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Wilmington expositor. (Wilmington, Del.) 1831-18??, January 13, 1832, Image 1

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vol. r

r, »bl. razDAv, jaw. is, mss.
HO. 21.
reports of my predecessors, and I beg leave to
add my conviction to theirs of Us necessity.
The condition of the army is satisfactory in
its material, and au far in its morals as depends
upon the exertions of the officers. Its appro
priate functions are performed honorably for for
ttself, and usefully for the country. Although
some of the details of the service arc suscepti
blc of improvement in their administration, a
and some in their legislation, still, in the gen
eral result, whether viewed as an arm of nation- the
al defence, or as a depository of military knowl- |n
edge and experience, it has attained the great
obfects for which it was raised and is maintain
It is efficient without being expensive,' If
and adequate to the exigencies of our service
without being dangerous. I refer to the re
e -U A*
port of the Major General commanding, for
the detailed operations of the year
The annual reports of this Department have
already brought before the government the sub
let of desertion; and I regret to state, that
jcci u* uc o . . . ' .
tills serious evil not only continues but increas
Inuuires have been Instituted into the
causes of this offence, and the most efficient
remedy and much valuable information is con- in
remeuy, »Hum
tained in a Report froni the War Department
of Febuary 17, 1830. But no measures have
l„.i.n-idonted to clievk a practice, which, from
Its^extentTUid impunity, not only materially
its ixteiu anu immiinj, v
jures the service by the loss of the men and the
cc.nsequent expense, but threatens in its prog
ress and bv its example, to destroy that pnn-them
dole of fidelity which is the only safe hood of
cipleot nuuitv wni 7
connexion between the soldier and his country,
In the present state of our martial law, and of
ils necessary administration, there is in fact no
its necessary atimimsir v , deser
adequate punishment loi the crime otdeser
Ton- Confinement and employment . t ha d
labor arc the only efficient sentences, whichjligious
military tribunals can inflict; and where a sol
dier is confined in a guard-house, and his com
panions stationed without to secure him, and
with all the faculties of constant communica
tion,we may well doubt whether his situation is
ho much more unpleasant than theirs, as to give
this mode of punishment any salutary tilt ct
upon the discipline ot the army; and at all our
nosts* and particularly those upon the inland
border, 'he soldiers are generally employed
either in the line of their duty or upon fatigue,
and a sentence to hard labor subjects them to
little more than the ordinary demands of the
The Wilmington ExrosiTOR will be published
weekly on a Super Royal sheet, at Two Dollars per
year in advance; or Three Dollars at the end of the
year. No paper will be discontinued, until all ar
rearages are paid, except at the option of the pub
mher~-and a failure to notify a discontinuance will
be considered a new engagement.
Advertisements not exceeding one square, will be con
spicuously inserted three times for One Dollar, and
for every subsequent insertion Twenty Cents. Those
exceeding a square in the same proportion.
All communications relating to the business of the
tablishment, if sent by mail, to ensure attention,
must be post paid.
Department of War,
November, 21, 1831,
Sir: In obedience to your instructions, I have
the honor to submit here with a générai view
oi the opciations of this Department, and of
the various branches of its administration, to
gether with the accompanying reports of the
officers in charge of the different bureaus for
the past year.
The plan of organization by which the great
objects of public concern, committed to the War
Departments, are divided into different classes,
and placed under the more immediate control
of respectable and responsible officers is well
calculated to promote fidelity, promptitude,and
economy in the management of these import
ant interests. By assigning to each office a
particular branch of the service, experience in
the general administration is acquired at the
Department, and in the practical details at the
places of execution. On this subject I have
only to remark, that the importance of our In
dian relations, both present and prospective
demands a similar arrangement for this portion
of the public affairs. The existing organiza
tion rests upon executive authority, but the
efficiency and responsibility of that department
would he greatly promoted, if its duties were
regulated by a legislative act.*—This measue
has more than once been recommended in the
Whether any system of moderate rewards
will prevent this practice, may be doubted; but
certainly the abolition of all eflicient punish
ment. without providing any substitute to op
erate upon tlie pride and hopes of the soldier,
is in fact to invite him to abandon hi» colors,
whenever the. restraints of discipline cause tem
porary dissatisfaction.
