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WHEAT GROWN ON
IRRIGATED FARM Yield of Slightly Over 100 Bushels to Acre Obtained on Small Idaho Patch. OICKLOW VARIETY WAS USED experiments at Aberdeen Station Show That Federation, an Austra lian Strain, Is Better Suited for Irrigation. Prepared by the United States Department o( Agriculture.) A yield of 219 bushels and 30 pounds of wheat from 2.17 acres of land in. Jerome county, Idaho, In 1921, proba bly a record yield for spring wheat In the United States, is reported In affidavits received by the bureau of markets and crop estimates of the United States Department of Agricul ture from H. S. Green, manager of the IU-Aho farms, Jerome county, Idaho. This yield of slightly over 100 bushels of wheat to the acre was ob tained from the Dlcklow variety. This variety has been found to be well suited for growing under irrigation in southern Idaho, and the acreage of it In -that section has Increased rapidly during recent years. This Is due Oicklow Wheat. largely to the efforts of the former superintendent of the Aberdeen, Idaho, sub-station, L. C. Alcher, who has had charge of the co-operative cereal ex periments conducted by the Idaho station and the United States Depart ment of Agriculture. For the past Ave years Mr. Alcher has been dis tributing and recommending the Dlck low variety for growing under Irriga tion In southern Idaho. Largest Yield of Wheat. The largest yield of wheat per acre ever recorded by the bureau of crop estimates of the department Is 117.2 bushels. The yield was produced in 1895 In Island county, Wash., on an 18-acre field. The variety of wheat sown was Red Russian, a winter BEST DEVELOPMENT OF CALF Feeding Should Begin Before Birth .. and Insufficient Amount Results •A in Puny Youngster. Poorly nourished cows give birth to weak, puny calves which are hard to raise. The feeding of the calf, there fore, begins before it is born. The food elements for the development of •.he calf are taken Into the stomach of the cow, digested, assimilated, and transmitted to the calf through the umbilical cord, the connection between the mother and the calf. It is evident that If the cow does not receive food enough to keep herself In thrifty con dition and ut the same time develop hei calf, both she dnd the calf must suffer. Sanitation and Exercise. Don't neglect sanitation and exer cise for the first few weeks after far rowing for it is lndlspenslble to the health and progress of the pigs. Com fortable quarters—dry, ventilated and w«u llahted—are important wheat, locally known as Australia!) Club. The 100-bushel yield of the Dlcklow variety here reported is probably a record yield for spring wheat In the United States. In experiments con ducted by the United States Depart ment of Agriculture, where varieties are grown in fiftieth-acre plats, yields at the rate of more than 80 bushels per acre have sometimes been ob tained A yield of 83.3 bushels per acre was obtained In 1921 from a plat of Federation wheat at the Aberdeen, Idaho, sub-station. The Federation is an Important Australian variety of wheat Introduced Into the United States by the Department of Agricul ture In 1915. Federation Variety Favored. Experimental results at the Aber deen station during the past three years Indicate that the Federation will be even better suited for growing under irrigation than the Dlcklow, as It has, on the average, outyielded the Dlcklow by 5% bushels per acre. Fed eration has also proved to be a better milling and bread-making wheat than the Dlcklow. Last season the Feder ation was grown under Irrigation with marked success in several sections of Oregon. SAVING PINE TREES FROM BLISTER RUST Wild Currant and Gooseberry Bushes Must Be Removed. Disease Is Rapidly Increasing In Northeastern States and Prompt Action Is Needed to Save Timber. (Prepared by the United States Department of Agriculture.) A delay of one yeur in destroying the wild currants und gooseberries as a protection against the blister rust will result in tlie loss of at least 11 per cent of the trees in a young white pine plantation at North Hudson, N. Y. This planting of white pine was made for the purpose of producing another timber crop on an area pre viously denuded by fire. Three-year old trees were .set out In the spring of 1919, but the wild currant and goose berry bushes on the tract were not de stroyed until 1920, a year after the planting. The removal of the currant and gooseberry bushes Is necessary to save pine trees from the blister rust, bccause they are t*-.e only means