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W. M. HAYS.
There are three cardinal themes which appeal to the interest—the self interest—of the farmer: Crops, hogs and cattle. Anything which relates di rectly to any of these vital topics is Bure to command the willing ear of the man of the soil. It is not strange, therefore, that the professional swind ler who makes a business of cheating the farmer has recognized this fact and made the most of it For many years the "improved seed" swindle has been one of the most suc cessful and is taking hundreds of thou sands of dollars from the pockets of the farmers. Besides taking money for somethiiig worthless or next to worthless—it does the direct damage of planting hundreds of fields with seed inferior in germinat ing power or lacking in value per acre of the crop and of undermining pop ular confidence in the practical value of progressive work done by the agri cultural departments of the national and state governments—for too often the seed swindlers claim an endorse ment by some department or some person conrected therewith. There is not an agricultural department which has not placed the emphasis of its message to the farmer upon the great gain in results to be had from the careful selection of seed—whether in corn, in the smaller grains, in cotton or in grasses, clovers and the forage crops. There are few, if any, lines of recent experiment and research along which such immense and significant progress has been made by the agri cultural scientists as in Ihe matter of seed breeding improving standard varieties and making new varieties. In this one particular the work of the national and state experiment stations has made a new chapter In the agri cultural history of this country and has worked a potential revolution In productiveness of the tillable acres of the United States. The men actually in charge of theBe experiments are so much the best, safest and most disinterested authori ties on the new varieties of field, or chard and garden crops worthy of pur chase, that their advice should be sought. Since their salaries are paid by the nation and states, part of their recognized work la to give Informa tion, and nowhere in the world is there a body of men more courteous or ready to be useful to those for whom they work—the American farm er. They will nearly always advlBe farmers to secure standard seeds, trees and plants already used in the neighborhood, or If new kinds are to be chosen these men will advise which of many new candidates for favor they should risk on their high priced lands instead of kinds known to give good crops. In the light of four years later a man who would grossly overstate the prospective yields of a "billion-dollar grass," not only securing the farmer's money, but inducing him to plant his land to a crop less productive of value than the crop he would otherwise con tinue to grow, la a businesa pirate. The experiment stations and state and United States departments of ag riculture, state horticulture societies, field crop breeders' societies, the American Breeders' association, and similar organizations, are rapidly de veloping the testing of standard, new ly introduced and newly bred varie ties, so that they are able to advise farmers which varieties to use In their regular businesa planting and which are valuable to experiment with In a small way. The tree agent who Induced the pio neer farmer to purchase from large fruit pictures orchard trees in which the family long hoped, but which cumbered the ground until the pio neer mother had brought up her fam ily and had gone to her reward, has a mighty black spot in his record of deeds done. The seed firm which sold my friend Clark Red top seed in which Kentucky blue grass seed was mixed for a permanent hay meadow* far north, made well nigh worthless large areas of peaty land situated where it could not be pastured, but would have permanently produced fine crops of timothy. The dealer was criminally Ignorant, because he was asked for seed for a specific purpose, and he put In the blue grass, which grows too short to mow for hay, but crowds out the variety suited to cut for hay. FLEECING THE FARMER The "Improved Seed" Swindle, the "Cholera Cure" Fakir, the "Finishing" of Cattle Fraud and Other Low Schemes Employed to Separate the Agriculturist from- His Hard Earned Cash. By W. M. HAYS, Assistant Secretary U. S. Department of Agriculture The man who sold Burbank pluma In a region so cold that they could not stand the severe winters is more guil-1 ty than the man who steals your purse. He gets a paltry $2 each for trees that would have been valuable. elsewhere, but for this small consider ation he robs the farmer of his time, his land, of his opportunity to use hardy plum trees, and even robs him and his neighbors of their faith in the possibilities of a family plum lot. I Our experiment station and depart-! ment plant men are rapidly learning the seed and plant variety business. They are not only learning how to create new values by breeding, but they are learning how to distribute new stocks of seeds and plants. They are organizing the testing of varieties, so that few mistakes need be made. They are coming to insist for them selves, for the domestic seedsman and nursery man and for the foreign seed house that the varieties must be tested within each state before they will endorse them. Seed vendors are gradually coming to see that they must get into line with the efficient and vigorous public seed service, and that they must sell only seeds which will produce wealth. A general label ing law is being talked of, and this would make it dangerous to sell two varieties out of the same bin of seeds, or sell trees under their wrong name as it would prevent the clothing