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Scandinavian American. [volume] (Seattle, Wash.) 1945-1958, April 19, 1951, Image 6

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Introducing, Scandinavia
Who‘s Who In Denmark
Brande-s. Georg (b. 1842). Liter~
ary critic. From the University
of Copenhagen he received in 1870
me doctor degree with his thesis
“Contempm‘aneous French Aesthe
Travels abroad. lasting the
printer part of 2 years. took him
to Paris, London and Rome and
brought him into touch with mod
ern Europe. He now set himself
the task “to open the doors from
within" for the progressive ideas
of the times. His lectures at the
I'niursity about “Principal Cur
rent< in the Literature of the. 19th
Century" caused an enormous sen
sation, enthusiasm among the
Youth, contradiction and resent
ment among the older generation.
His adversaries succeeded in pre
venting his appointment to a pro
fessorial chair. whereupon Brandesi
left the country and established
himself in Berlin. From private
quarters he was offered a subsidy
equal to the stipend of a profes
sor: he now returned home. and
his studies during the following
years concentrate more and more
on great individual personalities.
"Shakespeare." “Goethe", “Vol
tairo" and “Caesar.“
George Brandes’ importance has‘
been always much disputed. but oil
his influence there can be no‘
doubt. partly in the cultural sense
as an awakener of his contempor
aries and as a “turner of tides,"
partly and not least. as the always
alert intermediary between Eu
rope and Denmark.
it t it
Thomson. Vllhelm (1842-1927).
Linguist. Already as a school-boy
he was intensely interested in for
eign languages and, for instance,
learned without external help Fin
nish. Icelandic and Spanish. and
later even Arabic and Sanskrit. At
the University he studied Latin
and Greek, but besides he read
and studied as much of foreign
languages as he could possibly
manage W Turkish, Lycian. Dravi
dian. Khezvarian and many oth
esrs. His proper field is compara
live and historic philology. and
his (apital Work. the deciphering
in 1‘93 of the so-called Orkhon in
scriptions which had so far defied
all attempts of reading. By this
interpretation and deciphering of
certain Old-Turkish inscriptions
tron: Mongolia and South Siberia
he obtained an achievement reCk-‘
oned among the greatest in the
histc ry of philology.
Boeflding. Harald HMS-19313.1
Philcsopher Born in a well-to-do
fang: Si'ldk’if dn'inity but the
read-:2 of the works of Soeren
KreZ—zegaard ape—red his eyes for
the 'r’vntrasts between primitive
chnsnazsy and nae—tr: theology:
he br'ke 211': the latter and turn
e-i tr ;1':;}«:.s:»;-:y
Ozzaznei ‘r..s éc-cvtr‘s degree in
1570 with the treatise on “Ant!-
quzty's Conception of Human W'ill".
\Vith his two Works. 'The Philos
ophy at Germany after Hegel? and
"Contemporary English Philoso
phy.‘ he expounded his own phil~
osophy as a grandiose doctrine of
syntheticmm intended to assumi
ate the whole of empxristic scxence
without ever giving experience
dogmatic conclusion. but on an
idealistic bests. In a little book
"On the Basis of Human Ethics“
he subsequently tor'muhted a de
mand for a moral code Without
any religious basis. In 1883 he
was appointed to the chair of
philosophy. and figured now as the
pioneer of the mode of thinking
of an entirely new epoch. as is
clearly and distinctly shown by
works like “Ethics." "Philosophy
of Religion." "Human Thought. its
Forms and Problems." and several
Foreigners In Norway
A total of 532,000 foreigners
visited Norway in 1950. compared
with 390.000 in 1949. 360,000 in
1948. and only 239.000 in 1939.
List year's figure includes 15.750
”to" {mm U8. and M.
Sweden‘s shipbuilding industry
offers one of the most striking
examples of the country‘s techni
cal and industrial progress. Dur
ing the 121st three decades it has
developed into one of the country's
major industries. whose products
are known all over the world for‘
their high quality. Even quanti
tatively the Swedish shipyards to
day hold a significant position in
the international scene.
