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INSTRUCTION OF VERY PRACTICAL SORT
IN BEST METHODS OF MARKETING STOCK \*Sy Prepared by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture.) The big stockyards of the country are being used temporarily for short course schools. Instruction of a very practical sort is being conducted, namely, in the best methods of mar keting live stock. One of the first of these schools was conducted in the National stockyards at East St. Louis, 111., a few weeks ago, and was such a pronounced success that the "stu dents" unanimously passed resolu tions urging that similar courses be offered semiannually. The bureau of markets of the Unit ed States department of agriculture In co-operation with the National Feder ation of Live Stock Shipping associ ations has been instrumental in pro moting this work. This instruction is given primarily for managers of live stock shipping Associations and others directly in terested in shipping live stock. A •course similar to that given at St. Louis has been conducted in Kansas •City. Arrangements have been made for repeating them jn Omaha, Chica go, Sioux City, Detroit, South St. Paul, hnd other cities. Morning and Afternoon Classes. What was done at the Kansas City Meetings Is typical of the Instruction In other cities. The course covered three days, "classes" opening at 8:30. The first morning an intensive study -was made of the grades of cattle and hogs largely marketed through ship ping associations. It was a big sub ject to cover In a .single morning, but the men were intensely eager for the •facts and there was no need for ped agogical repetition, nor were there useless questions to take up the time of the instructors. The 1:30 o'clock session might be called a class In applied bookkeeping, as the afternoon was given over to accounting methods for shipping as sociations, including much helpful ex planation of the methods of prorating shipments. There was help also for managers about the regulations gov erning fre'ght rates and minimum weights of mixed shipments. The case of one shipper was cited who recently -Avas required to pay $30 more freight on a mixed car of calves and pigs than lie would have incurred had he been properly informed on the regulations. It was pointed out that the presence of a few calves in this shipment of pigs required that the minimum -weight for a car of cattle be used us a basis of calculation instead of a low er minimum which Is allowed for hogs. Notwithstanding, the total had to be ?omputed at the "hog rate" which is :higher than the cattle rate. The men present felt that many single points Jlke this brought out at the sessions more than* repaid them for all the time and money spent In attending the •classes. A conference of the managers was also held the first afternoon at which they took up the problems of shrink age and similar questions. Reporting Service Explained. Addresses were given by representa tives of the bureau of markets the morning of the second day, In which the bureau's market reporting service was fully explained. Representatives of the local stockyards company and the local live stock exchange also spoke. One of the subjects to which they called special attention was the Increased development of co-operative marketing of live stock. The grading of sheep and lambs was explained by buyers for packing houses and repre sentatives of commission firms. In the afternoon the men were given a chance to see how the different classes of animals "killed out," that Is, the character of the various car casses from the standpoint of the ^butcher, or packer. Everything said was specific and practical. When it came to a detailed discussion of the value of carcasses of this or" that grade all the figures, brought right up to date, were supplied by officials of the packing plant. In the same way he men secured much valuable infor mation regarding the special demand which each class of meat supplies. On the third and last day much of what ltiad been given in the two previous days was repeated for the benefit of several men who had been unable to attend earlier sessions. The schedule of most of the schools calls for visits to the stocker and feed er divisions of the hog and sheep yards, on the morning of the third •iloy. How a manager can assist In »i«trlliuting thin animals of good qual &&£&& Grading of Cattle Explained by Buyer for Packing House. ity to men desiring less than car lots is one of the subjects discussed. In the afternoon a final conference of managers Is usually held, after which a packing plant is visited to see how different classes of hogs and sheep, previously graded, have "killed out." Less Haphazard Shipping. The giving of this instruction to scores of stockmen In various parts of the country illustrates how rapidly the days of haphazard shipping of live stock are passing. Animals are handled in increasing numbers and mistakes on the part of shippers must be reduced to a minimum for they are costly. These courses are but one feature of a general trend toward bet ter live stock marketing, which is re ceiving the support of progressive live stock interests and the department of agriculture. With the Improvement of marketing methods stock raisers are sure to realize larger returns on their efforts. And a simplified, more intel ligent mnrketing means that goods can be delivered at less cost to consumers. CONTROL OF TOBACCO PESTS Methods in Florida Revolutionized by Introduction of Efficient Power