by which this disease can spread. The pines In the plantation were examined In the fall of 1921 by agents of the United States Department of Agriculture. As a result of the trees being exposed for a single year to the blister rust on the currant and goose berry bushes, it was found that 8G trees showed infection originating In 1919,197 were missing and 483 shoyved no sign of infection. Thus 15.10 per cent of the living trees or 11.20 per cent of all the trees set out on the plat were Infected by the blister rust In a single year, and will succumb sooner or later. If the bushes had been removed before the pines were set out, this loss would have been pre vented. The disease is rapidly Increasing on white pines In the northeastern states, and prompt action by pine owners In destroying currant and gooseberry bushes is necessary to prevent serious damage and loss to the pine crop. Since wild gooseberry and currant bushes are among the first plants to sprout and leaf out, they can be dis tinguished very readily In the early spring. This season Is, therefore, most favorable for the pine wood-lot owner to find and pull them out. These bushes should be destroyed in the pine stand and around It for a dis tance of at least 900 feet. If the search for the bushes Is conducted systematically, and If care is taken to get all the main roots, the pines will be protected from the blister rust for at least five years.. GETTING COWS ON PASTURE In Many Cases Grass Is Not In Proper Condition to Be Grazed and Animals Suffer. The temptation to get the cows on grass as early as possible In the spring is not an easy one to resist and the consequence Is that many pastures are required to carry cattle before they are In proper condition to be grazed. Although milk cows will usually show gains In milk production on grass Im mediately after. Jt becomes green, these gains are only temporary and unless the feeding of the regulnr barn rations Is continued,' tbe milk flow soon falls off and the animals lose io fieslt. Make Clean Pruning Cuts. Be mire all cuts inude in pruning trees or shrubs are clean, smooth cuts. They will heal easier. Strains for Best Yields. Be sure that you have good strains of lettuce, onions or cabbage if you want tbe ...At.*,.. :..Aw. ,s best yields at harvest time. The Farmer's Own PE A THE HOPE PIONEER (By F. \V. Christensen and D. J. Gria wold, N. D. A. C.) In feeding trials which recently have been completed at the North Daokta agricultural experiment station, four different kinds of silage have been compared. The silages used were made from fresh green clover, about seven parts and oat straw one part, millet, sunflowers, and corn. The oat straw was mixed with the sweet clover because freshly cut green clover Is too watery to put directly into the silo without mixing it with some dry material. This amount of straw re duced the water content to nearly that of ordinary corn silage. Four groups of two-year-old steers were fed all the silage they would consume with enough oat straw to satisfy their craving for dry material, and two pounds of cottonseed meal per head dally for a period of 100 days. During the last 40 days 5.5 pounds of ground corn per head daily were fed in addition to the other feeds. As the amounts of corn and cottonseed meal were the same for the various groups, the observed differ ences In gains are due to differences In feeding values and amounts of slT age and oat straw consumed. The following table shows that the amounts of straw consumed by tlie different groups of steers were nearly the same except in tlie rase of those receiving the" sunflower silage and here the difference was not large. Average daily feed consumption.and gains per head for Entire period shown in the following table: GltOUP OF STEERS— Sweet clover-oat straw silage— Millet silage Sunflower silage Corn silage From the foregoing table It will be seen that the groups fed the sweet clover-oat silage nnd the sunflower silage consumed proctically the same amounts of silage, namely 50 pounds, and made practically the same gains— 1.1 pounds on the sweet clover and 1.05 pounds on the sunflowers. The groups fed the millet and corn silages, however, consumed about 2.5 pounds less silage than the oters but never theless made greater average daily gains. The millet silage group gained 1.26 pounds daily and those on corn 1.72 pounds. The sunflower and tlie sweet clover-oat silage appeared to be more watery than the millet and corn silages, and part of the difference in results may be due to that. When the chemical analysis