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CO/V/f £ARLYS/Y U//2. Farmers of our vast central section not only are giving their sons but are raising bumper crops to help win the war against autocracy VENTS of a revolutionary charac ter have taken place on the middle Western farms since America's en try Into the war. When President Wilson issued his call to the American farmer to do his duty in war times by feeding the world, or that portion of it engaged in the war for democracy, he launched the biggest drive for in creased food production in the history of the world. In fact, no step toward preparedness In connection with the participation of the United States in the war has proceeded more rapidly than the mobilization of the farm resources of the middle West, which Just now is,preparing Itself for the task of feeding not only the United States, buf a large part of the world. Despite the fact that the call to the fields came too te to affect the winter wheat crop, the middle ./estern farmer has made tremendous, advances in increasing the acreage of his other food crops, such as corn, oats, rye and other farm products. Present indications are that the wheat crop will not he large enough to much more than meet the needs of America, let alone the expor tatton of large quantities of this product which must be made to the allies, but famine Is still a distant specter. For the first time In its history the world Is going to learn a valuable lesson In domestic economy, and that is the adaptation of other farm products for food purposes. One of the first results will be a world-wide campaign to dethrone King Wheat and enthrone King Corn, wh«»e monarchy heretofore has scarcely extend ed beyond the boundaries of the United States. The bumper corn crop which the middle West •will raise this summer, barring such unforeseen calamities as drought and floods, will stave off hunger for a large portion of the world. Pres ent Indications are that the corn acreage In the 12 great corn states of the country will be In creased from 20 to 30 per cent, or even more In eome localities, due to the fact that thousands of acres of winter wheat lands were made useless [for that purpose by the severe cold weather, •which killed the wheat. An increase of 20 per jcent In the acreage planted in corn will add ap proximately 500,000,000 bushels of corn to the nation's crop. A large portion of this increased yield will go to European allies of the United States and to neutral nations. It is probable that Uncle Sam will have to send some of his experts In domestic science abroad to Instruct the Euro pean in the value and methods of preparing corn as a food product. 1 The nation's corn crop has averaged 3,000,000, 000 bushels In the last few years, a no inconsid erable mark In Itself, but reports collected by ag ricultural experts from the middle West Indicate that the 1917 crop will approximate 3,500,000,000 bushels. The banner corn states of the Union are prepared to do their share in the drive for Increased food production. Conservative estimates of what some of the leading states in the corn belt region will do this year are: Illinois, 400, jOOO.OOO bushels Iowa, 325,000,000 to 350.000,000 'bushels Nebraska, 250,000,000 bushels Missouri, 225,000,000 bushels Indiana. 200,000.000 bushels, and Texas, 200,000,000 bushels. Such middle Western states as Minnesota, South Dakota, North Dakota. Wisconsin and Michigan will have greatly increased acreages of corn this season, due to several reasons. In the Western group of states which lie In the heart of the wheat belt thousands of acres of winter wheat were killed during the winter. Despite the fact that the spring wheat acreage planted this year is unusu ally larger, there still remained many thousands jof acres of land which could be used for no other 'purpose than for corn or oats, two of the leaders |ln the great trio of farm crops. 1 The harvest this summer Is likely to see a rec jord-breaking crop of oats, approximating 2,000, 1000,000 bushels. Tremendous increases will also |be made in the rye, kafir corn sorghum and for jage crops, all of which are important factors In supplying the tables of the world with Important food products. It Is this latter activity in plant ing greatly Increased acreages of the minor crops that Is expected to bring on a small revolution In farming circles. Instead of depending upon one, two or three of the big trio of crops, the farmer is devoting his energy to the growing of other crops which supplement the food products gained from wheat, corn and oats. Thus, In the case of failure of any of the important crops, America •will have plenty of substitutes to fall back upon. Already food chemists and experts in almost all of the middle Western states are busily engaged jln finding new flour substitutes. Discoveries made In -a number of laboratories Indicate that •America's bread will be baked with the aid of more varieties of flour than ever before. Kafir .corn and feterita have