Machines. Promising control of the tobacco flea-beetle has been obtained in Flor ida with certain insecticides, accord ing to the annual report of the chief of the bureau of entomology. United States department of agriculture. This Is an important result, the report says, as in 1013 one grower claimed a loss from this insect of $650 an acre.' Dusting methods in the shade-grown tobacco region have been revolution ized by the introduction of power ma chines which are capable of dusting from ten to twenty aeres a day more than can be treated with hand dust ers. For tobacco thrips it has been found that nicotine sulphate, 14 ounces, and soap, three pounds, to 50 gallons of water, gives satisfactory control If applied properly once a week during the emergence period. An important point is the time of ap plication. Much valuable work has been done on other tobacco insects, the report adds. MARKET FOR BLACK WALNUT Wood Is Especially Adapted for Growing as Individual Trees on Farm—Prices Vary. Black walnut, the -highest In price of all American woods, is especially adapted for growing as Individual trees on the farm, according to for estry specialists of the United States department of agriculture. Prices de pend chiefly upon the diameter of the logs, ranging for the most part from $40 to $150 a thousand feet at the loading point. It Is recommended that the logs be marketed in carload lota and shipped direct to manufacturers of veneer furniture and cabinets and firearms. In many cases co-operative sales projects prove profitable. A carload usually contains from 30 to 40 black walnut logs 12 to 16 inches in diameter, or from 18 to 25 logs of larger size. A carload usually scales from 3,000 to 5,000 board feet. Livestock NOTES More animals for more meat and manure. Toung pigs should have the best of sleeping quarters. If the sow is feverish give her two or three ounces of castor oil. If the pigs have thumps reduce their feed and give them more exercise. Keep the pigs sanitary, killing off the lice worms and other parasites. Sour skim milk gives the same re sults in hog feeding as sweet skim milk. Too close confinement of stock in a poorly ventilated stable Is as bad aa exposure. Pet the young things—the colts, calves, lambs, and even the pigs. Win their affections. It makes them better grown-up stock. Apparel Which Is Becoming to Some, Not to Others. Do Not Follow Fashion Too Closely in Skirt Lengths, Advises Fashicn Writer. Don't wear a skirt with drapery of long fringe that suggests the Hawai ian grass skirt, advises a fashion writer in the Buffalo Express. Now there are some overplump women who have a fondness amounting al most to a passion for a fringe. They are convinced that it is one of the things that make them look slender. Well, it may sometimes, but remem ber that the long fringe about the hips and thighs has a way of undu lating as you walk, it accentuates what you may regard as a very irre sistible swaying motion but what is probably nothing more nor less than a waddle. Don't wear kimono sleeves—espe cially the short kimono sleeves that are probably going to be very much in fashion as the season advances. It is one of the things that some stout women will want *o wear. They are so comfortable and cool. But they tend to make the arms look short, anil they do rot produce that length of line which is so much to be desired by the woman of too rotund figure. And please don't wear small high heels. A high heel Is well enough If It Is of the military sort, for then it seems, at'least, as If you were having adequate support for your weight. But when the heel is both small and high and your entire weight seems to be thrust forward on a very small part of the hall of your foot, then the effect is truly painful. THK HOPF, PTONF.F.1? Don't follow the fashion too closely In regard to skirt lengths. Short skirts were never meant for you— that is very short skirts. On the other hand, if you are a large woman—tall as well as heavily built—the skirt that is very long will make you look larger than you are. The best thing for you to do is to stick to a skirt that Is short enough to look smart and trim, but not so short as to display the too ample rotundity of your legs. The double-breasted coat or suit gives the appearance of greater width to chest and bust limn the single breasted model. For this reason It is better to select the latter sort. Large or striking buttons on the jacket or coat certainly do not contribute to the appearance of smalluess. These things are best avoided. Dou't imagine that black satin is ATTRACTIVE HAT FOR SPRING W MtoviwDoa This model, an American fashion, Is a fine Italian Milan soft flexible rolled straw. Made in dark shades for spring wear. Decoration Regarded as Necessary When Short 8leeves Are Worn Lace-Topped Gloves. Since Paris persists In making us wear short sleeves, the bracelet has taken on a new lease of life. If these abbreviated sleeves were only for the young and fair, all would be well but even stately dowagers must, to be in fashion, have their sleeves well above the elbow. And in such cases, even so small a thing as a bracelet help# free one from the consciousness of harsh elbows that have lost the soft charm of youth. So the wide gold bracelets, that have long been in the discard, are being taken out of faded velvet cases, and sent to the jeweler's to be freshened up a bit. Paris has sent over recently some interesting bracelets in imitation of jade, tortoise shell, ivory and cellu