dealer from selling as all wool cloth ing two-thirds cotton and one-third wool. Now the seed or tree swindlers en deavor to convert all the newly cre ated sentiment arising from the work of the plant scientists for careful seed selection into grist for their mill. As most of their representations are made by personal solicitors, they are able to claim "department" endorsement with a freedom and recklessness which they would, per haps, not use in printed matter sent through the mails—although they do not hesitate so to construct their letters and circulars as to deceive. Whether the claims of these swind lers are made personally or by mail, as in some of the most exaggerated seed catalogues, the intent and the result in most cases is the same. The expectations of the ambitious and progressive farmer are raised to the point of exaggeration. He Is con vinced that by planting or by sowing the seed offered by the fake concern he will multiply his crop production that his richest acres will greatly in crease their previous production and that his poorest land, with pedigreed seed, will break the record of his choicest fields in corn, oats, barley, rye or cotton, and the forage crops, from his wet lands will give him tons of nutritious fodder. Of course seed which will perform such miracles of production naturally comes high in price—these swindlers are too shrewd to charge an ordinary price for seed carrying claims so high as theirs. In some instances the price is double that which the farmer would pay for bonaflde, purebred, standard varieties, the yield of which has been tested by experiment stations, while in other cases four, and even six, times the normal price Is charged. Now as to the results: They are disappointing. Now and then the yield is fair as from ordinary seed, but seldom does it exceed that limit. More frequently it falls below that standard. The reason for this has been discover ed by a few farmers, who have had enough of the true spirit of progress to dig into the history of the seeds for which they paid so fancy a price. Here iB what they found: The "great propagating concern" is without the acres of land devoted to the raising of Beeds so eloquently pictured by the agent the "scientific specialists" claimed to be in the employ of the concern dwindle into a corps of young men who draw salaries of $50 to $60 a month and their "scientific labors" consist of traveling from one place to another and buying corn, wheat and other grains direct from the farmers in remote locations from the region in which the grains are expected to be sold for seeding. These grains may be shipped to a dummy firm having the address of the warehouses of the seed company. There this common product of un known fields is nicely cleaned, re sacked into presentable packages and sold to the farmers as the choicest of selected seeds. There are many good seed mer chants, some of whom grow much of their own seeds or contract for them before harvest, superintend their har vesting, curing, grading and storing, and send them out only after their vi ability or ability to germinate is de termined by trial. These men multi ply the best plant blood as pure bred live stock men multiply standard breeds, that all growers may secure properly grown seeds and plants of the most profitable varieties. They are ever ready to take those tested, and the newly bred and tested seed.i and plants secured or created by the experiment stations and departments of agriculture, and rapidly multiply them for sale at pure-bred seed prices. And they are rapidly making of their institutions both clearing houses ol seed information and places where originate much of the new values in plant blood. One of the greatest sources of profit to the farmer of the corn belt is the fattening of hogs. Corn converted into pork on the land of the farmer Is generally believed to be the most profitable corn he can raise. But there is one serious drawback to this method of converting corn Into an extra profit, and this is the hog chol era, For years the agricultural de partments of the nation and the states have been patiently and persistently conducting elaborate experiments in the prevention and the cure of this plague. The results accomplished have in many instances been most encour aging and the results of the experi ments have been placed before- the farmers of the country through bul letins and other avenues of publica tion. As a result of this educative work the farmers have grasped the idea that hog cholera cannot only be prevented, but also cured. This con viction is all the groundwork the "cholera-cure" fakir needs for his business. All the careful and quali fied work of honest and scientific spe cialists in this branch of agriculture is perverted into preparation for the success of the swindler when he finds a man whose knowledge of facts is practically restricted to the convic tion that this swine plague is not be yond the reach of scientific treatment. Consequently "swine disease special ists swarm like buzzards in every big hog raising district where the cholera obtains a start—and there are few, If any, localities largely given to the raising of swino where, sooner or later, this plague does not appear. This information as to where the dis ease is prevalent is easily obtainable by the hog-cure swindlers from a sys tematic reading of the farm journals and agricultural papers. One of the first claims generally put forward by the swine specialist when he comes in contact with a farmer whose herd is afflicted with the cholera is that his remedy has the indorsement of the agricultural department. He sells the remedy at a high price and if the plague is general in the locality he finds it easy to depart with hundreds of dollars in his pocket as a result of a few days' work. Of course some hogs which are given the remedy recover—in spite of it—and such cases are made the most of in testimonials. Analysis shows that the remedies are usually compounded after some in genious and worthless formula as the following: "Coal oil—one gallon. "Saltpeter—two pounds. 