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is dical Inspection In Th? Schools ress By Prof. Messersmilh Be fore New Century Club (Continued from last week.) lental Defects—This is a third :ies of defects very different l the. two I have already de led and yet so closely allied to ^■n that in some cases they have H relation of cause and effect, ^■ntal defects while not always ^Rcult to detect, are almost al ^Bs difficult to diagnose. Here Hus say, is a boy ten years old, His just a little under size, hut ^■erwise physically normal. Hid is well shaped, a little small H not microcephalous, his mus Har control is good, lie is active Hi lively and enjoys play, his Bs generally seem to sparkle Hh intelligence; and yet this boy Her four years in school cannot plainly and lias yet to read H first line. Here is a boy that Hs none of the defects so far en Bu rateil! and yet 'Ite 1s' hf)! 'a* IMf-* Hi boy. He is a clear case of ^Bntal defective". S Vs tu e~k finis* uf militai trouble Hr so numerous, it will perhaps |H best to eliminate from the pro Hrin those with which the school not directly concerned. ther e He two principal types ot mental* iHutbie, mental derangement and ^^fcble mindedness. The mentally ^•ranged are not necessarily mcn Hllv defective, they are mentally Hihalanceil. The principal types jH mentally unbalanced arc the Holcntly and apparently perman ent insane, the violent and appar Hitly periodic insane, the obsessed, Be melancholic, and those suffer Bg from hallucinations. As a Bile these cases, especially of (lie 1-st two types, are physically nor Bal and may live to a great age. Hhesc types may again he divided to two classes with reference to e peril id in life at which the de ^Bmient occurs. The dementia ^■nilc if it comes after middle ^■t is termed dementia praecox ^loccurs before middle life. His 1 insanity generally does not Ir until after the school life is I, and as those wit > do become Inged may have made normal tress in the school, the qncS [ arises, w hat has all this to do ji the school? is of our (roved. wo eoncep alienists have been lat insanity is not Hi wav s incurable has been shown By the remarkable cures affected jiv intelligently managed asylum?. ■That insanitv may he avoided by Hhosc predisposed towards it has Hk'cii shown in many cases. Y'ow is evident that the deranged arc Hieyond the province of the school, ■the Stae and the family have pro Hvided adequate asylums for their Scare, seclusion, and treatment. Rut those predisposed towards ■mental unbalance spend crucial years in the school ayd Dr. Adolf Mcgcr of Yew York, has recently shown that many cases of demen |tia praecox can be avoided by the school endeavoring to train the pupil to a proper mental balance, Boys, and especially girls, on ap proaching the age of fourteen, if happen to have a hereditary taint, are at the parting <>f the ways about the time they enter the Digit School. The hypersen sitive. the inordinateh bashful, the intensely egotistical, the abnor mally seelusive *aud reserved, the too visionär} and idealistic, the sexually ahnoimal, in fact, all those who do not join in the usual school activities and sit apart list less though thoughtful, are sub jects of anxious care especially if there is mental derangement in the family history. Dr. Meyer, whose experience is wide and who speaks from that, experience, advises that every endeavor he Ynade to inter est such pupils in the ordinary ac tivities of school, social and family life. Their thoughts must he di verted along the usual interests and above al'i, they must he got to do rather than to think tilings. I he feeble-minded or the men tally defective are a class entirely distinct front the mentally derang ed. There are four principal types of these defectives, imbeciles of the high, midie and low grade, and idiots. An imbecile of a high or der may e\hih' f no physical de fects. lie is physically weil formed and able to care for himself. I le is however unable to make ordinary progress in school and may show signs of moral delinquency. An imbecile of the second grade us ually shows physical signs of the mental defect. He mav he tmte roccphalous, stunted physically, lack muscular control, and lack the power to make the simplest movements accurately. He sel dom learns to read and write, and sometimes cannot learn to talk, and in most cases is a marked moral delinquent. An imbecile of the low grade has marked physical defects, the head, body and limbs are decidedly assymetrical, his muscular control is very limited, and he generally lacks all power to care for himself. Mentally, he is so defective that the most intel ligent care usually results only in the gaining of some muscular con trol. An idiot has practically no physical control, cannot care for himself in any way, and is mentally almost completely lacking. He seldom shows any sign of human intelligence. From the [mint of view of the school we can eliminate at once the imbeciles of the middle and low grade, and the idiot. The State has recognized these as pub lic charges and has established asylums for their care and treat ment. The State of Pennsylvania has perhaps the best and most complete system of asylums in the