To retain a part of the bounty and the pay,
and thereby to provide a fund for the
the soldier'when discharged, to reduce the pe
•Viod of service, and to increase the pay of the
rank and file of the army, and paticularly of
>.- (Ttra-cnmniissioned officers, are among the
most prominent suggestions, which have been
offered upon this subject.
The number of desertions in
1826 were » *
1829 .... i,iu
1830 .... 1,251
And in 1831 they will probably amount
- 1.450
An estimate has been prepared at the Adju
tant Genera!,s office, founded upon a minute
examination and comparison of the various
expenses incident to the maintenance of a sol
dier, and exhibiting the actual pecuniary loss
of the Government arising from this
The loss was for
only can deSnf *° ^ giV<!n ' CIPerieUCe
A very large propor.iou of all the crimes
committed in the armv may be traced to hab
its of .intemperance. The vice is in fact the
prevalent one to our soldiery. • I am satisfied
that ardent spirits should not form a compo
>«>'' P art or ' h ' By '"""g it, we fur
n.sh to those already accustomed to Us use the
tarans of vicious indulgence, and we invite
those, who are yet temperate, to acquire this
destructive habit. It is certainly sufficient
for all uselul purposes if, there be in truth any
utility in the consumption of ardent spirits,
'bat the officers be authorized to grant permis
a >on for its purchase, in proper quantities to
'hose whose situation may require it, without P
the direct agency of the Government in allow
|n g an ^ providing it.
There was issued to the army, in 18S0.72. to
527 gallons of whiskey, at the cost of 822,132.
If this sum was applied to the purchase of tea, ^ n
coffee, and sugar, for the use of the soldiers,
their habits and morals would be greatlv impro
a or.ri , 1 m j; ar ; n i: np rd-ti-rtaKilitv nf
ved*nd the discipline and respectability of -
the army promoted. The regulation of this
Department, by which an offer is made to the
soldier of commuting the whiskey ration by
the payment of one cent, is productive of lit
. • r . . .. c . , , r
tie advantage. In this estimate of the value of
this part of the ration, reference has been had
only to the actual cost of th article, delivered
in large quantities at the various posts. But!
. .«> T» , ¥ 4 «
this is unjust to the soldier. He estimates it.
very naturally at the retail price, averaging,;
probably five cents, and the present offer of
in-lcommuta.ion i. in fact to ask him to sell his
, „„»ca It • flir
whiskey at one fifth of its e. s t
ter to leave the troops no choice, hut tu allow
pnn-them a liberal compensation, and in such
des as will be most useful. The American
j f-d rlotherl- and in
soldier 1 > » .... ' , '
the event of sickness or disability, ample pro j
vison is made for his support. But his moral j
culture is wholly neclected i here is no ar-the
" w ?"" y i ne S'®5"" i,:' me ntal or re
d ranG me , . ,
whichjligious improvement And there is perhaps
no similar service, in which such a measure is
more necessary. Many of the positions occu
pied by our troops «i e upon
ization, or beyond it. 1 here, they aie retaim
is ed for years, and under circumstances, which,
if not counteracted, almost necessarily lead to
ct great demorilrzalion. l^neoftheorinary
means ot instruction arc witni 1 their r ac ,a t
neither their habits nor principles can be im*
proved or^ fortified by those institutions, which
are elsewhere so generally eatap .shed, and so
to useful. Independently of any obligation which
the may be supposed to exist on the part ot the;j
Government, to provide for the moral as well
the physical wants of of aclassofmenwho
in devoting themselves to the servie . e
country, become unable to provide ,or # 'heir
own wants, it is certain, that, as a question ot
exnediencv. this measure is recommended by
3„f„l -rations. Where moral and
po ,. . . . , t - |i ac v now i
religious principles are practically acknowl
edged, their sanctions will add validity to the
obligations voluntarily assumed by the soldier,
and his duties will be performed with more
, , . Ac h.* hommes a better
fidelity and alacrity. As he becomes a better
, hc will become, a better soldier. Disci
pline and subordination will be promoted, pun
ishments diminished, and all the details of the
: 0
The tabular statement accompanying the
port of the commanding general shows, that
the pay of the non-commissioned officers,
sicians, and privates, may be increased
materially to improve their condition, and not
exceed the aggregate amount of 5585,920. The