of tlie feeds are completed It will be possible to make comparisons on the basis of dry mater ial consumed, which'will give a better Indication of their relative feeding values. the same amount of silage for four days. So far as pal/itability is concerned It seems that the. millet silage was as palatable as the corn silage and that the sweet clover and sunflower silages •were less palatable—the sunflower sil age, being the least palatable of ail. However, after the steers had acquired a taste for the sunflowers this silage was consumed in as largg amounts as any of the othei-s and the same was true of the sweet clover except toward the end of the feeding period. It Is the intention to continue these experiments another year as further trials are necessary before the com parative feeding value of these sliages can be fully established, but it is evi dent from what has been done that TO BOOST FORAGE CROP North Dakota's advantages as a seed producing state will be more widely advertised to the farmers of the United States, if plans suggested by tfhe department of agronomy, North Dakota Agricultural college, for hav ing 500 entries at the fourth interna tional grain a "Ml hay show In Chicago late th'.s year, are carried out. Tlie show will be held In connection with flie International livestock exposition, :n late November or early December, exact date to be announced. "The state had less than a dozen en tries at tlie show in 11)21, yet we cap tured three important prizes In. the •rorn and grain show," said Dr. H. L. Walster, chairman of the department. Timely Comments on Agricultural Topics for Our Readers 0 Hi Comparative Feeding Value Of Different Kinds Of Silage "'»•.tr.*.-- POINTERS Prepared Under Direction o£ North Dakota Agricultural College The steers used in tlie different groups were In good condition for feeding a ad were selected at the start so. as to furnish groups as nearly alike as possible. At the end of the trial, however, the eorn silage fed steers than ditferences resulting from the u,ne" 1 m! s!lj,htl.\ better than the sweet barelv touched theirs. The second day though fresh silage was offered daily. The same amounts of silage were fed each group at the start and the ex- were distinctly superior in general condition and finish compared to the Wheat feeds now quoted Lake and other groutis. Among the other groups ^a" ')as's 'n eastern markets. Quoted there was very little difference. Such April 8th: Bran $20.75, middlings $22, fllqerences as were noticed appeared I periinental feeding period wns not be- prjce3 These steers fere sold to. the North ern Packing Co., Grand Forks, N. D. W. S. Bouse, livestock buyer, examin ed the steers carefully nnd bought each animal on its merits, determined by conformation, quality and finish. Tlie prices paid for individuals varied somewhat in each group but taken an a whole there was little difference price paid was on the basis of filled weight, and the percentages of dressed carcasses, which were determined, were figured on the same basis. The dressing percentages together with the appearance of the carcasses show remarkably accurate judgment on the part of the buyer. The prices paid and the results of the slaughter test are in accord with the observations made at the experiment station. Tlie Northern Packing company ex tended every courtesy to our represen tative and took more than usual inter est In supplying the information de sired. We ought to have 500 entries in 1022 and If we all pull together we can outdo the entire northwest in 1922. "Let us make a special effort to win some prizes In the hay competi tion. A bale of hay weighing not less than 50 pounds is required. Grass and clover seed exhibits require four quarts small grain exhibits one peck corn exhibits 10 ears. Begin now to make arrangements for growing, get ting, cleaning, and caring for these exhibit materials. "Michigan, Wisconsin and Montana have used the ^)portunit.v offered by this international grain and hay show to advertise the seed producing possi bilities of their several states. North Dakota must get Into the game, too." HOG MARKET IS FIRM Srain Market Weak But Under tone Shows Improvement CT.. S. Bureau of Markets, Washington, D. C., for week ended April 10. 