been found to make ac iceptable flours, and the use of cottonseed meal Jn the preparation of breadstuffs will soon gain (widespread popularity. Chemists are engaged on other still hunts for new food substitutes, and by the end of the year America will be eating scores of new foods and combinations of foodstuffs which have been wasted heretofore or fed to live stock. Emergency food commissions established in all of rh states are cood»^lM «o aggressive cam jU'H: paign to enlist the support of all farmers In the work of growing greatly increased crops. "Keep every acre working this summer," is a campaign slogan which Is heard In all of the great farming states. The result will be that In the fall the farmers will harvest peanut, bean, buckwheat, potato and other "catch crops," a departure In the history of agriculture. According to present Indications, the potato crop will be nearly 200, 000,000 bushels larger than ever' before, while prodigious quantities of peanuts and beans will be available for food products In the fall and during 1918. The mobilization of the farms for war service has been conducted along many lines of service. Close co-ordination between all branches of the Industry has given tremendous impetus to the campaign to Increase the nation's food supply. Travelers who pass through the middle West this year will see scenes along railroad property comparable to those in Europe, where the farm ers have been cultivating such Idle ground for years. In some states, notably Iowa and Kansas, well-defined steps have been taken to encourage the planting of certain useful crops along the roadsides. Iowa has more than 200,000 acres of unused land along Its public highways which could be drafted for this purpose, while Kansas has more than 150,000 acres, according to a recent survey. It is safe to say that virtually every acre of "Why are you trying to educate the Eskimos? Why don't you let them alone? They were happy and were able to exist before you began to change their mode of life." These are the questions that are asked and an swered In The Eskimo, a monthly magazine pub lished at Nome, Alaska, In the interests of Eskimos of the northwest district of Alaska. Walter C. Shields, superintendent of the work of the bureau of education, department of the interior, in north western Alaska, who writes the leading article in this new magazine of the North, says "The people who ask these questions, if they are really sincere enough to warrant any consideration, can be divided into two classes. First, those who display their scientific knowledge by quoting the law of 'the survival of the fittest,' with the assump tion that the Eskimo Is not fit to survive. The second class claim a peculiar Insight into the frame of mind of the ancient Eskimo, who, they assert, was an especially contented Individual, and further more they insist that the Eskimo of today Is not contented. Eskimo Fit and Able. "This set of critics insists on taking the position, Indefensible in this day and generation, that educa tion is a bad thing for a people. The claim of our service is that the Eskimo by reason of his Inher ent qualities and because of his geographical posi tion is fit and able to survive, and we claim that by our system of education for him we are making him not only more fit to survive, but that he will be a vital factor In the development of northern Alaska. "The Eskimo is not dependent. On the contrary, he is, even in the present condition, a real and vital factor in the wealth of the country. He has never received a ration from the government he can sup port himself, not always according to our stand ards, it Is true, but it is better for him to eat strict ly native food than for him to learn to expect the government to support him. The wail so often heard from Ignorant but presumably charitable people, 'Why don't you give the poor people some food?' if heeded would make paupers of a self-sup porting and noble race. We are proud of the fact that we have not fed the Eskimo. We are proud of htm as a man because he feeds himself. "One reason why primitive races have so often been pushed to the wall by the white race has been that the white race has coveted and needed the land. As far as we can see, for years to come the white man will not make any attempt to push tlu Eskimo off his part of the map. While there will undoubtedly be developments in mining, yet for a long time to come the Eskimo will have plenty of room In northern Alaska. Therefore, even if this northern part of Alaska, through some .unexpected development, should become desirable for a large population, we believe that, with what development the Eskimo has already received and the additional development that even five years more of undisturbed possession of his northern fastnesses will give him, he will be well fitted to meet advanced economic conditions. "The keynote of our school system for the Eski mo is its direct relation to the village life. Thus the school republic becomes the