non-commissioned officers particularly are' in
our service, inadequately paid. Every mili
tary man is sensible of their importance to the
character snd efficiency of the army; and such
inducements should be offered, as would en
sure the engagement of competent men, quali
fied, by their principles,habits,and intelligence,
to acquire the confidence and command the
speet of the soldiers. That this additional
compensation would have a tendency to dimin
ish the mischief of desertion, there is no doubt
—whether in so great a degree as to save the
whole s
1831 probably
I e«
80 as
service_ »ill feel the spirit of improvmenl. I'be
am satisfied, that the appointment of chaplain's P
and their employment at such of our military
posts a, from their position and the streng
ot the garrisons may seem to call for such a
measure, would be productive of great advan- *
tages to the service; and to-the soldiers indi
fi!£r 1,y Reor^f a8Ur H " W P ^ "
hcial. Reproofs and exhortations in life, and
the consolations of religion in death, would be at
freely offered to them. The experiment, I
think, is worthy of trial; and the expense can
scarcely be placed in fair competition' with an
object, which promises such useful results for
the present improvement and future happiness
of the soldiers.
The various departments of the staff of the army
have performed with fidelity their accustomed routine
of duties. In the three great divisions of efficiency,
economy, and accountability, the present mode of ad
ministration seems well adapted to the nattire of ser
vice. The several tabular 'statements accompanying
this report exhibit the satisfactory manner in whicii
the public funds have been expended and accounted
for. Noristhere any reason to believe, that the slight
est cost will occur from the fiscal operations of the '
year. A system, whose effects are thus beneficial, n
must be not only safe in itself, but safely administered.
And for this administration we are indebted to the su
perintending care of the several bureaus and to the va- i
rious officers employed under them, throughout the I
country. It is evident, that a fund of knowledge has : {
been provided, which cannot fail to be useful in anv I
future exigency. Armies may be suddenly raised,and
discipline in some measure introduced, by great exer- fi,
lions, and in great emergencies. The experience of
other nations, and of our own, too, has demonstrated, f
that the peculiar information, upon which depends the
subsistence, the health, and the movement of troops,
and the supply of the necessary material, can only be "
acquired by time and experience. The disasters and
prodigal expenditures in the beginning of the late war ; n
furnished a memorable lesson upon the subject, which
it is hoped will not be forgotten, as we recede from the
period of their occurrence. Our present organisation
»äää äs
an<i eip ' n ' nc ' d 0 ^ era *° d,reCt and
The Military Academy has existed sufficiently long,
mateof its value, both with relation to the cadets them
selves, and the character of the army. Of 560 offi
S a HnsUtuti" d "ThesVvoung men
JgJ b « n C p% d p a «d tTri^ld and judiriou. col™ of
instruction and discipline of the various duties of their
profession. 660 have entered the army, of whom but i
thirteen have been dismissed; and during the present
P ^ B thC,r m0ral Char !
These facts are honorable and decisive proofs of
general good conduct when the high state of disci- *
P Zare'taken fam'view ^TnThVZZ'rem'o'rts of'tlm
^ 'rWeSpointTi, exWblted the Ä of the- 1
most careful observations, made by person» competent
to estimate, and prepared to scrutinise the claims and
rrt^LVc honi'rm^luTv^a' ^MeTc'mThe'falelh;
^ n d ability of the superintendent, and the academy
staff generally, and to the proficiency and correct de- '
portment of the pupils, the record which is kept • f
their projtressand conduct, the spint of emulation ne
- cessa ^y H cxcite<lf ^ the judicious plan of rewards,
which are offered, by the publication of the names of
the most distinguished individuals, and by their admis- '
>ion into the army in the order of merit, are powerful
incent,ves alï mn S t L
r strict and impartial examinations to which all must
of subm ; t> can scarcely fail to secure for the service of
their country such and such only, as are qualified to be "
.useful. , „
The science of war i. an advane ng one. In Europe,
where peace is seldom long muintamod, a large por
it. tion of the talcnt and intelligence of the ccmimunity is f
dcV oted totliis study, and to the consideration and sug- ..