At the end of the First World
War. the commercial tonnage
launched in Sweden amounted to
50.000 gross tons annually, or less
than one per cent of the world
output. During the 19305. Swe
den's share in world production
rose to an average of 7 per cent.
and since the Second World War
it has been about 10 per cent. or
even somewhat more. In 1939.
Swedish production of new ton
nage reached its highest prewar
figure, about 200.000 gross tons.
After the inevitable setback dur
ing the war production again ex
panded considerably, reaching
about 325.000 gross tons in 1949
and about 350.000 tons in 1950.
Sweden thus. at least temporarily.
moved into third place among the
shipbuilding nations. behind Great
Britain and the United States.
Although there has been some
falling-off in new orders, particul
arly on the part of Norway. orders
on hand at the Swedish shipyards
are sufficient to keep them em
ployed for about two years to
come, Early in 1951. 68 ships rep
resenting about 325,000 gross tons
were under construction, while an
1additional 103 vessels represent
ling approximately 690,000 tons
iwere on the order books. 0f total
i orders on hand, nearly 40 per cent
‘were from Norwegian owners. It
‘was during the 19303 that Sweden
started exporting ships on a large
scale. and an average of about 58
per cent of its production was
sold abroad. In 1949. no less than
nearly 75 per cent of Swedish
shipping production was exported.
As a rule. Sweden exports a great-1
er part of its shipping output than
any other nation, and during the}
last few years its share in total
world exports of ships has been‘
about 10 per cent. While Norway.
is by far the most important for
eign buyer. ships are also export
ed to Denmark, France, Greece,
Holland. Portugal and South Am
erica. and recently the United~
States has appeared as a custom-l
The expansion of the Swedish
shipbuilding industry has also en
abled Sweden itself to rebuild and
modernize its merchant marine.
During the Second World War
Sweden lost 37 per cent of its ton
nage, but today its merchant
fleet is 33 per cent larger than
at the outbreak of war in 1939.
It numbers about 2.200 ships. ag
gregating approximately 2.135.000
gross tons.
Although the Swedish ship
yards are highly dependent upon
imports of steel plate and a cer
tain amount of ship's fittings and
their labor costs are relatively
high. they obviously have been
able to hold their own in interna
tional'competition. With few if
any 9 x c e p t i o n s, Swedish-built
amp: today actually are cheap
er than those of my other coun—
try. Economies effected by mod
emiution And the application of
prefabricating and mass-produc
tion techniques have made thi
possible. Since the end of th”
19309 the production capacity of
the Swedish shipbuilding industry
has been nearly doubled. while the
total of man-hours in the industry
has increased by only 60 per ant.
' Frontk-r Mother. The letters of
‘Gro Svendaen. Translated and
edited by Pauline anth and
Theodore C. Blegen. Mid 1901
'Century Norweginn immigrantlile
jin Iowa. Price 82.50. Norwegm
‘Annricnn Marie.) All... North
lfleld, mm
Housing Program
After almost 14 days of debate,
at times very heated. the Nor
wegian Parliament has unanimous
ly approved a majority report re
commending the construction of
at least 18.000 dwellings this year.
Two minority reports. one of which
would have raised the target to
25,000 units, were rejected.
‘As approved by the Parliament.
the Government is urged (1) to
continue the compilation of reliable
data on the need for new housing.
(2) to support research and ra
tionalization within the building
industry, (3) to stimulate self-con
struction by exempting from ra
tioning the' use of lumber cut
outside working hours, (4). to urge
Municipalities to change building
codes with a view to permit the
use of lumber-saving construction
Despite the fact that about 77,-
750 dwelling units have been built
in Norway since the end of World
War II, there is still an acute
housing shortage in all parts of the
country. All told, 22,000 dwellings
were destroyed during the war. in
cluding 12,000 burned by the Ger
mans when they forcibly evacu
ated 50,000 people from the north
ern provinces. In addition. the war
time ban on new housing left Nor
way 70-80,000 units in arrears. At
the same time. the marriage rate
of the 19405 has been as much
as 30% higher than during the'
1930‘s. Furthermore, the industrial
reconstruction program has made
tremendous demands on the na
tion's resources of building ma
terials and manpower. and of late.
