeting was l>eing held for some unknown cause. Such gatherings were common. Into the meeting suddenly rushed six men at tired as workmen. They kicked a speaker off the platform and announced that the general strike for Germany was on. They werei not questioned. Informed that there was nothing to do, the meeting turned into a dance. While the gaiety was at its height Noske declared a state of siege and issued an ultimatum forbidding open air meetings and setting up courts martial to handle cases of treason, murder and other crimes. Meanwhile, the people "in between" said little and appar ently thought much. They suffered, too. Men, women and children collapsed during the general strike, brief as it was, from want of food. Towards the end of the week the insane element proposed KICKED OUT! l - oaths to prevent surrender by force. When the premiers finally decided to niter their demands the hold of the Ebert government had been weakened and a great wave of monarchist movement was sweeping over Germany. The Ebert government, continued to fight and not until the Erzberger-Helfferich dispute did it become apparent that Ihe government was in grave danger. The attack of Otwig Von Hirschfeld. a young student and former army lieutenant, upon Erzl>erger, then minister of finance, was one of the straws showing the trend of sympathy. Von Hirschfeld shot Erzberger as he was leaving the reich ftag, after the session of the trial. He said he did it for the good of Germany, and because he believed Erzberger was a "British sympathizer." This Incident was followed by the resignation of Erzber ger, who had been under fire for alleged use of his public Post for, private gain. At the time he resigned, newspapers of the reactionary group attacked the entire Ebert admin istration bitterly. It was apparent, correspondents wrote, that the government had been weakened. Monarchists and pan-Germanists had mnde the most of these opportunities. They worked apparently to secure firm hold of the army. The support of the military leaders prob ably was what enabled the revolutionary coup to be carried out with the apparent ease indicated by dispatches. the International bureau, will *tudy condition* In Fluwala from th* view point of labor The council ndopted Arthur Bal four'* rraoltitlon to up point a league of Nation* health committee to atudy condition* In I'olund and prepare a TITE SEATTLE STAR—SATTTRDAY, MARCH in. 1020. Fricdrich Ebert report recommending method* to atop the epidemic of typhi)* there. Thla report will lie preaented to tha International hygiene oonforeno*. to bo held in London next month. Another meeting of tha league eitunell will ha held In Pari* before the Rom* meeting. to shut off Ilerlin's gas and water supply. It was the last straw. The people rose up. They called themselves mod erates, took hold of the situation and ended the strike on March 8. Hut the extremists, maddened, continued a bloody conflict for several days in which innocents were shot down in cold blood and crimes of every description committed. FORMER KAISER ASSAILED FOR NOT FIGHTING TILL HE WAS SHOT About this time fhose "in between," recalling the days of peace and plenty before the war, remembered their former kaiser and heaped upon him a torrent of abuse, branding him as an arrant cownrd for not standing in the field resisting the enemy until he was ihot down. Hohenzollern, safe at Amerongwn castle, across the border, gave out a statement: '"Hie German people will never turn Ilolshevik U-cause they like to work." v As they hated Bolshevism they were beginning, too, to discern in the new republican government its many weak nesses. Noske's statement that it was a "mere shell" seemed to hold little assurance for them and their future prosperity, whether they worked or not. A group of sentimental women al>out this time protested against the promised trial of the ex-kaiser by the allies. But what might have started a movement of sympathy in his behalf was quickly cjua-shcd by the declaration of a noted medical man: "Place him under the observation of specialists in mental diseases and he probaldy never will l>e tried." There were still red flags flying in many parts of the re public. There were red troops standing—or. to be more exact | —leaning, sentry. They didn't shave. There was nothing suggestive of the soldier in their bearing, except that they Icarried guns and wore bulging cartridge belts. Inside guarded buildings, the workers' and soldiers' coun COMING BACK? Wilhclm Hohenzollern WHAT WILL IT MEAN? PUBLIC IS CONFUSED What will It mean? This In the attention on the Up* of, it eonfuncd populace Saturday. when 1 extra edition* told of the ov*rthrow of tlu* Kbert government In Germany by reactionaries % Meager wire report* filed In Her llo lata Friday nlicht hud Announced that ii revolutionary plot hud been uncovered and that eecurtty force* and relchnwehr had been confined to barrack* In roadlnena for enivrfcncy. SPAIN BLAMED FOR e COUP REPORT IN PORTUGAL II) Mil .TON IIIUINNRR LONDON, March I*. Report* that the Portuguese government haa fUlen Into llulahevlk handa are In terpreted liar* aa a bold (tap of Hpuniah propaganda to diacredlt u historical rival. The Hpanlah preaa haa for aome time conducted a campaign aaaall iiitf Portugal'* ability lu conduct her Von Kapp, barker of Hindenburg for president of Germany, had been ordered orreated, the lnt* report* *uid. But there waa little Indication that th«* crafty plotters had any chance for micceaa Hut when new* wire* opened in Se attle for the day Saturday, the fir«t flanh aent arrow* the continent told of the overthrow of Ihe Kbert regime. Then flowed u contlnulua recital of huppeninga in Berlin. own affair* Portugueae parliamen tary louder* charge that Spain la aeeking to Influanre the Ix-ugue of Natlona ao that Hpaln