of gestion of changes and improvements m all the bran
dies of their military establishment» whether they
relate to the operations m the field, to the various sup
t- lie8i or to , he necesssry course of administration—
We must look to thoie nations for the benefit of their
aril-experience. And our progress in the elements of mil- .
itary knowledge will depend i„ a great measure, upon
in 'he careful prepäratum and education of 'he young 1
men, who are annually appointed in our service. Our
j ocal position, as well as our free institutions, may de
j a y but we have no right to expect they will prevent,
ar-the occurrence of wan As this event may happen, it
re- isthepart of true wisdom to be prepared for it,^asfar
as preparation can be made without too great a sacri
fice Our army is barely sufficient to furnish small
is garrisons for the fortifications upon the seaboard, and
b °ld m^check^he
stances,'the practical duties of the profession are ac-iof
ired . and as lnng as the officers enter the service,
with a well grounded knowledge of its principles, we
to may look to the army as the depository of a fund of
^J^^G^rfiment'todiffïse it'amimg the com
t munit U p on the a pp rf ftC h of danger. By assigning
im* a portion of the officers, previously in service, to new.
regiments and> corps, these will soonlacqui« ■both
so HMd, Ti e grea nb rêts of present economy
j^;™ p, '"* ari ^ can in no other mode bo so certain
the;j attained. When we avert to the comparative effects
well of training young men for the course of life before
^^^^t^^mina^ «.ear
. e ma nifest, that the present system alone can assure the
'heir alta j nmcnt of the impoitant objects, connected with
ot our military establishment.
by It has been stated, that the number of cadets allow
and ed at the Military Academy is 260. There are in the
i line of the army 612 officers of all descriptions. Uf
lhew;i on , he day of Novembti', there were present
the f duty 303 „f w hom 19 were field and 284 company
officers. There were 66 sick and on furlough. And
more 143 were detached upon various staff dudes, including
'8 e regular staff departments of the army, objects of
in , provem( £ t> and the emigration of the In
dianI The numbe r of companies being 100, there
pun- werc not three officers to each company. Taking into
the view the casnalücs of the service, there ought not to
I'be less than that number at all timeswith their com,
P allle "- The law provides, that there shall be three
t ' mT' } ' "o' *'' e ? cach «n.pa
tenant to be attached to each company. Of these
* htre are in service 93, leaving 13 vacancies to be fil
V.'LSraduates of the Military Academy for
" > he ^ Ä a ™ ^AT, «TÄ
the graduates to fill these 40. There may, therefore
at die next examination, be 40 cadets candidates, for
appointment, anilbut 36 vacancies to be filled. I would
< f add i ll S 3 * to the number of
'kv^ "lï
have three officers at all times present, to the greater
advantage of the Bervicc.
* refer t0 ']> e report of 'be chief of the Engineer
'T " ' erv,ce ' .
of doraideratio,"»„i f ÏÎJ5! ^e. appear to me worthy
SLfaStfle reco "? Inc . nd t0 / 0 "*
„f ® Thl • " r E^ n ' z ?' 10n « 'bo
SZ, ,h n à „e,I .vn' eWS a°- thls »«Partmeist
13 ' th '■ -„,™?r esse<1 a r oport of Jan
Rem-escntâtiv/-^' in l ° " ca ,°£ 'i 16 House °f
The m^Sre Îs^hI^I ^
' d by th " P , ' bllc interest,
n rrT rv ii P r i? " *T made for the re P air
, co " stn '' : '.'' d b 7 tT,e United
f C i , ' la !' d '! le river, that e*
f, ? an > r P ar î s
difficult Qt >d lously injured as to render travel
'Æ"!; and , son >«lmes dangereux The destine*
wSKLS'? ctm Z , ! n * between tli>e Atlantic
dun- ami a nrnZ fviiZ " f h, ® h ', w " h » >'ght transie
fi, r ». c , cannot hiranuhcbft adm !"' 8,Ta " on > would ,aat
Thê S côidmmt on nf îhS P a ' J great concenx
rcr *....... t i • , wuuh 1 tie s * at f °[ 1Ä
Government tW*Qt2X*i!i the . a ^ n . t °f Gene *
and i evie „ « nmiierafn^H ^ lU5 e * tabll8Île ^ Sates
" ithi . iurisilictinn <1 Zl V î- ha \. P a" ° f the roa "
I cllil- N a . w » i' m,hcd -
n r thlt'Ifi* b *®5V"
audt'iat a similar .fliSE e 'be "Uentiou of Con
KTZrt train rZ ™- pn ? cxv * t T^
adont li if ; t ^™ b ®. aad i î° *5® < ï! uo **•
** «be^rrangement w05d MgW>
nuate mean» would be pro^WuSrrii?preservation 5
If this be not done,
?sSeoF^ISre^?' thC TOad W " 1
By an cxcc ' ltlvcl «guklinn of the «1st of June, ,1831.