Norway's defense preparations
have made it necessary to hold
the h o u s i n g program within
To assure a rational distribution
among the various projects and to
prevent over-extension, the Parlia
ment has deemed it necessary to
control building activities.
Controlled Private Initiative
In contrast to the practice in
the United States. there are no
public housing projects in Nor
way. The Norwegian system
might be described as one of pri
vate initiative, publicly subsidized
and controlled. 85% of all new
housing is built by home owners
themselves or by real estate op
erators, and 159; by cooperatives.
Most of the home financing in
towns is done by the State-owned
Housing Bank. established in 1946.
which also assures low rents
through State and municipal sub
sidies. In rural areas, home con
struction is financed by the Small
holding and Dwelling Bank.
A radically new departure in the
financing methods of the Housing
Bank is that the applicant's abil
ity to pay a given rent is used
as the basis for the calculation of
loans and subsidies. The policy is
that the rent for a house or apart
ment consisting of 3 rooms and
kitchen should not exceed 20% of
the average income within a par
ticular district. The capital rate
able with such a rent, the “rate
able value." forms the basis on
which the size of the loan to be
granted is stipulated. ‘L'uu‘er this
practice. housing loans may be as
high as 85-90% of the rateable
value. The interest payable on
Housing Bank loans is only 259:.
The other principal agency for
Norwegian housing policy is the
Housing Directorate. which co
operates intimately with the Hous
ing Bank, especially in attempting
to improve building standards.
The Directorate prescribes re
quired standards for homes en
title to Housing Bank loans. and
the Bank makes sure that the
blue-prints are examined and ap
proved by the district architects
of the Housing Directorate before
any loan is granted. Thus. the
district architects serve as advis
ers to the Housing Bonk. though
administratively they come under
the Directorate.
The Degeneration of the Smiirga‘isbord
The Scandinavian women must
have known a long time ago that
“the way to a man's heart goes
through his stomach." They start
ed stuffing potbel-l‘les all the way
back in the earliest days of the
Vikings and kept pumping up the
blood pressure for days at a time.
Such feasts were the origin of the
Smorgasbord. the biggest single
contribution to indigestion since
Adam munched on that old appie
and no decent Christian has been
able to digest that sin ever since.
t I! i
The name smorgasbord implies
sandwiches. That supposedly was
the base of the modern pyramid.
now building up to ever dizzier
heights. Now, in most smorgas
bords, you're lucky if you find a
sandwich. Recently at a Parisian
exhibition. we are told. a smb‘rgés
bord consisted of 150 dishes, It re
quired such a large table that peo
ple couldn‘t even reach half ways
to the center, leaving them to
taste only the outer fringes. no
It I: It-
My first contact with the
smorgasbord was in one of our
small towns when I was a boy. It
was a regular and unique business
operation in the town. but the de
pression made quite a spectacm
out of it. Loading up for weeks
ahead. unemployed and bums had
a field day.‘ Maybe it helped re.
lieve public soup kitchens. save
taxpayers’ dough.
It: It It!
Later while in Seandinafla I
learned something about the busi
ness of going about the smorgas.
bord. You went about it in about
the same way the first living cells
progressed through evolution.