village council the school garden soon becomes the village garden, the cooking class becomes the bread-baking clasB for the village, the clean-up of the school grounds becomes the village clean-up, the bench wore for the boys' class becomes the boat and sled building center for the village. And, most striking of all, the schoolboy who is sent to the reindeer herd as an apprentice in four years becomes the trained THE HOPE PIONEER ddle^si in. Great" \iood Drive Robert Jl. The Eskimo Tells the World Why He Asks to be Left Alone nosill orv_? ftt/ZJ? SAGS STZOWJOWA—» land which can be handled conveniently during the summer months has been placed under culti vation in Iowa and the surrounding states. The labor shortage is so serious that thousands of farmers have been greatly handicapped in putting out increased acreage because of the fear that they would be unable to harvest the crops unaid ed. It Is estimated that the middle West will re quire an army of 500,000 farm laborers this sum mer If the food crop is to be saved In its en tirety. Farm laborers can command almost any price for their services, but despite alluring of fers they are hard to get. Canada Is paying as high as $75 a month for laborers, and in some cases Is promising them free homesteads. In the Northern states farm hands can command wages ranging from $45 to $00 a month and board. A few years ago the farm hand who could get $25 or $30 for his services was considered a genius. The patriotic service the farmers are doing this year and which they will be called upon to do next year on a much larger scale will add millions, if not billions, of dollars to the wealth of the country. Mobilization of the farm re sources has been one of the most stupendous un dertakings ever attempted by the government but it has succeeded admirably well, for 1917, despite the late start. By 1918 every available resource of the middle West will be thrown Into the production of vastly Increased yields of all farm crops. herder, the supporter of his family and a future leader of his people. "We Want No Praise." "We of the Alaska service are helping to bear the white man's burden we do not claim to \je ministering to a dying race we want no praise as helpers of the weak or as ministers to the down trodden who are dying In filth and degradation. We do not allow anyone to class us In these cate gories. That class of work Is entirely humani tarian and is properly the duty of the missionary organizations. But as representatives of the gov ernment we claim the right of our service to exist because we are developing the resources of north ern Alaska just as much as any man with a pick and pan. We are adding to the wealth of the na tion just as much and as surely as any prospector or trailmaker. We are making a country produc tive just as much as any reclamation project that was ever managed by the government." The teachers and others who have established The Eskimo have been formerly congratulated by United States commissioner of education for their enterprise in inaugurating the magazine. Doctor Claxton believes that It will be of direct help to the service of the bureau of education in Alaska, REMINISCENCE OF POE. The painter, William Sartaln, contributed some recollection of Edgar Allan Poe to the Art World: "His biographer, Griswold, has slandered him as Intemperate. My father said this was not true, and lie was most temperate in drinking. It Is a considerable confirmation of this that Poe was a model of punctuality In his reviewing and other work for the magazines during all the en suing 15 years of his life, which comprises his literary career. In 1837 he moved to New York and after a year to Philadelphia, where he wrote some £f his finest stories. For much of his lit erary career he was half starving. His labor over his writings Is shown, no doubt with some exaggeration, however, in his article 'The Philoso phy of Composition,' written shortly after the publication of 'The Raven.' In this essay he enumerates some of his articles of faith, such as Beauty is the legitimate province of the poem it is a pure and intense elevation of the soul, not of the intellect nor the heart. "But except for these intermittent Indulgences, his addiction to stimulants must have been gross ly exaggerated by his biographer Griswold, whom my father has said he had personally seen on quite bad terms with Poe. My father's acquaint ance with him was the more close in the latter years of his life and, as his statements were most positive, these derogatory stories must be taken with a grain of salt. The account I have given of Poe's death after having been robbed of his clothes seems to me to be so reasonable—and, moreover, based on my father's contemporary In formation—that I cannot accept the story of his having been lured into the hands of an election eering gang and drugged, so as to be utilized for depositing ballots in numerous polling places." MISUNDERSTANDING. "What did the kaiser mean by his promise to his brother-in-law