1'922. VEGETABLES: Potato* markets weaker, well supplied, demand moder ate. Northern sacked Round Whites weak in eastern markets at $1.85-2.10 C'.irlot sales Chicago, £1.45-1.60 weak fir north central shipping points at n.20-1.47. HAY: Warm weather hastening pastures and weakening demand for hay. Account extremely light receipts prices firm at most markets. Improved road conditions, and: increased loadings indicate larger receipts to come. Quot ed April 8th.: No. timothy, Chicago, $26. No. 1 alfalfa,. Minneapolis, $23: No.' 1 prairie,. Chicago, $18 Minneapo lis, $18. FEED: Most feed markets'. d!uH. No material change in prices. Offerings of wheat smd corn feeds continue lib eral and slightly exceed demand. flouF to be due chiefly to the differences in ^^Minneapolis, the Individuality of the steers rather t0Be ,mproved ClO\*.r nn or sunflowed groups. An important consideration with «ny feeding stuff Is its palatabilit.v, that is, how well it is liked by the supply wheat 34,163,000 bushels, a de stock. Tlie steers used in these trials crease of 1,734,000 bushels for week. were accustomed to corn silage before Visible supply corn 45,305,000 bushels, 175 the experiment began so when the' a decrease of 1,584,000 bushels foi [n fed the sweet clover and sunflowers 'owa w'leat in the sweet clover group cleaned tip No. 2 hard winter^ wheat In central most of the silage offered but the sun- 5a™as $1-20 For the week MUyneapo flower group did not clean up all of T, .., 11 Kansas City May wheat up l^e at heir silage un 11 the fourth day, al-. amnng the groups except that the corn kets April 8th: Twins 16% Daisies siluge group ibrough about 75 cents per 16% Double Daisies 164. hundredweight above the others. The Minneapolis lin- GRAIN: Market weak and prices ... lower first half week but the under- aud prlCes nf show net feel« consumed nithouch those re-i—" Jmracteristies, and methods of mnn- '"'hough gains, Chicago May wheat up half cent agement are discussed In Farmers' (11" closing at $1.33% Chicago May corn Bulletin 1251. The Bantam Breeds and Oiitfitanrtlnfr fftnlnrs other kinds of silage were first fed it 1 week. Closing prices in Chicago cash breeds, ranging from 12 ounces a doz was possible to. judge something of market: No. 2 red winter wheat $1.35 (o 18 or 20 ounces. Tlie color of their palatability compared to corn No. 2 hard winter wheat $1.35 No. 2 (lie eggs runs from white to dark silage. Those fed the corn and millet mixed corn 58c No. 2 yellow corn 59c brown. Some of the breeds have a silages cleaned up the mangers, almost No. 3 white oats 88e. Average farm tendency to lay for a fairly long peri lmmeiliately the first day, but those Pi''ces: No. 2 mixed corn in central a^out I's May wheat up 3V,c closing $1.44 wlnnipeg LIVESTOCK gQ jj0g ,,jCes 1111 until all the groups had consumed jog(. i0-25c: butcher cows and heifers weak to 25c lower veal calves down 50-75c. Feeder steers practically steady. Sheep and lamb prices con-1 siderably lower fat ewes being 50c $1 off, yearlings generally $- lower and fat lambs from $2 to $2.25 down. Oat Co.tton- Corn Gain per day Silage Straw s^edMeal Meal* per head Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. Lbs. 4!Ui 2.8 2.0 5.5 1.10 47.3 2.4 2.0 5.5 1.26 50.2 3.7 .2.0 6.5 1.05 47.3 2.5 2.0 5.5 1.72 corn silage is superior to tlie millet, tlie sunflower or the sweet clover-oat straw silages for fattening steers be cause of its greater palatability, and the larger gains secured as well as the steers. better "finish"produced 011" the Tlie latter silages, however, are shown to have merit and may prove very useful and satisfactory in regions where they are likely to give enough greater tonnage per acre to offset their lower feeding value during seasons when conditions are unfavorable for curing these crops for forage purposes. Crops can be put in the silo when weather conditions make it impossible to cure them for hay or fodder. DAIRY PRODUCTS: Butter mar kets have recovered from recent dull ness and at close are firm with price tendency upward. Offerings all grades fairly well cleaned up. Closing prices 92 score: New York and Boston 36% Chicago 35 Philadelphia 36%. Cheese markets weak at lower prices. Declines are seasonal and this appears to be cause of weakness more than actual accumulations on market. No confidence in trading and buyers except prices to reach still lower lev els. Prices at Wisconsin primary mar- Minneapolis Cash Closing Prices. Minneapolis—Wheat—No. 1 dark northern, $email@example.com No. 2 northern, $firstname.lastname@example.org No. 3 northern, $1.52@ 1.56 No. 1 Durham, $1.37. Corn—No. 3 yellow, 51c No. 3 mix ed, 50c. Rye—No. 3, 93c. Oats—No. 2 white, 36c. Barley—59c. Flaxseed—$2.58. Minneapolis Butter and Poultry. Minneapolis—Butter—Extras, 33%c firsts, 27c seconds, 22c storage ex tras, 27c packing stock, fresh, sweet, 16c stale goods, 