loids, all intricately carved to repro duce some good luck charm or god. Coming as they do In so many differ ent colorings they are worn to match the costume. The quaint little short-topped gloves with a frill of silk or lace, of our grandmother's days, are back In style again, and are most effective with an old-fashioned bracelet worn just above. Museums and art stores are being searched for models of the old Roman armlets of gold and silver, so as to have them copied. Of these the ones of Etruscan gold are loveliest Many of these ancient bracelets do not meet entirely! but sbow the arm through Bracelet Is Now In Vogue S RICH GOWN-OF BLACK SATIN This dress is of black satin, charm ingly draped and is given an unusual touch by the curiously patterned sil ver beading. always your liest selection. Mosi stout women wear It a great deal. But the very gloss about it sometimes ac centuates the curves of the wearer. A dark silk with less gloss, such as a crepe de rhino or a pussy willow tat fela is a better selection. Duvetye with its extremely soft, flat surfnej Is a material that may be safely worn by the stout woman. And don't be misled into thinking that the uncorseted effect In clothei was ever intended for such as yotj Even if you are only modem tel plump, pi en fie don't attempt it. FASHION'S FANCIES. The demand for velveteen is great Corduroys are much used for negl gees. Curled ostrich dominates In mil linery. The eastern note is dominant In Jewels. The short waist will be greatly fa vored. Monkey fur appears on sport cos umes. Turbans appear, worn with eastern robes. Paris uses color in her undergar ments. The new blouses have large and dashing rovers. Soft felt hats in vivid colors nre one type of sport hat introduced for southern wear and likely to be pop ular for spring and summer. Accordion plaiting is introduced as the skirt feature in many spring mod els, both dress and suits sometimes the entire skirt is accordion plaited, then again the plaits are introduced in the form of panels. The American woman will wear the splendid tricot corset of American manufacture that meets the require ments of fashion and yet is practical for her figure nnd the climate and environment in which she lives. the open space between the ends. In dian bracelets of beaten silver are made in the same manner, these often being decorated with a single large stone, such as rose quartz, turquoise, or garnet ANGORA CLOTH IS POPULAR Favorite Combination Method Is Make Skirt of Silk and Trim With Bands. iS Mtvrn Newspaper to When satin or knitted silk fabric is combined with angora, a favorite method is to make the skirt of the silk fabric and trim it with one, two or three bands of the angora, the entire coat or scarf to be of the wool fabric. While white and the light bright colors take first place, darker colors are not ignored. One striking costume recent ly seen featured a skirt and scarf of angora in Indian or autumn colorings woven in broad stripes. Angora cloth Is not only warm, but warm looking. It is an ideal fabric for sports apparel. Last season It ap peared in the separate scarfs worn with sports or semi-sports suits every where during tito first fall days, be* fore winter furs were donned, and on the golf links throughout the winter. This year It has entered the field ot ready-to-wear with a vengeance. The sport frock that consists of skirt and slipover blouse appears to be the season's favorite. It is being de veloped in all sorts of attractive silk and wool fabrics for wear at the Amerlcau winter resorts. POLICE USE AUTOS TO RUN DOWN BANDITS MAKE YOUR GAR LOOK LIKE NEW How One Motorist Tackled Job of Being His Own Painter With Pleasant Results. The auto lumdit and daylight hold-up man of California had better "watch their step," for the enterprising city of San Francisco has organized and equipped a "flivver' detachment of police, who are stationed at con venient points in their cars,' ready to respond to an alarm and give chase to the speedy thief. Success or Failure of Painting Auto mobile Depends Largely on Kind of Varnish Used—Coat the Chassis With Enamel. The above photo shows how a capture is effected, the speedy little cars being always tuned up in readiness for a chase. The system, if found ex pedient, will be probably adopted by many other United States cities, al though the idea of chasing criminals via tlie auto is not a new one. BEFINISHIHB COSTS LITTLE There is no reason why the owner of an automobile who has driven his car for one or two seasons, until the body finish has become dull, should envy his neighbors who spin about In newer ears, for almost any man can keep his car looking very nearly as good a™ new If he cares to take the trouble. Indeed, It is not an unpleas ant undertaking to refinish your car every year, and If this precaution Is taken in time it costs very little. A suburbanite who had grown to be somewhat ashamed of the appearance of his car, after using it for two years, tells how he was induced to renew the body finish, and the means he used may suggest to other motorists how they can preserve the new appearance of their automobiles. "A neighbor ncross the street," lie said, "had a big, eight-cylinder car, w'liich I noticed was always left stand ing in front of his house in all kinds of weather. I often wondered why he was so indifferent to the possible con sequences on its body finish, and after two years the machine looked as If it were ready for the junk pile. Decided to Repaint. "Last summer the