when he knew he couldn't keep 11?" "He wrote and aent him*a letter, didn't he?" "Yea." "Well, that la what ha mean, by his mailed flat" OFFICERS OF 21 BE COMMISSIONED MEN WHO DO NOT COMPLY WITH REQUIREMENTS LIKELY TO BE DISCHARGED. HAPPENINGS AT STATE HOUSE What North Dakota Officiate Are Do. ing In Administration of Lawa In the. Different Depart ments at Bismarck. Bismarck. Probably a score of commissioned officers will be discharged from the Second-regiment immediately upon its recognition' by the war department, and before the new regiment is actu ally mustered into federal service, it is reported today. These officers are those whose qualifications do not com ply with the requirements of the new militia bill of June 3, 1916, which pro vided that no militia officers shall re ceive federal recognition who were not at the time they were commis sioned in the active service as enlist ed men or officers of the national,/ guard, officers unassigned, reserve of ficers or graduates of some recognized military college or school where mili tary science is taught under the di rection of a regular army officer. Many Applications. Applications for warehouse licenses are being received by the state rail way commission at the rate of fifty a day. As each application must be ac companied by the new form of stor age ticket, and as each form needs to be carefully checked up for possible errors, the annual task of granting warehouse licenses is much compli cated. To Do Some Swearing. Inasmuch as considerable swearing of one kind or another will be done by the county exemption boards next week, the governor this morning re ceived from Washington authority to delegate one or all the members of these local boards official swearer for the purpose of taking oaths and affida vits. Thinks Law Unconstitutional. Attorney General Laanger, in a let ter in response to a request from Rail way Commissioner M. P. Johnson, de clares the fee provision of the grain grading act to be unconstitutional and that elevator employes cannot be asked to grade and inspect, without reasonable compensation grain des tined for a purchaser other than their own elevator. He declares the act does not pre vent the track buyer from purchas ing grain already inspected and that the indemnity bond feature relating to the purchase of grain on consign ment for central markets outside the state is unfairly discriminatory and cannot be enforced. A suit is now pending in the supreme court to test the act. May Go To Pala Alto. Indications now point strongly to the sending of the North Dakota National Guard to Pala Alto, Cal., for training instead of to Demning, N. M. The fact that the state troops have, in the past few days, been assigned to the Twentieth division, thus being lined up with Montana, Washington, Idaho and other Western states, and the further fact that Colonels J. H. Fraine and Frank White of North Da kota's two regiments have each been called to Pala Alto lend strength to the belief that the Western camp has been chosen for Dakotans. Governor Halts Wholesale Arrests. Governor Lynn J. Frazier in a proc lamation declared that police and peace officers have no right to arrest or search suspicious persons, and that the activities of some police in sec tions where I. W. W. difficulties are feared are a trampling under foot of the constitutional rights of individuals. He further adds that no officer has the right to deport a man because he is without money 6r because he demands high wages. Peace officers in certain sections oi the state fear the proclamation which was issued in the shape of a circular letter, will have a bad effect and will complicate the I. W. W. situation. The letter threatened the removal of state's attorneys, sheriffs or police men who arrest and search vagrants without search warrants. Farm Labor Seeking Jobs. While at first, farm laborers apply ing for work to Federal Labor Agent McDonald of Commissioner Hagan'. office were insistent that wages be spe cified before they accepted a position, the present finds them ready to take Jobs at going wages. The recent heavy crop damage has had a prompt effect on the labor mar ket. Farm help, quick to realize that the demand for labor will not be nor mal, and that the farmer is "up against it," are gladly taking jobs offered at the farmers' own terms. Pewer Plant for Dunselth Home. S. F. Crabbe, state archiect, returned from Dunseith yesterday morning where he made preliminary arrange ments for installing a power plant at the state tuberculosis sanitarium. Bids on this job will be advertised for by board of control in the near future. Had Ripe Tomatoes. William Laist, custodian of the cap. itol. is willing to grant others the Bis marck potato championship, but as serts that when it comes to early ripe tomatoes he claims the belt, having enjoyed his first "mesa" July 26. News of the State Condensed for Busy Folks The foundation walls for Grant coun ty's first permanent court house are now going in at Carson, and Contrac