5c grease, lc. up IVic at 59%. Outstanding factors Varieties, the fifth of a series on were lack of outside trading and gov- standard Varieties of Chickens. The eminent crop report. More friendly feeling to buying side at close. Visible Eggs—Country receipts, rots out, per case, $6.75 No. 1 candled, good extras, free from rots, small, dirties and checks out, per dozen, 23%c sec onds, small, dirty and held stock, rots and leakers out, dozen, 18c checks, rots and leakers out, dozen, 16c quo tations on eggs include cases. Live Poultry—Not advisable to ship turkeys under 7 lbs. in weight. Hens, 1 lbs. and over, 25c hens under 4 lbs., 20c cripples and culls unsalable ducks, fat, 18.2 geese, fat, 12c tur keys, fat, over 8 lbs., 25c turkeys, thin and small, 15#20c cripples and culls unsalable guineas, per dozen, $5 •N.aig roosters, 20c old, 16c. Potatoes—Small lots out of store, Western per 100 lbs., $2.50 Minnesota, 100 lbs., $2.15. PIGMIES OF POULTRY WORLD Bantam Breeds Have Distinct Utility Value for Egg Production for Family Use. (Prepared by tho United States Department of Agriculture.) The Bantam breeds gained their popularity as ornamental fowl ami as playthings for chlldiwn and growa-ups, yxit, suys the UioJited States Depart ment of Agriculture, they have ulso distinct utility value for egg pro duction for fatuity use. There is also good demand for eggs for hatching and for breeding stock of good qual ity. Because of their small size these pigmy breeds often have tlae advantage over larger fowls where only a very small space is available for the flock, l'liey are easy for children to handle, and the ownership of a few Bantums aften Is the beginning a real interest In poultry raising. The various breeds of Bantams, their 45%c No. 1 dark northern sillvit^s are apt to be broody. Since central North Dakota $1.35 many of these kinds have been de- May wheat up Vic at AND MEATS: Chica- advanced 45-60c. Cattle rtinged downward. Beef steers April 10 Chicago prices: Hogs, top, $11 bulk of sales $10.50-10.95 medium and good beef steers $7.15-8.75 butch er cows and heifers $4.35-8 feeder ste,erus $5.40-7.35 1 light and medium 'weight veal calves $5.75-8.25 fat lambs $11.25-14 yearlings $10.50-13.50 fat ewes $6.75-9.50. Stocker and feeder shipments from 12 important markets during the week ending March 31 were: Cattle and calves 50,551 hogs 9,008 sheep 9,708. 1. ..p .. All various breeds, suys the bulletin, have not been raised with tlie Idea of egg production and, as a result, the aver- ttge |S ,lot very high, probably around egg8 jn year si2e ns r)(ji eggS vary ,]0 *ti,e different Bantam but the Brnliuius, Cochins and ,v S !llff§«l t, 'w A '/w White Cochin Bantam. veloped from the larger standard breeds they have many of the same characteristics. Reports collected from Bantam breeders show that the average hen will eat from 25 to 35 pounds of feed In a year, which is about one-half as much as a hen of the Mediterranean breeds or one-third us much as a hen of the larger breeds would eat. A copy of the bulletin muy be ob tained free by uddresslng the Depart ment of Agriculture at Washington, D. C. FIND HIDDEN TURKEY NESTS When Confined in Pen Until Late In Day, Laying Hen Will Go Straight to Her Eggs. A quick and easy way to find stolen nests of turkeys Is to confine the birds from early morning to late after noon. The laying hens will then go straight to their nests to lay the egga which they are holding, say poultry specialists of the United States De partment of Agriculture. When tur key hens have free range they nest usuully In obscure places and often wander a half mile or more from home before they find a nesting place that suits them. If attractive nesting places are pre pared about the barnyard, the turkeys sometimes, lay in them. Such nests are euslly made from boxes or bar rels, or by scooping out a little earth In the shape of a shallow bowl, piling brush round it to satisfy the hen's de sire for seclusion. The nest most pre ferred by turkeys consists of a barrel laid on Its side, In which straw or hay Is placed. When confined in a breed ing pen several turkey hens may Iny In the same nest, but on free range each bird usually makes her own nest. Turkeys do not range far during cold Weather. In the north, where the laying season often begins when there is still snow on the ground, the hem are more likely to select their nesta near home. Eggs for Incubation. Eggs Intended for incubation during cold weather should be gathered be fore becoming chilled and isept In a temperature of about 60 degrees.