world for the care and treatment •of-ihe.se.casns .. Jo.our.own.State, the General Assembly supports an asylum for the mentally deranged at Farnhurst and it has made pro vision for the care of imbeciles of the two lower grades and idiots, in neighboring States. Having cleared the field some the question of inspection in the schools for mental defects. The hoy whom.l mentioned in the be ginning of this part of my thesis comes up for examination, pupil who is not in the grade his years would indicate is designated as retarded. (This definition of the term retarded is incomplete, hut will do for our present pur pose.) He is ten years old and in the first grade, three years retard ed in his school progress. What is the cause of this retardation? This is the problem of the inspec tor. of is be I A a The retardation may he due to the following causes which of ne cessity I cannot explain, hut mere ly indicate: I. He mav he mentally defec This lack of mental power tivc. mav he inherited from feeble mind ed parents or it may he due to some congenital disturbance. That is. lie is a horn imbecile. j. il may he a case of arrested development. The brain mav have been pc- r ectly normal at birth, hut injured by the effects o' a severe disease during early childhood. Again, development may have been arrested by an ac cident of tbe head during 'arly childhood. Further, development ciay have been arrested due to the lack of proper care during child hood. This includes improper nu trition and lack of proper father and mother care. 3. It may bed tie to the lack of school training. The parents may not have sent him to school, or he may be a habitual truant and have attended very irregularly. 4. He mav have marked phy sical defects, such as poor bearing or poor vision. 5. lie may have bad very poor out of school environment, which would tend to make school pro gress very slow. inspector, knowing the child's family history and environ ment. and having made his own physical tests, has by a process of eliminati >11 to determine the rea son for the retardation. If he finds the cause to he physical such as defective vision or hearing, or adenoids, the correction of this defect mav he all that is necessarv Tlu L. B. JACOBS ) F I II n 1 iniFiim ; and tlie pupil will afterwards be I able to stay in the regular grades and in many cases be able to re gain most, if not all, the ground he has lost, make sufficient progress to be able to care for himself when he leaves school. For him no special school is necessary, for he is prop erly speaking, not a mental defec tive. In anv event he can If the retardation is due to a lack of family environment, poor at tendance, and poor nutrition, he is plainly not to be cared for in the regular grade. Although he is not a mental defective, he is so much retarded that it almost j amounts to a defect, and he must be sent to a school w here he mav receive special attention, and where lie may receive the care, foe d and training the home has failed to give. If he belongs to that unfortu nate class of imbeciles of a high order, a special school is the only place in which lie can he cared for. Imbeciles need the attention ghly tramed teachers and a spec ial school room >n which is pro vided the apparatus necessary to their training. This training is at first of almost purely motor char acter and its ultimate aim is to prepare at least a part of the pupils to enter the regular grades. 1 here is still another class of pupils the school has to deal with. I hey may be physically normal, and s eem ingly si > mentally, but. they are habitual truants, and seem in other hie. ot ways morally irresponsi For these * there must be special schools in which the work is the same as in the regular grades, except that the discipline is strict hut kind and attendance is strictly enforced. If in a truant school a boy shows himself a decidedly moral pervert, lie should he removed to a reform school. A boy who is a truant is not necessarily a moral pervert, and it is not well either for his self-respect or his reform tu indiscriminately class him with perverts. I have endeavored to show the causes of retardation and have In dicated the four classes of spec:; seliols that are needed to meet the situation. In .Yew York again the actual working of this system mav be shown. There are specif schools for those who are retard ed because of poor environment , • 1 .. , picvious poor attendance. t 1 here are separate special schools for the true mental defectives. The ll 1 or sexes are not necessarily separ ated in these two schools and the aim is to prepare the pupils through the special training to en ter the regular grades again. 1 here are special schools for tru ants and as soon as a pupil shows marked improvement he is put hack into the regular grades on probation. There are special schools for moral perverts and in corrigibles to which children may be committed by a juvenile judge, and released on parole when they show improvement. Yew York has not made the mistake of plac ing backward, defective, truant, and incorrigible children indiscri minately in one school, as some cities have done and are now un doing. 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