tor Bellman promises that the build" ing will be ready for occupancy by December 1. Axel Nelson, Adolph Evenson, both of Van Hook, and Oscar Sventson, Pla za, were arrested under federal in dictments charging introduction of li quor on Indian reservation territory. All were bound over to the grand jury. Orville Myrback, a young lad in his teens, shot his chum, Joseph Langer, Jr., in the hip with a .22 rifle while the youngsters were gunning for go phers near Bisbee. A cartridge stuck in the breach of Myrback's rifle, and when it came out with a rush, Lang er was in its way. A daring hold-up in the heart of El lendale in broad daylight netted a masked bandit who entered the home of Mrs. L. Spurrier in the Marsh fiats, $8. Mrs. Spurrier was seated in her bedroom, holding her baby, when the robber appeared, leveled a gun at her head and demanded her purse. Arthur Van Horn, Bismarck's pio neer architect, has been commis sioned by Governor Frazier a member of the North Dakota state board of ar chitects, which will have charge of the administration of an act passed by the last session of legislature pro viding for the examination and licens ing of architects who desire to prac tice their profession in North Dakota. Retention of present positions with full pay while engaged in the war as soldiers for the United States, is ad vocated by District Judge A. T. Cole of Fargo for those in federal, state or county employ who are drafted or volunteer for the army. "In my judg ment every public official of good rec ord who is called out or who volun teers and goes to the front, should retain his office and the public should continue to pay his salary regularly without deduction," said Judge Cole. A little daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William F. Mitts narrowly escaped death when the rope which their dis abled car was being towed parted a few miles south of Ellendale, and the machine turned over with the couple and their three children, pinning the youngest child under the car in a ditch at the side of the road, where the water was over her head. N. C. Brown, an Aberdeen traveling salesman, who was towing the party, saved the little girl by lifting the car far enough to permit her to lift her head out of the water. Arley Morey was arrested at Glas gow, Mont., by Sheriff Ross on the charge of embezzling money from his mother-in-law in Jamestown and will be given his preliminary hearing before Police Magistrate Mufphy. Jacob Wentz was sentenced to a term of from one to five years in the state penitentiary from McCluskey, when be pleaded guilty to a charge of breaking up a drill and selling it for scrap iron. The drill was the property of. a local fanner. William F. Converse, the largest ex clusive handler of durum wheat in America,, with headquarters in Minne apolis, has put -up a premium of $25 with the directors of the North Da kota State Fair association for the first prize and $10 for second prize for the best half bushel of durum wheat to be shown at the fair at Far go next year. Miss M. N. Klien, who has been bookkeeper of the Farmers' Equity Exchange at Solen for the past two years has assumed the management of the concern and thus opened a new line of endeavor for the women of the state. Miss Klien has entire charge of the business in an executive ca pacity and is probably the only wom an manager of an elevator in this or airy other state. At a meeting of the Ransom county efficiency board, $2.50 per bushel for wheat was decided to be a fair price this year. At a patriotic dance given in Shel don, at least five men were recruited and will go to New Rockford to join company. Attorney G. W. Young of Grafton re ceived a broken collarbone when his automobile rolled over a 30-foot preci pice, pitching him out on the ground. Dr. B. S. Nickertorr of Mandan, who five weeks ago was accepted into the army medical service and granted a rank of cbptain, received orders to report at Ft. Riley, Kan. The C. F. Tooley residence in Val ley City was destroyed by fire and everything in thg house with the ex ception of a few small .pieces of fur niture was burned. The fire was start ed from a gasoline stove. Nash Brothers, wholesale grocery concern, which owns a number of wholesale houses in North Dakota, Montana and Canada, was indicted by the federal grand jury, in session here today, on a charge of violating the federal anti-trust law. Gamble-Robin son company and others, also were in dicted on the same charge. County commissioners of Ward county have worked out the right-of way and the grade of a highway will connect Mlnot and Ryder. The com mission is going over every foot of the road and are making changes wherever necessary. W. J. Cunningham and Frank Cash en pleaded guilty before Judge K. E. Leighton at Minot to charges of burg lary and were sentenced to terms of from one to three years in the etaie prison. They were charged with breaking into a warehouse at Kenmare and stealing dynamite which was sold to minerB near the city.