the '»P°g™Ph>c a l corps was separated from the Engi*
de P. artm f e " t ; ai > dn °w constuutes a distinct bureau,
i - ïf û, ( i*aJ!LÎ213?*! P S. 1 "\P ortant to the country!
mMS , lf ' valu ^ l lc materials _ ex h ibUinKTgrner.d e :;nd
f ccura 'f vicw af thc geographical oiilincslif the Un
! °". *'« »e collected, to be used for any of the great
ijartmZt oÆnuare 'lMl thilsZTt fr ° m th '" De *
* sd> and the necessity of the measure stated and enfore
ced ' To that rc P°rt. Containing valuable suggestion»
1 * ak ® th ? bberty of L ,
A minute knowledge ol the Featuresofa
country is essential to any plan of military op.
"nLT™ oH ? gC , 5 , hauId , b ® ? a ' he -
^ 4 în R Ie,sur f» . an(i deposited in
' \ 1 ^ uro P e 11 19 considered one ot
the most important elements of military science
and upon its contributions have often depended
the efforts of a whole campaurn. All the sur
m u le bv the tnnn<vrnnhw^!i mm« ar,- re
' • , ' , y . P 8. P ca ' c r P ! " c *
^ rncd to the depot in this Department, whero
L V . bedetach ^ d or ^•nbined, as it may
become necessary to exhibit views more or less
„ enera j These survevs dissecting the coun
" . . -, . , , .
try >" a11 duections. and particularly along ns
streams and routes, where roads already are,
or probably will be cstablisned, present those
f eature , which are most important to the op.
.. rat ; ons of arm ; e , A o-eneral survey of our
, , , - . y ,
coasts, both Atlantic and interior is demand,
ed bv considerations of national interest as well
a3 of character. Arrangements for the former
made some 8 ; nce and „nensive
. . t1
instruments procured, wh.ch are yet m .hc
1 possession of the Government. The work
was actually commenced, hut abandoned hefore
uc e n ,. n „j. ( . s3 i la< | been , IU , dc jf this opera
.^1 , ;,,1 . f
tion wete resumed, and committed to one o»
the scientific t orps of the army, its constitution
would prevent the recurrence of those ein um.
atmcca \ to wh i c h the abandonment of the ob
hc attr ;bu(ed. Our own lakes are
imperfectly known to us. and the advance
ac-iof the settlements and the extension require,
t ^ at this defect should be supplied. Labours
f ^ nature have engaged the attention of
, enlightened Governments, and the
materials become a part of the general stock of
public knowledge. The necessity of peculiar
nstruct * lon to officers devoted to these duties,
in the scientific principles and practical
details, is well illustrated in the report from
tbe Topographical Office. Softie of the ope
ra ti on s require an-intimate knowledge of the
abstruse investi cations of the present
'physiu, scienL and
we shall in vain look for the accomplishment,
un l css Government make provision for the
* , .
To the Ordinance Department is committed
du , {j u ty of providing and preserving the ne«
ce8sar / ornamen , f or the land servi« of the
_ -in.,.: s „ resnonsible one
United States. The trust is a responsible one,
requiring fidelity in the administration, and
of practical as well as scientific knowledge m the
P xecution . The expenditures for these ob
- xte eds 89IXXXX) annually, and the value
J . t . nrODertv eauals twelve and
to of the accumulated property, equals twelve and
or some
fall into

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