appearance of his car began to get on the owner's nerves, and he decided to have it re painted. He took it to a local auto mobile paint shop, where it was found that the original finish was so badly cracked that the surface had to be removed. Then eight conts of paint, with a final coat of varnish, were put on. The cost was something like $85, nnd prices have gone up appreciably since then. However, Ihe job was well'done, and when my neighbor ap peared in his repainted car I began to feel how badly my car suffered by comparison. "I had always made it a custom to put my car In the garage when It was standing idle for any length of time, nnd not leave it in front of my house. Notwithstanding this care, the luster of the body gradually began to disap pear as the first season went by and at the end of the second year It had almost a slate color. "Several garage owners told me that the finish could be renewed by the ap plication of little varnish, and I found upon inquiry that the automo bile painters were asking $25 for the Job. The work of varnishing a car did not seem to be particularly diffi cult, so I Invested $1.50 in a brush and 65 cents In a can of varnish and made preparations to give my car a new dressing. I first washed both body and chassis with lukewarm water, and then I drove it under a tree at the side of the house. "I took pains, of course, to pick a clear, dry day, and the varnish was applied without any trouble. A slight breeze accelerated the drying process, and the following day I put on a sec ond coat, each time putting a coat of black enamel on the chassis. """One of the amusing incidents "In connection with my first undertaking as an automobile painter occurred when my neighbor, who was working In his garden, stopped now and then to watch my progress. It took a couple of hours to put on each coat of varnish, and friend neighbor had the opportunity of seeing the job com pleted while he was hoeing his pota toes. Finally he dropped his hoe .and came over under the tree. He took one good look at the car and mut tered: 'Just to think what a fool I was to drop that $85. Why, you've done a better Job than they did on my car.' Success or Failure. "The success or failure of painting one's automobile will depend largely on the' kind of varnish used, but any one contemplating this will probably have recommended to him the sam« varnish that I found, if he will in quire of several paint stores nnd auto mobile finishing shops. Before trying to paint the whole body and chassis it is wise to take off a door nnd try your hand on that before going any further. It may be that the varnish does not dry quickly enough, in whlcli event it is advisable to add a little tur pentine, as I did. For when a car is painted out in the open it is likely to collect dust stirred up by passing ve hicles, to say nothing of the swarm of insects buzzing through the air In the summertime. "When the first coat lias dried for 24 hours It is a good plan to rub the body down gently with pumice and water, taking care to have a soft wool rag. When the second coat of varnish Is applied, it should be al lowed to set for at least a week, at the end of which any little roughness in the surface may be rubbed out by using rotten stone with a Spanish felt rubbing pad." TO STOP STEALING OF AUTOS Drastic Measure Introduced in Con gress by Representative Dyer— Impose Big Fine. A fine of $5,000 or five years In jail for automobile thieves is proposed In a bill introduced in congress by Representative Dyer of Missouri, to protect the 1,500,000 automobiles in the United Slates, now valued at $7, 800,000,000. More than 22,272 cars were stolen in 1918 in 18 western cities, according to statistics furnished by the Ameri can Automobile association. Detroit led with 2,030 thefts, followed by Chi cago with 2,011. Ohio leads all stales in the Union with 464,82(5 automobiles. New York is second with 4.,Mi.02.'l, and Pennsyl vania third with 407,028. FASTENING ANTI-SKID CHAIN Long Hook on Inside and Strong, Small Padlock on Outside Will Hold It in Place. A rather long hook on Ihe Inside chain and a small, sturdy padlock on the outside chain will fasten an anti skid chain on the wheel so that there will be no danger of its coming loose in use and either winding around the brake drum or being lost on the road. Releasing the padlock will allow enough slack on the inside chain so that the long hook may he unfastened. DRIVE OVER BROKEN STONES Best Way Is to Take Short Run and Let Car Coast With Clutch Out— Tires Are Saved. The best way to drive a car over a short stretch of broken stone Is to take a short run at it—not too fast—and let the car coast over the stone with the clutch out. Thus the rear tires are re lieved of driving strains and of the re sulting tearing actions of sharp stones on the rubber. Of course, It Is not al ways practicable to do this, but when it can be done it adds just a little more to the life of the tires. Roads for motor use in Mexico are in bad condition and little is being done to improve them. Vacuum cleaners for automobiles, operated on their engines, have been invented. Sometimes compression cocks have a tendency to stick, making it hard to open them. Put a drop of oil in thein occasionally, while engine Is not running, and work It around to reach every part. Never throw spark plugs haphazard into the tool box, where they may be come cracked. Never throw an old plug away. Save the old ones and buy spare Insulators or electrodes, and save money.