'N "Sulphur—two pounds. "Assafetida—two pounds. "Tobacco stems—two pounds. "Boil the last four ingredients in water, and then add the coal oil. Drench each sick hog with a pint of the liquor." Some omit the coal oil—perhaps by way of variety. The result is the same, for the hogs really affected by the cholera die, and the "swine spe cialist" has the farmer's money. Some of the serums being devised may prove effective, at least in mak ing the campaign sooner or later to be made to eradicate hog cholera from the country, as the federal and state governments are now eradicating the "cattle tick" and the Texas fever. But the thousand and one inter nal remedies are quackery, and when a farmer vses a serum he should get it only of reputable concerns or of public departments. The feeding or "finishing" of cattle is another profitable specialty of thej corn belt farmer." To take a rough steer from the pasture or range and1 put him in fat and sleek condition in! the minimum of time and the mini mum of expense for feed is a veryi vital problem to the "feeding" farmer/ So it is to the nation at large, and therefore the research departments of! agriculture have given much effort to. the practical solution of that problem.' The "balanced ration" idea was once widely exploited by the scientists,! though now not regarded so important as formerly. Latterly reasonably welli balanced rations of those conyuon grains and rough and green forage foods have been shown to be the real profitable feeding stuffs. And nothing Is clearer in American feeding experi-, ments than that adding so called stock* foods with their minimum of well nigh useless minimum amount of condi ments, flavoring matter and medicines is practically and absolutely a general humbug. But his faith in science makes the farmer ready to accept the blandishments of the traveling stock food purveyor. He has no more trou ble to find the occasional farmer who will testify that this particular stock food worked wonders in his herd or flocks. It 1B on the same basis as testimonials from people who, having failed to die or even to continue sick when taking a given patent medicine, are willing to have their testimony published. And in not a few cases false testimonials are used. The purveyor of fake cattle foods seldom fails to convince the feeder at the start, that his particular food is a real Simon-pure balanced ration back ed by the department of agriculture Again, the swindler is wise enough not to lessen his chances of sale by putting a cheap price on his product. Occasionally he sells it as low as $2.50 the hundredweight, but more fre quently the price is much above that —sometimes as high as $7.50 or $150.00 per ton. The sales are for cash and the farmer is separated from his money before he has an opportunity to test out the ration in actual demon stration. What does he find when the feeding period draws to a close? That his cat tle have, perhaps, fattened to about the same proportion as when he used his own materials, grown on his farm and possibly supplemented by ground feed from the local mill or feed store. These balanced rations are often found, by analysis, to consist of the "tailings" of mills, elevators and brew eries mixed with molasses and salt to make the compound palatable to the cattle. And one of the largest stock food companies is said to use fine sawdust finely ground to cheaply bring up the weight of his product. Instead of buying a superior and expensive "balanced ration" containing high fat tening qualities and acting as a tonic, he has paid a high price for a feed containing, along with ordinary grains, finely ground alfalfa hay, and other common food stuff worth $5 to $25 per ton, a high percentage of refuse and non-nutritious matter, some of which may be positively dangerous to the health of his stock. Naturally the question Is asked by the farmer: How may I detect any or all of these fakes when they are of fered to me? In the first place bear in mind that the department of agricult ure and experiment stations are very chary of giving endorsements which may in any manner be used to the commercial advantage of any person, firm or corporation. These depart ments are conducted for the benefit of the people as a whole and great care is taken to prevent their author ity or influence from being subverted to the special advantage of any per son or individual enterprise. There fore, when the seller of selected or "pedigreed" seed grains, of a remedy for hog cholera or of a "balanced ra tion" for the quick fattening of cattle claims that his wares have the en dorsement of a department of agri culture or a state station It Is safe to assume that he is a swindler. At any rate, there is only one safe rule to follow: Do not buy until you have written to the department or station from which it is claimed that the endorsement comes. You will get a prompt answer—and I believe that your inquiry will generally save you from being swindled. In the matter of buying choice seed grains I would add this suggestion: Your safest course Is to buy only of those firms that you know to have large tracts of lands specially devoted to the sci entific cultivation of grains for seed ing—grains which have made a rec ord for strong vitality and large de pendable productiveness. There are plenty of these great seed farms which are scientifically and honestly conducted by men of capability and established reputation. Still another suggestion, which