First empty the sea of all its
salty creatures. only leaving such
skookum monsters as whales.
sharks. sea lions alone, but cer
tainly not crawt‘ish, Then, swell
ing with a lusty appetite. emerge
upon land and devour virtually ev
ery living four-footed creature in
sight. even down to the last pig
feet, and even horse meat, yes.
that's on smérgdsbords over there.
i t It
Then. in between. as you like it.
you start “cultivating." much as
the human animal began cultivat
ing vegetable life. This leads to a
levelling-off process with fruits
and desserts. to be topped off
Agreement On
Atomic Study
Norway and the Netherlands
have signed an important agree
ment calling for collaboration on
atomic research for peaceful pur
poses. Negotiated by scientists of
the two nations, the agreement
provides that the Netherlands will
furnish adequate supplies of ur
anium ‘for production of radioac
tive isotopes at the nearly com
pleted Norwegian uranium reactor
at Kjeller. Norway. on her part.
will deliver heavy water needed by
Dutch scientists for non-military
nuclear research. Also under the
atreement. Dutch nuclear physicts
will be permitted to work at
A group of Dutch scientists are
scheduled to arrive in Oslo on
April 12 to assist in the estab
lishment of a six-man commission
on atomic research. consisting of
three Norwegians and three Neth
Marine Technical chuonnry —
Norweghn-Engllsh. by Per Ankin.
219- pazu. Pflce: N. Kr. {336. J.
W. Cappelon, Oslo. Norway. -
with coffee and exquisite pastries
and cookies, at least seven differ
ent kinds. To add to the test of
endurance spoons will clamor
against cups. announcing a veri
table barrage of speakers, provid
ed the affair is formal. Many of
them welcome an opportunity to
clear their clogged throats. To en
liven things liquor and nuts are
brought in. both making you equal
ly nutty, (if it isn't too formal»
and from 'then on it’s anybody‘s
show. If it is Valpurgis night, the
celebration of spring. you are apt
to dance the schottis to beat the
it it t
This evolutionary approach,
seemingly recapitulating the whole
historic process of our digestive
organs. leaves you with an ache
similar to the laborious pains in
volved in the struggle for survival.
which touched off evolution in the
first place. For days afterward,
all the herrings. pigs, chickens.
horses, cows. crawfish and what
have you. may disagree with each
other inside you until your digest
ive machinery succeeds in liquidat
ing them.
II t it
I‘ve seen the smittgdsbord de
generate over there through over
emphasis on quantity. although
quality and authenticity is upheld.
But in America I have seen it de
generate (not by professional res
taurateurs or conorsseurs especial
ly) not only by a preposterous,
stupendous. super-colosgal assort
ment of towering mountains of
dishes. but also and mostly by the
sickening degeneration of quality.
in which anything is thrown in
and labeled smbrgAsbord. Phew!
‘ O I"
Recently the Jackson street com
munity in Seattle put on a huge
smb’rgfisbord. overflowing lavishly
with an enormous mixture of Chi
ncse and Latin dishes. No doubt.
everyone had a good time.
I protest.
C t I
“'e true friends of the purifica
tion of the smiirgésbord, the pre
servation of the authentic delica
tessens of our great noble Viking
forefathers. whose illustrious tra
ditions we so proudly cherish. must
stick together in this crisis and
preserve the dignity of that most
honored Scandinavian contribution
to the American way of life, th‘
smbrgAsbord. SkAl!
000,000 Swedish
Workers Reached
New Agreements
STOCKHOLM. «- Fin 8! agree
ments have now been signed for
111th 800.000 workers. or two
thirds of the members of the
Swedish Federation of Labor
Wage increases average fifteen to
sixteen per cent. The two largest
groups for which new agreements
have not yet been reached are the
building industry workers and the
municipal employees.
Strikes among the municipal
workers in Gothenbtirg. Malmo.
Hlisingborg. and Norrkbping still
paralyse streetcar and bus service"
in those cities. In Stockholm. three
hundred workers in certain key
jobs went on strike after the
Enter holidayl. which hdted the
luppiy oi‘ meot to the capitol. ren
dered the Itreet cleming diffi
cult, and left the pier: without
cnne machinists. The cool situa
tion in becoming serious. In Goth
enburg. the entire tom of 280
tem madam-u med . wildcat

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