will be grant ed a inundate over Portugal. To the Portugueae republican* aurh a alttiatlon would hi- unthink able. Portugueae monarchist*. many of them refugeea in Hpaln, are raid to be financing and maturing much cils met and talked—end talked themselves to death. The principal point of discussion was wh&t to do with Germany'? money. Various schemes were offered, and discarded. One problem is said to have been argued for six days. COMMITTEE OPERATES BI T LETS EHERT GOVERNMENT M GO TO IT" Meanwhile, a committee was busy helping run the govern ment. Supposedly the committee was a part of the soldiers' and workers' council without authority. Ac tually, it made its own rules and did as was deemed best. It did not interfere with the Ebert government, ran things fairly smoothly, and when the council had talked itself into a state of collapse, it found it had no power. The German people abhorred waste too much to allow amateurs to run their cities. Th« strike, it wa.s finally found, had ceased to terrorize the pri vate capitalist, and was becoming the cur.se of socialism. . and thus the strike fever died. | TimoroiMy the ex-kaiser cried out: "I wouldn't go back to Germany, if I might." Nobody pressed him to reconsider. But not everybody was sure that Germany, one day, would not return to the monarchistic form of government that has now been re stored. Early in the spring of 1919 the World's Work, in a spe cial article written by an authority on world politics, said: "Will Germany ko back to the idea of the imperial state with a court and emperor? Hardly; the several royalist movements have met with little success. But at the same time a democracy doesn't satisfy. It would look as tho something in the way of a paradox might fulfill the needs —something in the way of a constitutional dictatorship. For the Germans have only a contemplative love for de mocracy." Is the new monarchy to stay? Perhaps. MONARCHISTS ISSUE WORD OF NEW POWER HASLE, March 13.—Unconfirmed dispatches from Berlin today report the monarchists had completely occupied the German capital. Dr. Kapp, the new chancellor, it was said, had issued a decree dissolving the constituent assembly and announcing that new elections will be held as Boon as conditions permit. Former President Ebert was said to have fled from Berlin. The monarchists are controlling all the public building, in cluding the telegraph offices, the advices asserts. A proclamation, signed by Kapp and General Luttwitz, stated: "The former government has ceased to exist. "Entire authority has passed into the hands of Director Kapp from Koenigsburg. "1 he new government chancellor is forming a government of order, liberty and action." The Prussian diet has been dissolved. Kapp is >aid to be a notorious monarchist. News from the provinces indicates that calm prevails everywhere in Germany, and that a majority of the people approve the counter revolution. GERMAN TROOPS FAIL TO HEED EBERT ORDER LONDON, March 18.—A Berlin dispatch says that new» of the approach of the revolutionary forces became known in the German capital at midnight. Baltic troops accompanied the marine brigade, which moved toward the city from Ddebritz (10 miles west of Berlin). When news of the approach of the hostile forces reached Berlin, Generals Olderhausen and Von Oven and Lieutenant Colonel Wetzel left the city and met the troops, warning them of the consequences of their action. The troops continued their march, however. Soon after they had rcached the city their leaders issued a proclama tion declaring the government had ceased to exist. Ebert's oefense minister, Herr Noske, retaliated by calling on the workers to declare a general strike. » The revolutionary forces reached the Tiergarten railway station at 5 a. in. Their proclamation named Von Kapp as imperial chancellor and Prussian premier. EBERT AND HIS WIFE FLEE IN AUTOMOBILE LONDON", March 13.—A Berlin dispatch reports that the western part of the city has been occupied by the revolu tionists. The eastern part of the city, the dispatch said, including government buildings, is held by loyal republicans. A Berlin dispatch says that the Lokal Anzeigty, in an ex tra edition, reports that the Ebert government, after refusinf to accede to the ultimatum of the revolutionists, fled in auto mobiles. President Ebert and his wife left Berlin at 5 a. m., thjL newspaper x said. Chancellor Kapp dissolved the Prussian assembly this morning. The newspaper said the city was quiet and traffic normal. Detachments of soldiers were patrolling the Wilhelmstrasse and stationed about the Hotel Adlon, headquarters for the various foreign missions. Star extra edition* wero first to roach the atreeta with the new*. At the public library renewed In (areat in German affair* wan imme diately reflected by requeata for reference work* describing condition® alnce Kbert became president. German-born citliena. who have re of the agitation Republican Hpanlah newspaper* atrrnglhened thla explanation b> de manding an Inveatlgatlon of the In trigue* of Portugueae inunaichlata aettled In Hpanlah (lallcla. Portugal hae been having trouble. Strikea. high coat of living :ind a governmental deficit of 911ft.000.000 are uinung the UUilu of the republic. celved Gorman papers regularly for the last year. In some instances wild they were not surprised. There was, however, a rather general local opin ion In these rlrcle.« that the follow ers of the old regime would never be able to overthrow their more democratic successors In iniwer. The new ro&litton government, born amid riots and hints of revolution, W reactionary. Concessions, in the form of eight hour day pledges and the national isation of certain enterprises hav<4 been made. tfl Chicago has a new type of motor bus with a covered upper deok M tnoly enclosed with (laaa.