applies to all the cardinal interests of the farmer, is to read th© bulletins and reports of the agriculture departments and state sta tions systematically and carefully. This will do much to protect you from Imposition on the part of swindlers who base their hopes of success on the enlightened sentiment for progres sive farming awakened by the nation al and state departments, for it will give you actual knowledge as to what is and what is not commended by those authorities. (Copyright, by Joseph B. Bowles.) GETTING IT CREDITED RIGHT. Another Instance of the Success of Persistency. Every time I visit Maine I hear a new series of stories concerning Camp Meeting John Allen, grandfather of Mme. Nordica, and one of the most picturesque characters of his time. Apropos of the rate laws, one very In teresting story is told. It occurred when Gov. Morrill was president of the Maine Central. Allen's applica tions were refused a number of times, because if there was one thing above all others which Morrill disliked it was to issue passes an antipathy which is now regarded as a kind of prophecy of recent legislative enactment. The governor came down to his office in a somewhat brusque frame of mind that day. Those familiar with the storm signals quietly backed off and waited for an explosion. It came. One of the first letters opened was from Camp Meeting John Allen, requesting a pass for "self and wife." The sec retary approached his chief with some hesitation. "Here is another letter from Mr. Allen asking ,for a pass," he said, and laid the missive gingerly on the governor's desk. The governor read it through, and blazed away for a few minutes then, tossing the letter to the astonished secretary, he said: "Make it out." The young man retired and began to fill in the various blank Hnes, but when he came on "what account" the pass was Issued, he was puzzled and ventured to seek information. "On what account, governor?" he asked. The chief looked irately over his spectacles. "Account, account?—account of d—d persistence—be sure and put it in, too," and be growled as the young man passed out: "These Methodist parsons may have to get us all passes on the road to heaven, and I want the Maine central to have good connec tions with Camp Meeting John Allen's route."—National Magazine. Uses Glass for Bread Board. Our great earthquake last year broke one of the large plate glass windows in my husband's store. He cut me a good-siized piece from one of the fragments, and I find it the best bread board I have ever used. As the edges are easily made safe by rubbing them with a fine file wet with camphorated turpentine, it makes a convenient and useful "board." Dough will not stick to it as readily as to.wood. It 1b fine for use with French candles and ao forth.—The Housekeeper. Storm Windows You want a bank ac count—we want to assist you to have one. It only remains for you to bring in your first de posit and you will be "on your way." A DOLLAR WILL DO First National Bank, HOPE, N. DAK. ONLY Will A Dollar Do? It certainly will. One Dollar will open an ac count at this bank. One Dollar deposited weekly to that account will soon accumulate a good sizad balance. As your savings increase month month, year by year, when thus set aside in a savings account,you will be astounded to learn just how much a dollar will do. BLASTS STOP FIRE. Part of Miles Hotel at Hibbing Dyna mited—Damage Near $250,000. Hibbing, Minn., Nov. 30.—The Miles hotel and vandevill9 theater, recently built at a cost of $108,000, was burned to the ground here Friday. When the fire got beyond control the north end of the hotel, next some wooden buildings, "was dynamited. Only the most desperate efforts of the fire department, seconded by citizens and by the steel corportion apparatus, saved the business section of the town from total destruction. Several blocks of wooden buildings stood directly in the line of the flames, the nearest being separated from the burning hotel by a narrow alley. So imminent was the danger that the steel corporation closed' dpwn its mines, laid pipe lines from its shafts and sent its teams and men to the scene. The fire started in the furnace room, in which fifty tons of soft coal had just been placed, and the gas from this burning coal made it impossible to get at the fire in the early stage. So far as known no lives were lost, though the coal gas and smoke finally spread throughtout the hotel and made it impossible to get anything out. The hotel and contents were valued at f160,000 and were insured for $40,000. The losses to individuals will reach $50,000more, with insurance of $20,000. There was almost no wind, and probably saved the town. cents Get Them Now &nd Save Coal The N. W. Hawkinson Lumber Company Wm. H. SABIN Mgr. J5he ORLEANS MRS. C. L. FRONK. PROP. ig3i' Meals at all hours by Da.y or Week iggTBest of Lunches served at all hours (STDance and Lodge Supper served on order IgSTHome-Made Brea.d, Pies, Cakes, Etc. We Will Serve You Right 1. •."yv -vi I. W. STANDLEY, Live Stock Auctioneer I 16 years experience in Farm and live stock sales enables me 10 give the best service in conducting- a successful up-to-date sale. Sales made anywhere. The best of ref erences furnished. 1 Sale notices prepared. Terms reasonable. See me, or phone me at my expense before claiming- dates. ung- aates. A N. D. HOPE, N. D. by sending your HIDES, FURS ETC tous-Wepay nigh prices &sell jjuns, traps etc cheap N.W. HIDES: FUR CO. eoolgStNl Minneapolis Minn ["WRITE FOR CATALOGUE AND PQJCE Learn The Barber Trade. Great demand for Barbers—Big* Wages Easy work—jc'ew weeks completes Expert In structions— '1 ools given Diplomas granted For short tiiun illust rated Catalog Explain ing all—FREE. 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